Abstract

We report a large-area, semi-transparent, light-sensitive nanocrystal skin (LS-NS) platform consisting of single monolayer colloidal nanocrystals. LS-NS devices, which were fabricated over areas up to 48 cm2 using spray-coating and several cm-squares using dip-coating, are operated on the principle of photogenerated potential buildup, unlike the conventional charge collection. Implementing proof-of-concept devices using CdTe nanocrystals with ligand removal, we observed a substantial sensitivity enhancement factor of ~73%, accompanied with a 3-fold faster response time (<100 ms). With fully sealed nanocrystal monolayers, LS-NS is found to be highly stable under ambient conditions, promising for low-cost large-area UV/visible sensing in windows and facades of smart buildings.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors,” Nature442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Jasieniak, M. Califano, and S. E. Watkins, “Size-dependent valence and conduction band-edge energies of semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano5(7), 5888–5902 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. P. Anikeeva, C. Madigan, J. Halpert, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electronic and excitonic processes in light-emitting devices based on organic materials and colloidal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B78(8), 085434 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. C. Oertel, M. G. Bawendi, A. C. Arango, and V. Bulović, “Photodetectors based on treated CdSe quantum dot films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(21), 213505 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

E. H. Sargent, “Colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” Nat. Photonics6(3), 133–135 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Pelayo García de Arquer, F. J. Beck, M. Bernechea, and G. Konstantatos, “Plasmonic light trapping leads to responsivity increase in colloidal quantum dot photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 043101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

S. Keuleyan, E. Lhuillier, V. Brajuskovic, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Mid-infrared HgTe colloidal quantum dot photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics5(8), 489–493 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Jasieniak, M. Califano, and S. E. Watkins, “Size-dependent valence and conduction band-edge energies of semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano5(7), 5888–5902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Erdem, E. Mutlugun, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Quantum dot integrated LEDs using photonic and excitonic color conversion,” Nano Today6(6), 632–647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 176–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

S. H. Im, Y. H. Lee, S. I. Seok, S. W. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells fabricated by the combined process of the direct attachment of colloidal CdSe quantum dots having a ZnS glue layer and spray pyrolysis deposition,” Langmuir26(23), 18576–18580 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Konstantatos and E. H. Sargent, “Nanostructured materials for photon detection,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(6), 391–400 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

N. Cicek, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, D. U. Karatay, V. Lesnyak, T. Otto, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, and H. V. Demir, “Structural tuning of color chromaticity through nonradiative energy transfer by interspacing CdTe nanocrystal monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 061105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol.4(1), 40–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

P. Anikeeva, C. Madigan, J. Halpert, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electronic and excitonic processes in light-emitting devices based on organic materials and colloidal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B78(8), 085434 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, O. Akyuz, N. K. Perkgoz, H. V. Demir, L. Liebscher, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “White emitting CdS quantum dot nanoluminophores hybridized on near-ultraviolet LEDs for high-quality white light generation and tuning,” New J. Phys.10(2), 023026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Ozel, S. Sampra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Tuning shades of white light with multi-color quantum-dot-quantum-well emitters based on onion-like CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals,” Nanotechnology19(33), 335203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pandey and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Slow electron cooling in colloidal quantum dots,” Science322(5903), 929–932 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

E. Mutlugun, I. M. Soganci, and H. V. Demir, “Nanocrystal hybridized scintillators for enhanced detection and imaging on Si platforms in UV,” Opt. Express15(3), 1128–1134 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Rogach, T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, N. Gaponik, V. Lesnyak, A. Shavel, A. Eychmuller, Y. P. Rakovich, and J. F. Donegan, “Aqueous synthesis of thiol-capped CdTe nnanocrystals : state-of-the-art,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(40), 14628–14637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors,” Nature442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett.6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

D. V. Talapin and C. B. Murray, “PbSe nanocrystal solids for n- and p-channel thin film field-effect transistors,” Science310(5745), 86–89 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater.4(2), 138–142 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Oertel, M. G. Bawendi, A. C. Arango, and V. Bulović, “Photodetectors based on treated CdSe quantum dot films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(21), 213505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. Yu, C. Wang, B. L. Wehrenberg, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Variable Range Hopping Conduction in Semiconductor Nanocrystal Solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(21), 216802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Science290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

G. Decher, “Fuzzy nanoassemblies: toward layered polymeric multicomposites,” Science277(5330), 1232–1237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. B. Murray, D. J. Noms, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E = sulfur, selenium, tellurium) semiconductor nanocrystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.115(19), 8706–8715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Akyuz, O.

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, O. Akyuz, N. K. Perkgoz, H. V. Demir, L. Liebscher, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “White emitting CdS quantum dot nanoluminophores hybridized on near-ultraviolet LEDs for high-quality white light generation and tuning,” New J. Phys.10(2), 023026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Amaratunga, G.

T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 176–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anikeeva, P.

P. Anikeeva, C. Madigan, J. Halpert, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electronic and excitonic processes in light-emitting devices based on organic materials and colloidal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B78(8), 085434 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arango, A. C.

D. C. Oertel, M. G. Bawendi, A. C. Arango, and V. Bulović, “Photodetectors based on treated CdSe quantum dot films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(21), 213505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bardecker, J. A.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett.6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M.

P. Anikeeva, C. Madigan, J. Halpert, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electronic and excitonic processes in light-emitting devices based on organic materials and colloidal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B78(8), 085434 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

D. C. Oertel, M. G. Bawendi, A. C. Arango, and V. Bulović, “Photodetectors based on treated CdSe quantum dot films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(21), 213505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Science290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Murray, D. J. Noms, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E = sulfur, selenium, tellurium) semiconductor nanocrystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.115(19), 8706–8715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Beard, M. C.

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, F. J.

F. Pelayo García de Arquer, F. J. Beck, M. Bernechea, and G. Konstantatos, “Plasmonic light trapping leads to responsivity increase in colloidal quantum dot photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 043101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bernechea, M.

F. Pelayo García de Arquer, F. J. Beck, M. Bernechea, and G. Konstantatos, “Plasmonic light trapping leads to responsivity increase in colloidal quantum dot photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 043101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brajuskovic, V.

S. Keuleyan, E. Lhuillier, V. Brajuskovic, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Mid-infrared HgTe colloidal quantum dot photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics5(8), 489–493 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

P. Anikeeva, C. Madigan, J. Halpert, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electronic and excitonic processes in light-emitting devices based on organic materials and colloidal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B78(8), 085434 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Oertel, M. G. Bawendi, A. C. Arango, and V. Bulović, “Photodetectors based on treated CdSe quantum dot films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(21), 213505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Califano, M.

J. Jasieniak, M. Califano, and S. E. Watkins, “Size-dependent valence and conduction band-edge energies of semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano5(7), 5888–5902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chae, J.

T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 176–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett.6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, K.-S.

T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 176–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B. L.

T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 176–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cicek, N.

N. Cicek, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, D. U. Karatay, V. Lesnyak, T. Otto, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, and H. V. Demir, “Structural tuning of color chromaticity through nonradiative energy transfer by interspacing CdTe nanocrystal monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 061105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clifford, J.

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors,” Nature442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clifford, J. P.

J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol.4(1), 40–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cyr, P. W.

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater.4(2), 138–142 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decher, G.

G. Decher, “Fuzzy nanoassemblies: toward layered polymeric multicomposites,” Science277(5330), 1232–1237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Demir, H. V.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Erdem, E. Mutlugun, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Quantum dot integrated LEDs using photonic and excitonic color conversion,” Nano Today6(6), 632–647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Cicek, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, D. U. Karatay, V. Lesnyak, T. Otto, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, and H. V. Demir, “Structural tuning of color chromaticity through nonradiative energy transfer by interspacing CdTe nanocrystal monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 061105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Ozel, S. Sampra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Tuning shades of white light with multi-color quantum-dot-quantum-well emitters based on onion-like CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals,” Nanotechnology19(33), 335203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, O. Akyuz, N. K. Perkgoz, H. V. Demir, L. Liebscher, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “White emitting CdS quantum dot nanoluminophores hybridized on near-ultraviolet LEDs for high-quality white light generation and tuning,” New J. Phys.10(2), 023026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Mutlugun, I. M. Soganci, and H. V. Demir, “Nanocrystal hybridized scintillators for enhanced detection and imaging on Si platforms in UV,” Opt. Express15(3), 1128–1134 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, I.-K.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett.6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donegan, J. F.

A. L. Rogach, T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, N. Gaponik, V. Lesnyak, A. Shavel, A. Eychmuller, Y. P. Rakovich, and J. F. Donegan, “Aqueous synthesis of thiol-capped CdTe nnanocrystals : state-of-the-art,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(40), 14628–14637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Science290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellingson, R. J.

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erdem, T.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Erdem, E. Mutlugun, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Quantum dot integrated LEDs using photonic and excitonic color conversion,” Nano Today6(6), 632–647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eychmuller, A.

A. L. Rogach, T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, N. Gaponik, V. Lesnyak, A. Shavel, A. Eychmuller, Y. P. Rakovich, and J. F. Donegan, “Aqueous synthesis of thiol-capped CdTe nnanocrystals : state-of-the-art,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(40), 14628–14637 (2007).
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H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Ozel, S. Sampra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Tuning shades of white light with multi-color quantum-dot-quantum-well emitters based on onion-like CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals,” Nanotechnology19(33), 335203 (2008).
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A. L. Rogach, T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, N. Gaponik, V. Lesnyak, A. Shavel, A. Eychmuller, Y. P. Rakovich, and J. F. Donegan, “Aqueous synthesis of thiol-capped CdTe nnanocrystals : state-of-the-art,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(40), 14628–14637 (2007).
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H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Erdem, E. Mutlugun, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Quantum dot integrated LEDs using photonic and excitonic color conversion,” Nano Today6(6), 632–647 (2011).
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H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Ozel, S. Sampra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Tuning shades of white light with multi-color quantum-dot-quantum-well emitters based on onion-like CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals,” Nanotechnology19(33), 335203 (2008).
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J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol.4(1), 40–44 (2009).
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S. H. Im, Y. H. Lee, S. I. Seok, S. W. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells fabricated by the combined process of the direct attachment of colloidal CdSe quantum dots having a ZnS glue layer and spray pyrolysis deposition,” Langmuir26(23), 18576–18580 (2010).
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T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 176–182 (2011).
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A. L. Rogach, T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, N. Gaponik, V. Lesnyak, A. Shavel, A. Eychmuller, Y. P. Rakovich, and J. F. Donegan, “Aqueous synthesis of thiol-capped CdTe nnanocrystals : state-of-the-art,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(40), 14628–14637 (2007).
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S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater.4(2), 138–142 (2005).
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J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol.4(1), 40–44 (2009).
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G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors,” Nature442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
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S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater.4(2), 138–142 (2005).
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T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 176–182 (2011).
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T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 176–182 (2011).
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J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 176–182 (2011).
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T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 176–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 176–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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S. H. Im, Y. H. Lee, S. I. Seok, S. W. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells fabricated by the combined process of the direct attachment of colloidal CdSe quantum dots having a ZnS glue layer and spray pyrolysis deposition,” Langmuir26(23), 18576–18580 (2010).
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N. Cicek, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, D. U. Karatay, V. Lesnyak, T. Otto, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, and H. V. Demir, “Structural tuning of color chromaticity through nonradiative energy transfer by interspacing CdTe nanocrystal monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 061105 (2009).
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A. L. Rogach, T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, N. Gaponik, V. Lesnyak, A. Shavel, A. Eychmuller, Y. P. Rakovich, and J. F. Donegan, “Aqueous synthesis of thiol-capped CdTe nnanocrystals : state-of-the-art,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(40), 14628–14637 (2007).
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J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol.4(1), 40–44 (2009).
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G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors,” Nature442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater.4(2), 138–142 (2005).
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S. Keuleyan, E. Lhuillier, V. Brajuskovic, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Mid-infrared HgTe colloidal quantum dot photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics5(8), 489–493 (2011).
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S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, O. Akyuz, N. K. Perkgoz, H. V. Demir, L. Liebscher, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “White emitting CdS quantum dot nanoluminophores hybridized on near-ultraviolet LEDs for high-quality white light generation and tuning,” New J. Phys.10(2), 023026 (2008).
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J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett.6(3), 463–467 (2006).
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J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett.6(3), 463–467 (2006).
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P. Anikeeva, C. Madigan, J. Halpert, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electronic and excitonic processes in light-emitting devices based on organic materials and colloidal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B78(8), 085434 (2008).
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V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Science290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
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S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater.4(2), 138–142 (2005).
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J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett.6(3), 463–467 (2006).
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H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Erdem, E. Mutlugun, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Quantum dot integrated LEDs using photonic and excitonic color conversion,” Nano Today6(6), 632–647 (2011).
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N. Cicek, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, D. U. Karatay, V. Lesnyak, T. Otto, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, and H. V. Demir, “Structural tuning of color chromaticity through nonradiative energy transfer by interspacing CdTe nanocrystal monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 061105 (2009).
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S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, O. Akyuz, N. K. Perkgoz, H. V. Demir, L. Liebscher, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “White emitting CdS quantum dot nanoluminophores hybridized on near-ultraviolet LEDs for high-quality white light generation and tuning,” New J. Phys.10(2), 023026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Ozel, S. Sampra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Tuning shades of white light with multi-color quantum-dot-quantum-well emitters based on onion-like CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals,” Nanotechnology19(33), 335203 (2008).
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E. Mutlugun, I. M. Soganci, and H. V. Demir, “Nanocrystal hybridized scintillators for enhanced detection and imaging on Si platforms in UV,” Opt. Express15(3), 1128–1134 (2007).
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J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett.6(3), 463–467 (2006).
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H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Erdem, E. Mutlugun, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Quantum dot integrated LEDs using photonic and excitonic color conversion,” Nano Today6(6), 632–647 (2011).
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N. Cicek, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, D. U. Karatay, V. Lesnyak, T. Otto, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, and H. V. Demir, “Structural tuning of color chromaticity through nonradiative energy transfer by interspacing CdTe nanocrystal monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 061105 (2009).
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H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Ozel, S. Sampra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Tuning shades of white light with multi-color quantum-dot-quantum-well emitters based on onion-like CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals,” Nanotechnology19(33), 335203 (2008).
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S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, O. Akyuz, N. K. Perkgoz, H. V. Demir, L. Liebscher, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “White emitting CdS quantum dot nanoluminophores hybridized on near-ultraviolet LEDs for high-quality white light generation and tuning,” New J. Phys.10(2), 023026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noms, D. J.

C. B. Murray, D. J. Noms, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E = sulfur, selenium, tellurium) semiconductor nanocrystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.115(19), 8706–8715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nozik, A. J.

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oertel, D. C.

D. C. Oertel, M. G. Bawendi, A. C. Arango, and V. Bulović, “Photodetectors based on treated CdSe quantum dot films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(21), 213505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Otto, T.

N. Cicek, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, D. U. Karatay, V. Lesnyak, T. Otto, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, and H. V. Demir, “Structural tuning of color chromaticity through nonradiative energy transfer by interspacing CdTe nanocrystal monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 061105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ozel, T.

N. Cicek, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, D. U. Karatay, V. Lesnyak, T. Otto, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, and H. V. Demir, “Structural tuning of color chromaticity through nonradiative energy transfer by interspacing CdTe nanocrystal monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 061105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Ozel, S. Sampra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Tuning shades of white light with multi-color quantum-dot-quantum-well emitters based on onion-like CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals,” Nanotechnology19(33), 335203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pandey, A.

A. Pandey and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Slow electron cooling in colloidal quantum dots,” Science322(5903), 929–932 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelayo García de Arquer, F.

F. Pelayo García de Arquer, F. J. Beck, M. Bernechea, and G. Konstantatos, “Plasmonic light trapping leads to responsivity increase in colloidal quantum dot photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 043101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Perkgoz, N. K.

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, O. Akyuz, N. K. Perkgoz, H. V. Demir, L. Liebscher, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “White emitting CdS quantum dot nanoluminophores hybridized on near-ultraviolet LEDs for high-quality white light generation and tuning,” New J. Phys.10(2), 023026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rakovich, Y. P.

A. L. Rogach, T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, N. Gaponik, V. Lesnyak, A. Shavel, A. Eychmuller, Y. P. Rakovich, and J. F. Donegan, “Aqueous synthesis of thiol-capped CdTe nnanocrystals : state-of-the-art,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(40), 14628–14637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reese, M. O.

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogach, A. L.

A. L. Rogach, T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, N. Gaponik, V. Lesnyak, A. Shavel, A. Eychmuller, Y. P. Rakovich, and J. F. Donegan, “Aqueous synthesis of thiol-capped CdTe nnanocrystals : state-of-the-art,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(40), 14628–14637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sampra, S.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Ozel, S. Sampra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Tuning shades of white light with multi-color quantum-dot-quantum-well emitters based on onion-like CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals,” Nanotechnology19(33), 335203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sapra, S.

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, O. Akyuz, N. K. Perkgoz, H. V. Demir, L. Liebscher, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “White emitting CdS quantum dot nanoluminophores hybridized on near-ultraviolet LEDs for high-quality white light generation and tuning,” New J. Phys.10(2), 023026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, E. H.

E. H. Sargent, “Colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” Nat. Photonics6(3), 133–135 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Konstantatos and E. H. Sargent, “Nanostructured materials for photon detection,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(6), 391–400 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol.4(1), 40–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors,” Nature442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater.4(2), 138–142 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seok, S. I.

S. H. Im, Y. H. Lee, S. I. Seok, S. W. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells fabricated by the combined process of the direct attachment of colloidal CdSe quantum dots having a ZnS glue layer and spray pyrolysis deposition,” Langmuir26(23), 18576–18580 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shavel, A.

A. L. Rogach, T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, N. Gaponik, V. Lesnyak, A. Shavel, A. Eychmuller, Y. P. Rakovich, and J. F. Donegan, “Aqueous synthesis of thiol-capped CdTe nnanocrystals : state-of-the-art,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(40), 14628–14637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soganci, I. M.

Song, Q.

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talapin, D. V.

D. V. Talapin and C. B. Murray, “PbSe nanocrystal solids for n- and p-channel thin film field-effect transistors,” Science310(5745), 86–89 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

D. Yu, C. Wang, B. L. Wehrenberg, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Variable Range Hopping Conduction in Semiconductor Nanocrystal Solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(21), 216802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watkins, S. E.

J. Jasieniak, M. Califano, and S. E. Watkins, “Size-dependent valence and conduction band-edge energies of semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano5(7), 5888–5902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wehrenberg, B. L.

D. Yu, C. Wang, B. L. Wehrenberg, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Variable Range Hopping Conduction in Semiconductor Nanocrystal Solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(21), 216802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, S.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Science290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, D.

D. Yu, C. Wang, B. L. Wehrenberg, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Variable Range Hopping Conduction in Semiconductor Nanocrystal Solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(21), 216802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater.4(2), 138–142 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett.6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

J. Jasieniak, M. Califano, and S. E. Watkins, “Size-dependent valence and conduction band-edge energies of semiconductor nanocrystals,” ACS Nano5(7), 5888–5902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. C. Oertel, M. G. Bawendi, A. C. Arango, and V. Bulović, “Photodetectors based on treated CdSe quantum dot films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(21), 213505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Pelayo García de Arquer, F. J. Beck, M. Bernechea, and G. Konstantatos, “Plasmonic light trapping leads to responsivity increase in colloidal quantum dot photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 043101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Cicek, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, D. U. Karatay, V. Lesnyak, T. Otto, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, and H. V. Demir, “Structural tuning of color chromaticity through nonradiative energy transfer by interspacing CdTe nanocrystal monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 061105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

C. B. Murray, D. J. Noms, and M. G. Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E = sulfur, selenium, tellurium) semiconductor nanocrystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.115(19), 8706–8715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

A. L. Rogach, T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, N. Gaponik, V. Lesnyak, A. Shavel, A. Eychmuller, Y. P. Rakovich, and J. F. Donegan, “Aqueous synthesis of thiol-capped CdTe nnanocrystals : state-of-the-art,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(40), 14628–14637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

S. H. Im, Y. H. Lee, S. I. Seok, S. W. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells fabricated by the combined process of the direct attachment of colloidal CdSe quantum dots having a ZnS glue layer and spray pyrolysis deposition,” Langmuir26(23), 18576–18580 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (2)

J. M. Luther, M. Law, M. C. Beard, Q. Song, M. O. Reese, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “Schottky solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystal films,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, J. A. Bardecker, A. M. Munro, M. S. Liu, Y. Niu, I.-K. Ding, J. Luo, B. Chen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and D. S. Ginger, “Efficient CdSe/CdS quantum dot light-emitting diodes using a thermally polymerized hole transport layer,” Nano Lett.6(3), 463–467 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Today (1)

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Erdem, E. Mutlugun, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Quantum dot integrated LEDs using photonic and excitonic color conversion,” Nano Today6(6), 632–647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, T. Ozel, S. Sampra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “Tuning shades of white light with multi-color quantum-dot-quantum-well emitters based on onion-like CdSe-ZnS heteronanocrystals,” Nanotechnology19(33), 335203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater.4(2), 138–142 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

G. Konstantatos and E. H. Sargent, “Nanostructured materials for photon detection,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5(6), 391–400 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Clifford, G. Konstantatos, K. W. Johnston, S. Hoogland, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Fast, sensitive and spectrally tuneable colloidal-quantum-dot photodetectors,” Nat. Nanotechnol.4(1), 40–44 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

S. Keuleyan, E. Lhuillier, V. Brajuskovic, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Mid-infrared HgTe colloidal quantum dot photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics5(8), 489–493 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics5(3), 176–182 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Sargent, “Colloidal quantum dot solar cells,” Nat. Photonics6(3), 133–135 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors,” Nature442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, O. Akyuz, N. K. Perkgoz, H. V. Demir, L. Liebscher, S. Sapra, N. Gaponik, and A. Eychmüller, “White emitting CdS quantum dot nanoluminophores hybridized on near-ultraviolet LEDs for high-quality white light generation and tuning,” New J. Phys.10(2), 023026 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Anikeeva, C. Madigan, J. Halpert, M. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Electronic and excitonic processes in light-emitting devices based on organic materials and colloidal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B78(8), 085434 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Yu, C. Wang, B. L. Wehrenberg, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Variable Range Hopping Conduction in Semiconductor Nanocrystal Solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(21), 216802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (4)

A. Pandey and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Slow electron cooling in colloidal quantum dots,” Science322(5903), 929–932 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical Gain and Stimulated Emission in Nanocrystal Quantum Dots,” Science290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Talapin and C. B. Murray, “PbSe nanocrystal solids for n- and p-channel thin film field-effect transistors,” Science310(5745), 86–89 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Decher, “Fuzzy nanoassemblies: toward layered polymeric multicomposites,” Science277(5330), 1232–1237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. L. Dereniak and G. D. Boreman, Infrared Detectors and Systems (Wiley, 1996).

S. V. Gaponenko, Introduction to Nanophotonics (Cambridge University Press, 2010).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Large-area, semi-transparent, solution processed, light-sensitive nanocrystal skin (LS-NS) devices. Here is shown an 8 cm × 6 cm LS-NS device. (b) Photograph of a flexible LS-NS. (c) Schematics of a LS-NS structure consisting of a monolayer of TGA-capped CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) (shown as a monolayer of red dots here), along with a zoom-in illustrating the device structure of ITO/HfO2/PDDA + PSS/CdTe NCs/Al. (d) Band alignment of CdTe NCs and Al contact. CdTe NC conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) and the work function (Φ) of Al are shown on the energy diagram.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) UV-vis absorption spectrum of aqueous CdTe NCs at room temperature. (b) Normalized FT-IR spectra of TGA-capped CdTe NCs before and after the ligand removal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Changes in the voltage buildup in time via switching the incident light on and off (with 0.153 mW/cm2 at 350 nm), marked with respective blue and red arrows.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of photocharge trapping inside the NCs as the incident light shines continuously on the nanocrystals skin for different periods of time at 350 nm (0.175 mW/cm2). Here the total of incident optical energy given in the legend is the amount of incident optical power multiplied by the exposure time and the exposure area.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Variation of the voltage buildup at different excitation wavelengths and intensity levels. Light was turned off after reaching the peak point. (b) Corresponding sensitivity curve of the LS-NS device as a function of excitation wavelengths.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Response time increases with the decreasing power since both deeper and shallower states saturate and (b) increasing illumination, resulting in decreased sensitivity because of filling the long-lived trap states. Arrows indicate the point in time when the light was turned off.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

RC decay rate changing in time by turning the incident light on and off at different intensity levels at 350 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variation of voltage buildup with time for different illumination intensity levels.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Variation of voltage buildup with time for 0.175 mW/cm2 at 350 nm and (b) RC decay change in time by turning the incident light on and off for 0.153 mW/cm2 at 350 nm wavelength in the case of ligand-removed LS-NS devices.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Various device parameters including RC decay time constant (τ), effective device capacitance (C), and effective dielectric constant of CdTe NCs (εCdTe)) obtained from Fig. 7, when the shunt resistance is fixed at 200 MΩ. P represents the excitation power level (of the Xenon lamp) incident on the device.

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