Abstract

We report that the nanorod light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-wells (MQWs) emitted bright electroluminescence (EL) after they were positioned and aligned by non-uniform electric fields. Firstly, thin film LED structures with MQWs on sapphire substrate were coated with SiO2 nanospheres, followed by inductively-coupled plasma etch to create nanorod-shapes with MQWs, which were transferred to the pre-patterned SiO2/Si wafer. This method allowed us to obtain nanorod LEDs with uniform length, diameter and qualities. Dielectrophoretic force created by non-uniform electric field was very effective at positioning the processed nanorods on the pre-patterned contacts. After aligned by non-uniform electric field, we observed bright EL from many nanorods, which had both cases (p-GaN/MQWs/n-GaN or n-GaN/MQWs/p-GaN). Therefore, bright ELs at different locations were observed under the various bias conditions.

© 2012 OSA

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  2. J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. He, S. N. Mohammad, and J. Melngailis, “365nm operation of n-nanowire/p-gallium nitride homojunction emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183120 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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  21. C.-C. Tsai, G.-H. Li, Y.-T. Lin, C.-W. Chang, P. Wadekar, Q. Y.-S. Chen, L. Rigutti, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, and L.-W. Tu, “Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 631 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. B.-J. Kim, T. Tanikawa, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, and N. Sawaki, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN stripe structure on (111)Si and stimulated emission under photo-excitation,” Physica E 42(10), 2575–2578 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Raychaudhuri, S. A. Dayeh, D. Wang, and E. T. Yu, “Precise semiconductor nanowire placement through dielectrophoresis,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2260–2266 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

J. Ahn, H. I. Park, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Nanostructured n-ZnO / thin film p-Silicon heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26006–26010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Kuo, Y. S. Kim, M. L. Hsieh, and S. Y. Lin, “Efficient and directed nano-LED Emission by a complete elimination of transverse-electric guided modes,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 476–481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-C. Tsai, G.-H. Li, Y.-T. Lin, C.-W. Chang, P. Wadekar, Q. Y.-S. Chen, L. Rigutti, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, and L.-W. Tu, “Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 631 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

B.-J. Kim, T. Tanikawa, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, and N. Sawaki, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN stripe structure on (111)Si and stimulated emission under photo-excitation,” Physica E 42(10), 2575–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. Raychaudhuri, S. A. Dayeh, D. Wang, and E. T. Yu, “Precise semiconductor nanowire placement through dielectrophoresis,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2260–2266 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kim, H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

S. Srivastava and N. A. Kotov, “Composite Layer-by-Layer (LBL) assembly with inorganic nanoparticles and nanowires,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1831–1841 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Fan, J. C. Ho, Z. A. Jacobson, R. Yerushalmi, R. L. Alley, H. Razavi, and A. Javey, “Wafer-scale assembly of highly ordered semiconductor nanowire arrays by contact printing,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 20–25 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Chung, W. Park, S. Shin, S. A. Lee, and S. Kwon, “Guided and fluidic self-assembly of microstructures using railed microfluidic channels,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 581–587 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. He, S. N. Mohammad, and J. Melngailis, “365nm operation of n-nanowire/p-gallium nitride homojunction emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Menard, M. A. Meitl, Y. Sun, J. U. Park, D. J. Shir, Y. S. Nam, S. Jeon, and J. A. Rogers, “Micro- and nanopatterning techniques for organic electronic and optoelectronic systems,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1117–1160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

W.-H. Lan, K.-C. Huang, and K. F. Huang, “ICP-induced defects in GaN characterized by capacitance analysis,” Solid-State Electron. 50(11–12), 1677–1681 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, N. K. Cho, H. K. Seong, H. J. Choi, S. W. Jung, and S. K. Lee, “Dielectrophoretic alignment of gallium nitride nanowires (GaN NWs) for use in device applications,” Nanotechnology 17(14), 3394–3399 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. Sun, R. A. Graff, M. S. Strano, and J. A. Rogers, “Top-Down Fabrication of semiconductor nanowires with alternating structures along their longitudinal and transverse axes,” Small 1(11), 1052–1057 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium Nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Choy, E. Jang, J. Won, J. Chung, D. Jang, and Y. Kim, “Soft solution route to directionally grown ZnO nanorod arrays on Si wafer; Room-temperature ultraviolet laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1911–1914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. S. Luo, Y. Cho, V. Loryuenyong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, and M. C. Yoo, “Enhancement of (In,Ga)N Light-Emitting Diode Performance by Laser Liftoff and Transfer From Sapphire to Silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(10), 1400–1402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M.-Y. Ryu, G. G. Shim, P. W. Yu, E. Oh, C. Sone, O. Nam, and Y. Park, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN double quantum wells with varying well thickness,” Solid State Commun. 120(12), 509–514 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C.-C. Chen and C.-C. Yeh, “Large-scale catalytic synthesis of crystalline gallium nitride nanowires,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 12(10), 738–741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-Based Optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE 81(12), 1687–1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.

Alley, R. L.

Z. Fan, J. C. Ho, Z. A. Jacobson, R. Yerushalmi, R. L. Alley, H. Razavi, and A. Javey, “Wafer-scale assembly of highly ordered semiconductor nanowire arrays by contact printing,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 20–25 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bang, J.

B. J. Kim, H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barrelet, C. J.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium Nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-W.

C.-C. Tsai, G.-H. Li, Y.-T. Lin, C.-W. Chang, P. Wadekar, Q. Y.-S. Chen, L. Rigutti, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, and L.-W. Tu, “Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 631 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-C.

C.-C. Chen and C.-C. Yeh, “Large-scale catalytic synthesis of crystalline gallium nitride nanowires,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 12(10), 738–741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q. Y.-S.

C.-C. Tsai, G.-H. Li, Y.-T. Lin, C.-W. Chang, P. Wadekar, Q. Y.-S. Chen, L. Rigutti, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, and L.-W. Tu, “Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 631 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheung, N. W.

Z. S. Luo, Y. Cho, V. Loryuenyong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, and M. C. Yoo, “Enhancement of (In,Ga)N Light-Emitting Diode Performance by Laser Liftoff and Transfer From Sapphire to Silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(10), 1400–1402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cho, N. K.

T. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, N. K. Cho, H. K. Seong, H. J. Choi, S. W. Jung, and S. K. Lee, “Dielectrophoretic alignment of gallium nitride nanowires (GaN NWs) for use in device applications,” Nanotechnology 17(14), 3394–3399 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, Y.

Z. S. Luo, Y. Cho, V. Loryuenyong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, and M. C. Yoo, “Enhancement of (In,Ga)N Light-Emitting Diode Performance by Laser Liftoff and Transfer From Sapphire to Silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(10), 1400–1402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. J.

T. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, N. K. Cho, H. K. Seong, H. J. Choi, S. W. Jung, and S. K. Lee, “Dielectrophoretic alignment of gallium nitride nanowires (GaN NWs) for use in device applications,” Nanotechnology 17(14), 3394–3399 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H.-J.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choy, J.

J. Choy, E. Jang, J. Won, J. Chung, D. Jang, and Y. Kim, “Soft solution route to directionally grown ZnO nanorod arrays on Si wafer; Room-temperature ultraviolet laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1911–1914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chung, J.

J. Choy, E. Jang, J. Won, J. Chung, D. Jang, and Y. Kim, “Soft solution route to directionally grown ZnO nanorod arrays on Si wafer; Room-temperature ultraviolet laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1911–1914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S. E.

S. E. Chung, W. Park, S. Shin, S. A. Lee, and S. Kwon, “Guided and fluidic self-assembly of microstructures using railed microfluidic channels,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 581–587 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davydov, A. V.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. He, S. N. Mohammad, and J. Melngailis, “365nm operation of n-nanowire/p-gallium nitride homojunction emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dayeh, S. A.

S. Raychaudhuri, S. A. Dayeh, D. Wang, and E. T. Yu, “Precise semiconductor nanowire placement through dielectrophoresis,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2260–2266 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eddy, C. R.

Fairchild, M.

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z.

Z. Fan, J. C. Ho, Z. A. Jacobson, R. Yerushalmi, R. L. Alley, H. Razavi, and A. Javey, “Wafer-scale assembly of highly ordered semiconductor nanowire arrays by contact printing,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 20–25 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gradecak, S.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium Nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Graff, R. A.

Y. Sun, R. A. Graff, M. S. Strano, and J. A. Rogers, “Top-Down Fabrication of semiconductor nanowires with alternating structures along their longitudinal and transverse axes,” Small 1(11), 1052–1057 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, M.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. He, S. N. Mohammad, and J. Melngailis, “365nm operation of n-nanowire/p-gallium nitride homojunction emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hersee, S. D.

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hite, J. K.

Ho, J. C.

Z. Fan, J. C. Ho, Z. A. Jacobson, R. Yerushalmi, R. L. Alley, H. Razavi, and A. Javey, “Wafer-scale assembly of highly ordered semiconductor nanowire arrays by contact printing,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 20–25 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, S. T.

Honda, Y.

B.-J. Kim, T. Tanikawa, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, and N. Sawaki, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN stripe structure on (111)Si and stimulated emission under photo-excitation,” Physica E 42(10), 2575–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, M. L.

M. L. Kuo, Y. S. Kim, M. L. Hsieh, and S. Y. Lin, “Efficient and directed nano-LED Emission by a complete elimination of transverse-electric guided modes,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 476–481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, K. F.

W.-H. Lan, K.-C. Huang, and K. F. Huang, “ICP-induced defects in GaN characterized by capacitance analysis,” Solid-State Electron. 50(11–12), 1677–1681 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K.-C.

W.-H. Lan, K.-C. Huang, and K. F. Huang, “ICP-induced defects in GaN characterized by capacitance analysis,” Solid-State Electron. 50(11–12), 1677–1681 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, Z. A.

Z. Fan, J. C. Ho, Z. A. Jacobson, R. Yerushalmi, R. L. Alley, H. Razavi, and A. Javey, “Wafer-scale assembly of highly ordered semiconductor nanowire arrays by contact printing,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 20–25 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, D.

J. Choy, E. Jang, J. Won, J. Chung, D. Jang, and Y. Kim, “Soft solution route to directionally grown ZnO nanorod arrays on Si wafer; Room-temperature ultraviolet laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1911–1914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jang, E.

J. Choy, E. Jang, J. Won, J. Chung, D. Jang, and Y. Kim, “Soft solution route to directionally grown ZnO nanorod arrays on Si wafer; Room-temperature ultraviolet laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1911–1914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Javey, A.

Z. Fan, J. C. Ho, Z. A. Jacobson, R. Yerushalmi, R. L. Alley, H. Razavi, and A. Javey, “Wafer-scale assembly of highly ordered semiconductor nanowire arrays by contact printing,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 20–25 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeon, S.

E. Menard, M. A. Meitl, Y. Sun, J. U. Park, D. J. Shir, Y. S. Nam, S. Jeon, and J. A. Rogers, “Micro- and nanopatterning techniques for organic electronic and optoelectronic systems,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1117–1160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, J. C.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Julien, F. H.

C.-C. Tsai, G.-H. Li, Y.-T. Lin, C.-W. Chang, P. Wadekar, Q. Y.-S. Chen, L. Rigutti, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, and L.-W. Tu, “Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 631 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, H.

B. J. Kim, H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S. W.

T. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, N. K. Cho, H. K. Seong, H. J. Choi, S. W. Jung, and S. K. Lee, “Dielectrophoretic alignment of gallium nitride nanowires (GaN NWs) for use in device applications,” Nanotechnology 17(14), 3394–3399 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, B. J.

B. J. Kim, H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.-J.

B.-J. Kim, T. Tanikawa, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, and N. Sawaki, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN stripe structure on (111)Si and stimulated emission under photo-excitation,” Physica E 42(10), 2575–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

B. J. Kim, H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Ahn, H. I. Park, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Nanostructured n-ZnO / thin film p-Silicon heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26006–26010 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kim, H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. H.

T. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, N. K. Cho, H. K. Seong, H. J. Choi, S. W. Jung, and S. K. Lee, “Dielectrophoretic alignment of gallium nitride nanowires (GaN NWs) for use in device applications,” Nanotechnology 17(14), 3394–3399 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

J. Choy, E. Jang, J. Won, J. Chung, D. Jang, and Y. Kim, “Soft solution route to directionally grown ZnO nanorod arrays on Si wafer; Room-temperature ultraviolet laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1911–1914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

M. L. Kuo, Y. S. Kim, M. L. Hsieh, and S. Y. Lin, “Efficient and directed nano-LED Emission by a complete elimination of transverse-electric guided modes,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 476–481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knutsen, K. P.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotov, N. A.

S. Srivastava and N. A. Kotov, “Composite Layer-by-Layer (LBL) assembly with inorganic nanoparticles and nanowires,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1831–1841 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, M. L.

M. L. Kuo, Y. S. Kim, M. L. Hsieh, and S. Y. Lin, “Efficient and directed nano-LED Emission by a complete elimination of transverse-electric guided modes,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 476–481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, S.

S. E. Chung, W. Park, S. Shin, S. A. Lee, and S. Kwon, “Guided and fluidic self-assembly of microstructures using railed microfluidic channels,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 581–587 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lan, W.-H.

W.-H. Lan, K.-C. Huang, and K. F. Huang, “ICP-induced defects in GaN characterized by capacitance analysis,” Solid-State Electron. 50(11–12), 1677–1681 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. A.

S. E. Chung, W. Park, S. Shin, S. A. Lee, and S. Kwon, “Guided and fluidic self-assembly of microstructures using railed microfluidic channels,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 581–587 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. K.

T. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, N. K. Cho, H. K. Seong, H. J. Choi, S. W. Jung, and S. K. Lee, “Dielectrophoretic alignment of gallium nitride nanowires (GaN NWs) for use in device applications,” Nanotechnology 17(14), 3394–3399 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. Y.

T. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, N. K. Cho, H. K. Seong, H. J. Choi, S. W. Jung, and S. K. Lee, “Dielectrophoretic alignment of gallium nitride nanowires (GaN NWs) for use in device applications,” Nanotechnology 17(14), 3394–3399 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G.-H.

C.-C. Tsai, G.-H. Li, Y.-T. Lin, C.-W. Chang, P. Wadekar, Q. Y.-S. Chen, L. Rigutti, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, and L.-W. Tu, “Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 631 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium Nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lieber, C. M.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium Nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

M. L. Kuo, Y. S. Kim, M. L. Hsieh, and S. Y. Lin, “Efficient and directed nano-LED Emission by a complete elimination of transverse-electric guided modes,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 476–481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.-T.

C.-C. Tsai, G.-H. Li, Y.-T. Lin, C.-W. Chang, P. Wadekar, Q. Y.-S. Chen, L. Rigutti, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, and L.-W. Tu, “Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 631 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loryuenyong, V.

Z. S. Luo, Y. Cho, V. Loryuenyong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, and M. C. Yoo, “Enhancement of (In,Ga)N Light-Emitting Diode Performance by Laser Liftoff and Transfer From Sapphire to Silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(10), 1400–1402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z. S.

Z. S. Luo, Y. Cho, V. Loryuenyong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, and M. C. Yoo, “Enhancement of (In,Ga)N Light-Emitting Diode Performance by Laser Liftoff and Transfer From Sapphire to Silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(10), 1400–1402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mastro, M. A.

Meitl, M. A.

E. Menard, M. A. Meitl, Y. Sun, J. U. Park, D. J. Shir, Y. S. Nam, S. Jeon, and J. A. Rogers, “Micro- and nanopatterning techniques for organic electronic and optoelectronic systems,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1117–1160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melngailis, J.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. He, S. N. Mohammad, and J. Melngailis, “365nm operation of n-nanowire/p-gallium nitride homojunction emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Menard, E.

E. Menard, M. A. Meitl, Y. Sun, J. U. Park, D. J. Shir, Y. S. Nam, S. Jeon, and J. A. Rogers, “Micro- and nanopatterning techniques for organic electronic and optoelectronic systems,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1117–1160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohammad, S. N.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. He, S. N. Mohammad, and J. Melngailis, “365nm operation of n-nanowire/p-gallium nitride homojunction emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Motayed, A.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. He, S. N. Mohammad, and J. Melngailis, “365nm operation of n-nanowire/p-gallium nitride homojunction emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nam, O.

M.-Y. Ryu, G. G. Shim, P. W. Yu, E. Oh, C. Sone, O. Nam, and Y. Park, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN double quantum wells with varying well thickness,” Solid State Commun. 120(12), 509–514 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nam, Y. S.

E. Menard, M. A. Meitl, Y. Sun, J. U. Park, D. J. Shir, Y. S. Nam, S. Jeon, and J. A. Rogers, “Micro- and nanopatterning techniques for organic electronic and optoelectronic systems,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1117–1160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, D. K. T.

Oh, E.

M.-Y. Ryu, G. G. Shim, P. W. Yu, E. Oh, C. Sone, O. Nam, and Y. Park, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN double quantum wells with varying well thickness,” Solid State Commun. 120(12), 509–514 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. I.

Park, J. U.

E. Menard, M. A. Meitl, Y. Sun, J. U. Park, D. J. Shir, Y. S. Nam, S. Jeon, and J. A. Rogers, “Micro- and nanopatterning techniques for organic electronic and optoelectronic systems,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1117–1160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, W.

S. E. Chung, W. Park, S. Shin, S. A. Lee, and S. Kwon, “Guided and fluidic self-assembly of microstructures using railed microfluidic channels,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 581–587 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y.

M.-Y. Ryu, G. G. Shim, P. W. Yu, E. Oh, C. Sone, O. Nam, and Y. Park, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN double quantum wells with varying well thickness,” Solid State Commun. 120(12), 509–514 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pu, J.

Qian, F.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium Nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rabiei, P.

Raychaudhuri, S.

S. Raychaudhuri, S. A. Dayeh, D. Wang, and E. T. Yu, “Precise semiconductor nanowire placement through dielectrophoresis,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2260–2266 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Razavi, H.

Z. Fan, J. C. Ho, Z. A. Jacobson, R. Yerushalmi, R. L. Alley, H. Razavi, and A. Javey, “Wafer-scale assembly of highly ordered semiconductor nanowire arrays by contact printing,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 20–25 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rigutti, L.

C.-C. Tsai, G.-H. Li, Y.-T. Lin, C.-W. Chang, P. Wadekar, Q. Y.-S. Chen, L. Rigutti, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, and L.-W. Tu, “Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 631 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, J. A.

E. Menard, M. A. Meitl, Y. Sun, J. U. Park, D. J. Shir, Y. S. Nam, S. Jeon, and J. A. Rogers, “Micro- and nanopatterning techniques for organic electronic and optoelectronic systems,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1117–1160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, R. A. Graff, M. S. Strano, and J. A. Rogers, “Top-Down Fabrication of semiconductor nanowires with alternating structures along their longitudinal and transverse axes,” Small 1(11), 1052–1057 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, M.-Y.

M.-Y. Ryu, G. G. Shim, P. W. Yu, E. Oh, C. Sone, O. Nam, and Y. Park, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN double quantum wells with varying well thickness,” Solid State Commun. 120(12), 509–514 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sands, T.

Z. S. Luo, Y. Cho, V. Loryuenyong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, and M. C. Yoo, “Enhancement of (In,Ga)N Light-Emitting Diode Performance by Laser Liftoff and Transfer From Sapphire to Silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(10), 1400–1402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sawaki, N.

B.-J. Kim, T. Tanikawa, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, and N. Sawaki, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN stripe structure on (111)Si and stimulated emission under photo-excitation,” Physica E 42(10), 2575–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaller, R. D.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seong, H. K.

T. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, N. K. Cho, H. K. Seong, H. J. Choi, S. W. Jung, and S. K. Lee, “Dielectrophoretic alignment of gallium nitride nanowires (GaN NWs) for use in device applications,” Nanotechnology 17(14), 3394–3399 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shim, G. G.

M.-Y. Ryu, G. G. Shim, P. W. Yu, E. Oh, C. Sone, O. Nam, and Y. Park, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN double quantum wells with varying well thickness,” Solid State Commun. 120(12), 509–514 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S.

S. E. Chung, W. Park, S. Shin, S. A. Lee, and S. Kwon, “Guided and fluidic self-assembly of microstructures using railed microfluidic channels,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 581–587 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shir, D. J.

E. Menard, M. A. Meitl, Y. Sun, J. U. Park, D. J. Shir, Y. S. Nam, S. Jeon, and J. A. Rogers, “Micro- and nanopatterning techniques for organic electronic and optoelectronic systems,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1117–1160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sone, C.

M.-Y. Ryu, G. G. Shim, P. W. Yu, E. Oh, C. Sone, O. Nam, and Y. Park, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN double quantum wells with varying well thickness,” Solid State Commun. 120(12), 509–514 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-Based Optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE 81(12), 1687–1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, S.

S. Srivastava and N. A. Kotov, “Composite Layer-by-Layer (LBL) assembly with inorganic nanoparticles and nanowires,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1831–1841 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strano, M. S.

Y. Sun, R. A. Graff, M. S. Strano, and J. A. Rogers, “Top-Down Fabrication of semiconductor nanowires with alternating structures along their longitudinal and transverse axes,” Small 1(11), 1052–1057 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X.

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

E. Menard, M. A. Meitl, Y. Sun, J. U. Park, D. J. Shir, Y. S. Nam, S. Jeon, and J. A. Rogers, “Micro- and nanopatterning techniques for organic electronic and optoelectronic systems,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1117–1160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, R. A. Graff, M. S. Strano, and J. A. Rogers, “Top-Down Fabrication of semiconductor nanowires with alternating structures along their longitudinal and transverse axes,” Small 1(11), 1052–1057 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanikawa, T.

B.-J. Kim, T. Tanikawa, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, and N. Sawaki, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN stripe structure on (111)Si and stimulated emission under photo-excitation,” Physica E 42(10), 2575–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tchernycheva, M.

C.-C. Tsai, G.-H. Li, Y.-T. Lin, C.-W. Chang, P. Wadekar, Q. Y.-S. Chen, L. Rigutti, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, and L.-W. Tu, “Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 631 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, C.-C.

C.-C. Tsai, G.-H. Li, Y.-T. Lin, C.-W. Chang, P. Wadekar, Q. Y.-S. Chen, L. Rigutti, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, and L.-W. Tu, “Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 631 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tu, L.-W.

C.-C. Tsai, G.-H. Li, Y.-T. Lin, C.-W. Chang, P. Wadekar, Q. Y.-S. Chen, L. Rigutti, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, and L.-W. Tu, “Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 631 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadekar, P.

C.-C. Tsai, G.-H. Li, Y.-T. Lin, C.-W. Chang, P. Wadekar, Q. Y.-S. Chen, L. Rigutti, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, and L.-W. Tu, “Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 631 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

S. Raychaudhuri, S. A. Dayeh, D. Wang, and E. T. Yu, “Precise semiconductor nanowire placement through dielectrophoresis,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2260–2266 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium Nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Wei, Y.

Won, J.

J. Choy, E. Jang, J. Won, J. Chung, D. Jang, and Y. Kim, “Soft solution route to directionally grown ZnO nanorod arrays on Si wafer; Room-temperature ultraviolet laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1911–1914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

B.-J. Kim, T. Tanikawa, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, and N. Sawaki, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN stripe structure on (111)Si and stimulated emission under photo-excitation,” Physica E 42(10), 2575–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, C.-C.

C.-C. Chen and C.-C. Yeh, “Large-scale catalytic synthesis of crystalline gallium nitride nanowires,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 12(10), 738–741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yerushalmi, R.

Z. Fan, J. C. Ho, Z. A. Jacobson, R. Yerushalmi, R. L. Alley, H. Razavi, and A. Javey, “Wafer-scale assembly of highly ordered semiconductor nanowire arrays by contact printing,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 20–25 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, M. C.

Z. S. Luo, Y. Cho, V. Loryuenyong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, and M. C. Yoo, “Enhancement of (In,Ga)N Light-Emitting Diode Performance by Laser Liftoff and Transfer From Sapphire to Silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(10), 1400–1402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, E. T.

S. Raychaudhuri, S. A. Dayeh, D. Wang, and E. T. Yu, “Precise semiconductor nanowire placement through dielectrophoresis,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2260–2266 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, P. W.

M.-Y. Ryu, G. G. Shim, P. W. Yu, E. Oh, C. Sone, O. Nam, and Y. Park, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN double quantum wells with varying well thickness,” Solid State Commun. 120(12), 509–514 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

S. Srivastava and N. A. Kotov, “Composite Layer-by-Layer (LBL) assembly with inorganic nanoparticles and nanowires,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(12), 1831–1841 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

J. Choy, E. Jang, J. Won, J. Chung, D. Jang, and Y. Kim, “Soft solution route to directionally grown ZnO nanorod arrays on Si wafer; Room-temperature ultraviolet laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1911–1914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Chen and C.-C. Yeh, “Large-scale catalytic synthesis of crystalline gallium nitride nanowires,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 12(10), 738–741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. He, S. N. Mohammad, and J. Melngailis, “365nm operation of n-nanowire/p-gallium nitride homojunction emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

E. Menard, M. A. Meitl, Y. Sun, J. U. Park, D. J. Shir, Y. S. Nam, S. Jeon, and J. A. Rogers, “Micro- and nanopatterning techniques for organic electronic and optoelectronic systems,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1117–1160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. S. Luo, Y. Cho, V. Loryuenyong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, and M. C. Yoo, “Enhancement of (In,Ga)N Light-Emitting Diode Performance by Laser Liftoff and Transfer From Sapphire to Silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(10), 1400–1402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (4)

S. Raychaudhuri, S. A. Dayeh, D. Wang, and E. T. Yu, “Precise semiconductor nanowire placement through dielectrophoresis,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2260–2266 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradecak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium Nitride-based nanowire radial heterostructures for nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Kuo, Y. S. Kim, M. L. Hsieh, and S. Y. Lin, “Efficient and directed nano-LED Emission by a complete elimination of transverse-electric guided modes,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 476–481 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Fan, J. C. Ho, Z. A. Jacobson, R. Yerushalmi, R. L. Alley, H. Razavi, and A. Javey, “Wafer-scale assembly of highly ordered semiconductor nanowire arrays by contact printing,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 20–25 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

C.-C. Tsai, G.-H. Li, Y.-T. Lin, C.-W. Chang, P. Wadekar, Q. Y.-S. Chen, L. Rigutti, M. Tchernycheva, F. H. Julien, and L.-W. Tu, “Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 631 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

T. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, N. K. Cho, H. K. Seong, H. J. Choi, S. W. Jung, and S. K. Lee, “Dielectrophoretic alignment of gallium nitride nanowires (GaN NWs) for use in device applications,” Nanotechnology 17(14), 3394–3399 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

S. E. Chung, W. Park, S. Shin, S. A. Lee, and S. Kwon, “Guided and fluidic self-assembly of microstructures using railed microfluidic channels,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 581–587 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Physica E (1)

B.-J. Kim, T. Tanikawa, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, and N. Sawaki, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN stripe structure on (111)Si and stimulated emission under photo-excitation,” Physica E 42(10), 2575–2578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-Based Optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE 81(12), 1687–1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

Y. Sun, R. A. Graff, M. S. Strano, and J. A. Rogers, “Top-Down Fabrication of semiconductor nanowires with alternating structures along their longitudinal and transverse axes,” Small 1(11), 1052–1057 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun. (1)

M.-Y. Ryu, G. G. Shim, P. W. Yu, E. Oh, C. Sone, O. Nam, and Y. Park, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN double quantum wells with varying well thickness,” Solid State Commun. 120(12), 509–514 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

W.-H. Lan, K.-C. Huang, and K. F. Huang, “ICP-induced defects in GaN characterized by capacitance analysis,” Solid-State Electron. 50(11–12), 1677–1681 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

B. J. Kim, H. Jung, H. Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films 517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

T. B. Jones, Electromechanics of Particles (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (257 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication process (1) Deposition of SiO2 nanospheres on LED structure by spin-coating (2) ICP etch (3) Dispersion of nanorods (4) Positioning the nanorods by DEP.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM image (b) CL image of the nanorods (c) CL spectrum from the nanorods.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Microscopic image and (b) SEM image around the metal electrode after DEP force was applied.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) I-V characteristics (Inset: schematic image after DEP) (b) EL image when the negative bias was applied to the top circular electrode. Note that the nanorods that emit EL are under forward bias condition.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) I-V characteristics (Inset: schematic image after DEP) (b) EL image when the positive bias was applied to the top circular electrode (Media 1). Note that the nanorods that emit EL are under forward bias condition.

Metrics