Abstract

We report studies of high-order harmonic generation in laser-produced manganese plasmas using sub-4-fs drive laser pulses. The measured spectra exhibit resonant enhancement of a small spectral region of about 2.5 eV width around the 31st harmonic (~50eV). The intensity contrast relative to the directly adjacent harmonics exceeds one order of magnitude. This finding is in sharp contrast to the results reported previously for multi-cycle laser pulses [Physical Review A 76, 023831 (2007)]. Theoretical modelling suggests that the enhanced harmonic emission forms an isolated sub-femtosecond pulse.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B4(4), 595–601 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Liang, S. Augst, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “High harmonic generation in atomic and diatomic molecular gases using intense picosecond laser pulses-a comparison,” J. Phys. B27(20), 5119–5130 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Flettner, T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “High-harmonic generation and plasma radiation from water microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. B77(8), 747–751 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys.7(2), 138–141 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. A. Ganeev, “Generation of high-order harmonics of high-power lasers in plasmas produced under irradiation of solid target surfaces by a prepulse,” Phys. Usp.52(1), 55–77 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Kjeldsen, F. Folkmann, B. Kristensen, J. B. West, and J. E. Hansen, “Absolute cross section for photoionization of Mn+ in the 3p region,” J. Phys. B37(6), 1321–1330 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. V. Marr and J. B. West, “Absolute photoionization cross-section tables for helium, neon, argon, and krypton in the VUV spectral regions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables18(5), 497–508 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, J. P. Marangos, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “High harmonic generation and the role of atomic orbital wave functions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(18), 183903 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys.7(6), 464–467 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, H. Kuroda, and T. Ozaki, “Strong resonance enhancement of a single harmonic generated in the extreme ultraviolet range,” Opt. Lett.31(11), 1699–1701 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. A. Ganeev, P. A. Naik, H. Singhal, J. A. Chakera, and P. D. Gupta, “Strong enhancement and extinction of single harmonic intensity in the mid- and end-plateau regions of the high harmonics generated in weakly excited laser plasmas,” Opt. Lett.32(1), 65–67 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Ganeev, L. Bom, J.-C. Kieffer, M. Suzuki, H. Kuroda, and T. Ozaki, “Demonstration of the 101st harmonic generated from laser-produced manganese plasma,” Phys. Rev. A76(2), 023831 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, and H. Kuroda, “Extended high-order harmonics from laser-produced Cd and Cr plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. B. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. Witting, F. Frank, W. A. Okell, C. A. Arrell, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Sub-4-fs laser pulse characterization by spatially resolved spectral shearing interferometry and attosecond streaking,” J. Phys. B45(7), 074014 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Altucci, J. W. G. Tisch, and R. Velotta, “Single attosecond light pulses from multi-cycle laser sources,” J. Mod. Opt.58(18), 1585–1610 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “The generation of intense, transform-limited laser pulses with tunable duration from 6 to 30 fs in a differentially pumped hollow fibre,” Appl. Phys. B85(4), 525–529 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Witting, F. Frank, C. A. Arrell, W. A. Okell, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Characterization of high-intensity sub-4-fs laser pulses using spatially encoded spectral shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1680–1682 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. A. Ganeev, T. Witting, C. Hutchison, F. Frank, P. V. Redkin, W. A. Okell, D. Y. Lei, T. Roschuk, S. A. Maier, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Enhanced high-order harmonic generation in a carbon ablation plume,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 015807 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Kilbane, E. T. Kennedy, J.-P. Mosnier, P. Kampen, and J. T. Costello, “On the 3p-subshell photoabsorption spectra of iron-group ions: the case of Mn2+,” J. Phys. B38(1), L1–L8 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. V. K. Dolmatov, “Characteristic features of the 3p absorption spectra of free iron-group elements due to the duplicity of the `inner-valence' 3d electrons. Application to Mn2+,” J. Phys. B29(19), L687–L692 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. B. West, J. E. Hansen, B. Kristensen, F. Folkmann, and H. Kjeldsen, “Revised interpretation of the photoionization of Cr+ in the 3p excitation region,” J. Phys. B36(19), L327–L333 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. V. Strelkov, “Role of autoionizing state in resonant high-order harmonic generation and attosecond pulse production,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(12), 123901 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. B. Milošević, “Resonant high-order harmonic generation from plasma ablation: Laser intensity dependence of the harmonic intensity and phase,” Phys. Rev. A81(2), 023802 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, and A. F. Starace, “Potential barrier effects in high-order harmonic generation by transition-metal ions,” Phys. Rev. A82(2), 023424 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. V. Redkin and R. A. Ganeev, “Simulation of resonant high-order harmonic generation in three-dimensional fullerenelike system by means of multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach,” Phys. Rev. A81(6), 063825 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Tudorovskaya and M. Lein, “High-order harmonic generation in the presence of a resonance,” Phys. Rev. A84(1), 013430 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys.47(3), 412–433 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  30. C. D. Lin, A.-T. Le, Z. Chen, T. Morishita, and R. Lucchese, “Strong-field rescattering physics—self-imaging of a molecule by its own electrons,” J. Phys. B43(12), 122001 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. B. Milošević, “Theoretical analysis of high-order harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23(2), 308–317 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  32. D. Gabor, “Theory of communication. Part 1: The analysis of information,” J. Inst. Electr. Eng.93, 429–441 (1946).
  33. L. E. Chipperfield, L. N. Gaier, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Conditions for the reliable production of attosecond pulses using ultra-short laser-generated high harmonics,” J. Mod. Opt.52(2–3), 243–260 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  34. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

T. Witting, F. Frank, W. A. Okell, C. A. Arrell, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Sub-4-fs laser pulse characterization by spatially resolved spectral shearing interferometry and attosecond streaking,” J. Phys. B45(7), 074014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, T. Witting, C. Hutchison, F. Frank, P. V. Redkin, W. A. Okell, D. Y. Lei, T. Roschuk, S. A. Maier, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Enhanced high-order harmonic generation in a carbon ablation plume,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 015807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

T. Witting, F. Frank, C. A. Arrell, W. A. Okell, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Characterization of high-intensity sub-4-fs laser pulses using spatially encoded spectral shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1680–1682 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tudorovskaya and M. Lein, “High-order harmonic generation in the presence of a resonance,” Phys. Rev. A84(1), 013430 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Altucci, J. W. G. Tisch, and R. Velotta, “Single attosecond light pulses from multi-cycle laser sources,” J. Mod. Opt.58(18), 1585–1610 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys.7(6), 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys.7(2), 138–141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

C. D. Lin, A.-T. Le, Z. Chen, T. Morishita, and R. Lucchese, “Strong-field rescattering physics—self-imaging of a molecule by its own electrons,” J. Phys. B43(12), 122001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Strelkov, “Role of autoionizing state in resonant high-order harmonic generation and attosecond pulse production,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(12), 123901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Milošević, “Resonant high-order harmonic generation from plasma ablation: Laser intensity dependence of the harmonic intensity and phase,” Phys. Rev. A81(2), 023802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, and A. F. Starace, “Potential barrier effects in high-order harmonic generation by transition-metal ions,” Phys. Rev. A82(2), 023424 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Redkin and R. A. Ganeev, “Simulation of resonant high-order harmonic generation in three-dimensional fullerenelike system by means of multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach,” Phys. Rev. A81(6), 063825 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. A. Ganeev, “Generation of high-order harmonics of high-power lasers in plasmas produced under irradiation of solid target surfaces by a prepulse,” Phys. Usp.52(1), 55–77 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, and H. Kuroda, “Extended high-order harmonics from laser-produced Cd and Cr plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, J. P. Marangos, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “High harmonic generation and the role of atomic orbital wave functions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(18), 183903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Ganeev, P. A. Naik, H. Singhal, J. A. Chakera, and P. D. Gupta, “Strong enhancement and extinction of single harmonic intensity in the mid- and end-plateau regions of the high harmonics generated in weakly excited laser plasmas,” Opt. Lett.32(1), 65–67 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ganeev, L. Bom, J.-C. Kieffer, M. Suzuki, H. Kuroda, and T. Ozaki, “Demonstration of the 101st harmonic generated from laser-produced manganese plasma,” Phys. Rev. A76(2), 023831 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, H. Kuroda, and T. Ozaki, “Strong resonance enhancement of a single harmonic generated in the extreme ultraviolet range,” Opt. Lett.31(11), 1699–1701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “The generation of intense, transform-limited laser pulses with tunable duration from 6 to 30 fs in a differentially pumped hollow fibre,” Appl. Phys. B85(4), 525–529 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Milošević, “Theoretical analysis of high-order harmonic generation from a coherent superposition of states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B23(2), 308–317 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

L. E. Chipperfield, L. N. Gaier, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Conditions for the reliable production of attosecond pulses using ultra-short laser-generated high harmonics,” J. Mod. Opt.52(2–3), 243–260 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Kilbane, E. T. Kennedy, J.-P. Mosnier, P. Kampen, and J. T. Costello, “On the 3p-subshell photoabsorption spectra of iron-group ions: the case of Mn2+,” J. Phys. B38(1), L1–L8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Kjeldsen, F. Folkmann, B. Kristensen, J. B. West, and J. E. Hansen, “Absolute cross section for photoionization of Mn+ in the 3p region,” J. Phys. B37(6), 1321–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Flettner, T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “High-harmonic generation and plasma radiation from water microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. B77(8), 747–751 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. B. West, J. E. Hansen, B. Kristensen, F. Folkmann, and H. Kjeldsen, “Revised interpretation of the photoionization of Cr+ in the 3p excitation region,” J. Phys. B36(19), L327–L333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. B. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

V. K. Dolmatov, “Characteristic features of the 3p absorption spectra of free iron-group elements due to the duplicity of the `inner-valence' 3d electrons. Application to Mn2+,” J. Phys. B29(19), L687–L692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

Y. Liang, S. Augst, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “High harmonic generation in atomic and diatomic molecular gases using intense picosecond laser pulses-a comparison,” J. Phys. B27(20), 5119–5130 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

1982

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys.47(3), 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1976

G. V. Marr and J. B. West, “Absolute photoionization cross-section tables for helium, neon, argon, and krypton in the VUV spectral regions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables18(5), 497–508 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1946

D. Gabor, “Theory of communication. Part 1: The analysis of information,” J. Inst. Electr. Eng.93, 429–441 (1946).

Agostini, P.

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys.7(2), 138–141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Altucci, C.

C. Altucci, J. W. G. Tisch, and R. Velotta, “Single attosecond light pulses from multi-cycle laser sources,” J. Mod. Opt.58(18), 1585–1610 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arrell, C. A.

T. Witting, F. Frank, W. A. Okell, C. A. Arrell, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Sub-4-fs laser pulse characterization by spatially resolved spectral shearing interferometry and attosecond streaking,” J. Phys. B45(7), 074014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Witting, F. Frank, C. A. Arrell, W. A. Okell, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Characterization of high-intensity sub-4-fs laser pulses using spatially encoded spectral shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1680–1682 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Augst, S.

Y. Liang, S. Augst, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “High harmonic generation in atomic and diatomic molecular gases using intense picosecond laser pulses-a comparison,” J. Phys. B27(20), 5119–5130 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baba, M.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, and H. Kuroda, “Extended high-order harmonics from laser-produced Cd and Cr plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, H. Kuroda, and T. Ozaki, “Strong resonance enhancement of a single harmonic generated in the extreme ultraviolet range,” Opt. Lett.31(11), 1699–1701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaudoin, Y.

Y. Liang, S. Augst, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “High harmonic generation in atomic and diatomic molecular gases using intense picosecond laser pulses-a comparison,” J. Phys. B27(20), 5119–5130 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bom, L.

R. Ganeev, L. Bom, J.-C. Kieffer, M. Suzuki, H. Kuroda, and T. Ozaki, “Demonstration of the 101st harmonic generated from laser-produced manganese plasma,” Phys. Rev. A76(2), 023831 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, K.

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. B. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaker, M.

Y. Liang, S. Augst, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “High harmonic generation in atomic and diatomic molecular gases using intense picosecond laser pulses-a comparison,” J. Phys. B27(20), 5119–5130 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chakera, J. A.

Chen, Z.

C. D. Lin, A.-T. Le, Z. Chen, T. Morishita, and R. Lucchese, “Strong-field rescattering physics—self-imaging of a molecule by its own electrons,” J. Phys. B43(12), 122001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

Y. Liang, S. Augst, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “High harmonic generation in atomic and diatomic molecular gases using intense picosecond laser pulses-a comparison,” J. Phys. B27(20), 5119–5130 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chipperfield, L. E.

L. E. Chipperfield, L. N. Gaier, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Conditions for the reliable production of attosecond pulses using ultra-short laser-generated high harmonics,” J. Mod. Opt.52(2–3), 243–260 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys.7(6), 464–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, J. P. Marangos, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “High harmonic generation and the role of atomic orbital wave functions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(18), 183903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. B. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costello, J. T.

D. Kilbane, E. T. Kennedy, J.-P. Mosnier, P. Kampen, and J. T. Costello, “On the 3p-subshell photoabsorption spectra of iron-group ions: the case of Mn2+,” J. Phys. B38(1), L1–L8 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DiChiara, A. D.

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys.7(2), 138–141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

DiMauro, L. F.

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys.7(2), 138–141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dolmatov, V. K.

V. K. Dolmatov, “Characteristic features of the 3p absorption spectra of free iron-group elements due to the duplicity of the `inner-valence' 3d electrons. Application to Mn2+,” J. Phys. B29(19), L687–L692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. B. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feit, M. D.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys.47(3), 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fleck, J. A.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys.47(3), 412–433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Flettner, A.

A. Flettner, T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “High-harmonic generation and plasma radiation from water microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. B77(8), 747–751 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Folkmann, F.

H. Kjeldsen, F. Folkmann, B. Kristensen, J. B. West, and J. E. Hansen, “Absolute cross section for photoionization of Mn+ in the 3p region,” J. Phys. B37(6), 1321–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. West, J. E. Hansen, B. Kristensen, F. Folkmann, and H. Kjeldsen, “Revised interpretation of the photoionization of Cr+ in the 3p excitation region,” J. Phys. B36(19), L327–L333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frank, F.

T. Witting, F. Frank, W. A. Okell, C. A. Arrell, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Sub-4-fs laser pulse characterization by spatially resolved spectral shearing interferometry and attosecond streaking,” J. Phys. B45(7), 074014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, T. Witting, C. Hutchison, F. Frank, P. V. Redkin, W. A. Okell, D. Y. Lei, T. Roschuk, S. A. Maier, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Enhanced high-order harmonic generation in a carbon ablation plume,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 015807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Witting, F. Frank, C. A. Arrell, W. A. Okell, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Characterization of high-intensity sub-4-fs laser pulses using spatially encoded spectral shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1680–1682 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Flettner, T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “High-harmonic generation and plasma radiation from water microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. B77(8), 747–751 (2003).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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D. Kilbane, E. T. Kennedy, J.-P. Mosnier, P. Kampen, and J. T. Costello, “On the 3p-subshell photoabsorption spectra of iron-group ions: the case of Mn2+,” J. Phys. B38(1), L1–L8 (2005).
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H. Kjeldsen, F. Folkmann, B. Kristensen, J. B. West, and J. E. Hansen, “Absolute cross section for photoionization of Mn+ in the 3p region,” J. Phys. B37(6), 1321–1330 (2004).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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L. E. Chipperfield, L. N. Gaier, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Conditions for the reliable production of attosecond pulses using ultra-short laser-generated high harmonics,” J. Mod. Opt.52(2–3), 243–260 (2005).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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H. Kjeldsen, F. Folkmann, B. Kristensen, J. B. West, and J. E. Hansen, “Absolute cross section for photoionization of Mn+ in the 3p region,” J. Phys. B37(6), 1321–1330 (2004).
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R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, and H. Kuroda, “Extended high-order harmonics from laser-produced Cd and Cr plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051101 (2009).
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Maier, S. A.

R. A. Ganeev, T. Witting, C. Hutchison, F. Frank, P. V. Redkin, W. A. Okell, D. Y. Lei, T. Roschuk, S. A. Maier, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Enhanced high-order harmonic generation in a carbon ablation plume,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 015807 (2012).
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M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, and A. F. Starace, “Potential barrier effects in high-order harmonic generation by transition-metal ions,” Phys. Rev. A82(2), 023424 (2010).
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R. A. Ganeev, T. Witting, C. Hutchison, F. Frank, P. V. Redkin, W. A. Okell, D. Y. Lei, T. Roschuk, S. A. Maier, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Enhanced high-order harmonic generation in a carbon ablation plume,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 015807 (2012).
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T. Witting, F. Frank, W. A. Okell, C. A. Arrell, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Sub-4-fs laser pulse characterization by spatially resolved spectral shearing interferometry and attosecond streaking,” J. Phys. B45(7), 074014 (2012).
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T. Witting, F. Frank, C. A. Arrell, W. A. Okell, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Characterization of high-intensity sub-4-fs laser pulses using spatially encoded spectral shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1680–1682 (2011).
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J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, J. P. Marangos, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “High harmonic generation and the role of atomic orbital wave functions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(18), 183903 (2007).
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J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “The generation of intense, transform-limited laser pulses with tunable duration from 6 to 30 fs in a differentially pumped hollow fibre,” Appl. Phys. B85(4), 525–529 (2006).
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D. Kilbane, E. T. Kennedy, J.-P. Mosnier, P. Kampen, and J. T. Costello, “On the 3p-subshell photoabsorption spectra of iron-group ions: the case of Mn2+,” J. Phys. B38(1), L1–L8 (2005).
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Okell, W. A.

R. A. Ganeev, T. Witting, C. Hutchison, F. Frank, P. V. Redkin, W. A. Okell, D. Y. Lei, T. Roschuk, S. A. Maier, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Enhanced high-order harmonic generation in a carbon ablation plume,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 015807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Witting, F. Frank, W. A. Okell, C. A. Arrell, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Sub-4-fs laser pulse characterization by spatially resolved spectral shearing interferometry and attosecond streaking,” J. Phys. B45(7), 074014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Witting, F. Frank, C. A. Arrell, W. A. Okell, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Characterization of high-intensity sub-4-fs laser pulses using spatially encoded spectral shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1680–1682 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Ganeev, L. Bom, J.-C. Kieffer, M. Suzuki, H. Kuroda, and T. Ozaki, “Demonstration of the 101st harmonic generated from laser-produced manganese plasma,” Phys. Rev. A76(2), 023831 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, H. Kuroda, and T. Ozaki, “Strong resonance enhancement of a single harmonic generated in the extreme ultraviolet range,” Opt. Lett.31(11), 1699–1701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys.7(6), 464–467 (2011).
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A. Flettner, T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “High-harmonic generation and plasma radiation from water microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. B77(8), 747–751 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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R. A. Ganeev, T. Witting, C. Hutchison, F. Frank, P. V. Redkin, W. A. Okell, D. Y. Lei, T. Roschuk, S. A. Maier, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Enhanced high-order harmonic generation in a carbon ablation plume,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 015807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Redkin and R. A. Ganeev, “Simulation of resonant high-order harmonic generation in three-dimensional fullerenelike system by means of multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach,” Phys. Rev. A81(6), 063825 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. B. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
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S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys.7(2), 138–141 (2011).
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Robinson, J. S.

J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “The generation of intense, transform-limited laser pulses with tunable duration from 6 to 30 fs in a differentially pumped hollow fibre,” Appl. Phys. B85(4), 525–529 (2006).
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R. A. Ganeev, T. Witting, C. Hutchison, F. Frank, P. V. Redkin, W. A. Okell, D. Y. Lei, T. Roschuk, S. A. Maier, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Enhanced high-order harmonic generation in a carbon ablation plume,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 015807 (2012).
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A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys.7(6), 464–467 (2011).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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Sistrunk, E.

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys.7(2), 138–141 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “The generation of intense, transform-limited laser pulses with tunable duration from 6 to 30 fs in a differentially pumped hollow fibre,” Appl. Phys. B85(4), 525–529 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

A. Flettner, T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, “High-harmonic generation and plasma radiation from water microdroplets,” Appl. Phys. B77(8), 747–751 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. B. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature414(6863), 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, and A. F. Starace, “Potential barrier effects in high-order harmonic generation by transition-metal ions,” Phys. Rev. A82(2), 023424 (2010).
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R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, and H. Kuroda, “Extended high-order harmonics from laser-produced Cd and Cr plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Ganeev, L. Bom, J.-C. Kieffer, M. Suzuki, H. Kuroda, and T. Ozaki, “Demonstration of the 101st harmonic generated from laser-produced manganese plasma,” Phys. Rev. A76(2), 023831 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, H. Kuroda, and T. Ozaki, “Strong resonance enhancement of a single harmonic generated in the extreme ultraviolet range,” Opt. Lett.31(11), 1699–1701 (2006).
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T. Witting, F. Frank, W. A. Okell, C. A. Arrell, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Sub-4-fs laser pulse characterization by spatially resolved spectral shearing interferometry and attosecond streaking,” J. Phys. B45(7), 074014 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

T. Witting, F. Frank, C. A. Arrell, W. A. Okell, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Characterization of high-intensity sub-4-fs laser pulses using spatially encoded spectral shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1680–1682 (2011).
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A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys.7(6), 464–467 (2011).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
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J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, J. P. Marangos, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “High harmonic generation and the role of atomic orbital wave functions,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(18), 183903 (2007).
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J. S. Robinson, C. A. Haworth, H. Teng, R. A. Smith, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “The generation of intense, transform-limited laser pulses with tunable duration from 6 to 30 fs in a differentially pumped hollow fibre,” Appl. Phys. B85(4), 525–529 (2006).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. A. Ganeev, M. Suzuki, M. Baba, and H. Kuroda, “Extended high-order harmonics from laser-produced Cd and Cr plasmas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(5), 051101 (2009).
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Y. Liang, S. Augst, S. L. Chin, Y. Beaudoin, and M. Chaker, “High harmonic generation in atomic and diatomic molecular gases using intense picosecond laser pulses-a comparison,” J. Phys. B27(20), 5119–5130 (1994).
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T. Witting, F. Frank, W. A. Okell, C. A. Arrell, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Sub-4-fs laser pulse characterization by spatially resolved spectral shearing interferometry and attosecond streaking,” J. Phys. B45(7), 074014 (2012).
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Nat. Phys.

A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, C. Trallero-Herrero, H. J. Wörner, S. Patchkovskii, P. B. Corkum, J.-C. Kieffer, F. Légaré, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Probing collective multi-electron dynamics in xenon with high-harmonic spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys.7(6), 464–467 (2011).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for harmonic generation in plasma plumes. FP: femtosecond harmonic drive pulse, HP: picosecond heating pulse, A: aperture, HHGC: high-order harmonic generation chamber, FM: focussing mirror, L: focussing lens, T: target, P: plasma, XUVS: extreme ultraviolet spectrometer, FFG: flat field grating, MCP: microchannel plate and phosphor screen detector, CCD: CCD camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Harmonic spectra from the silver plasma (upper curve) and manganese plasma (bottom curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raw images of harmonic spectra from manganese plasma in the case of (a) 40 fs and (b) 3.5 fs probe pulses obtained at the same intensity. (c) Raw images of harmonic spectra from Mn plasma at different pressures of neon in the hollow fiber obtained at the same energy of probe laser pulses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Potential used for the numerical simulations. (b,c) Calculated HHG spectra using (b) a long (40 fs) pulse and (c) few-cycle pulses at different values of the CEP (φ = 0, π/4, and π/2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental harmonic spectra generated from manganese plasma in the case of the absence of gas in the hollow fibre compressor (t = 25 fs) and random CEP (upper panel), and at 3 bar pressure (t = 3.5 fs) at fixed CEP (φ = 0, middle panel; φ = π/2, bottom panel).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated results for HHG driven by (a) a long (40 fs) pulse with CEP φ = π/4 and (b-d) few-cycle pulses with CEPs of (b) φ = 0, (c) φ = π/4, and (d) φ = π/2. The top panels show the HHG temporal intensity profile obtained as the square of the time-dependent dipole acceleration after high pass filtering above 32.7 eV. The middle panels show the time-frequency diagrams. The red curves in the bottom panels show the time dependence of the electric field of the driving laser pulse.

Equations (2)

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V(x)=a+ a 1+exp( x+b c ) + a 1+exp( x+b c ) + d/(e+ x 2 ) 1+exp( x+b c ) + d/(e+ x 2 ) 1+exp( x+b c ) ,
G(ω,t)= dτ a(τ)exp(iωτ)exp( (tτ) 2 2 σ 2 ) 2π σ 2 ,

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