Abstract

We demonstrate mode-locking of a thulium-doped fiber laser operating at 1.94 μm, using a graphene-polymer based saturable absorber. The laser outputs 3.6 ps pulses, with ∼0.4 nJ energy and an amplitude fluctuation ∼0.5%, at 6.46 MHz. This is a simple, low-cost, stable and convenient laser oscillator for applications where eye-safe and low-photon-energy light sources are required, such as sensing and biomedical diagnostics.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient Mode-Locking of Sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire Laser by Graphene Saturable Absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express5, 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 μm passive mode-locking Tm:YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.9, 15–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett.37, 2085–2087 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

L. G. Cancado, A. Jorio, E. H. M. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying Defects in Graphene via Raman Spectroscopy at Different Excitation Energies,” Nano Lett.11, 3190–3196 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Q-switched, tunable fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98, 073106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Photonics and Optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4, 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano4, 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. Kelleher, J. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res.3, 653–660 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast Stretched-Pulse Fiber Laser Mode-Locked by Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Res.3, 404–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Beecher, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Kar, “320 fs pulse generation from an ultrafast laser inscribed waveguide laser mode-locked by a nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 111114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Obraztsov, A. A. Sirotkin, E. D. Obraztsova, Y. P. Svirko, and S. V. Garnov, “Carbon-Nanotube-Based Saturable Absorbers for Near Infrared Solid State Lasers,” Opt. Rev.17, 290–293 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Amini-Nik, D. Kraemer, M. L. Cowan, K. Gunaratne, P. Nadesan, B. A. Alman, and R. J. D. Miller, “Ultrafast Mid-IR Laser Scalpel: Protein Signals of the Fundamental Limits to Minimally Invasive Surgery,” PLoS ONE, 5, e13053 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, and J. Koeth, “DFB Lasers Between 760 nm and 16 μm for Sensing Applications,” Sensors10, 2492–2510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B81, 155413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30 inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol.5, 574–578 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd:YAG with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 031106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive modelocked lasing”, Opt. Express18, 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

C. Mattevi, G. Eda, S. Agnoli, S. Miller, K. A. Mkhoyan, O. Celik, D. Mostrogiovanni, G. Granozzi, E. Garfunkel, and M. Chhowalla, “Evolution of Electrical, Chemical, and Structural Properties of Transparent and Conducting Chemically Derived Graphene Thin Films,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19, 2577–2583 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-Area Synthesis of High-Quality and Uniform Graphene Films on Copper Foils,” Science324,1312–1314(2009).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature457, 706–710 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, H. Qian, S. Piscanec, C. Georgi, A. Fasoli, K. S. Novoselov, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Raman Spectroscopy of Graphene Edges,” Nano Lett.9, 1433–1441 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho materials; spectroscopy and lasers,” Laser Phys.19, 855–866 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast Fiber Laser Technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15,191–206(2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, J. Geng, T. Luo, and S. Jiang, “Mode-locked 2 μm laser with highly thulium-doped silicate fiber,” Opt. Lett.34, 3616–3618 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Breusing, C. Ropers, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 086809 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, T. Hasan, D. Popa, W. O’Neill, and A. C. Ferrari, “A compact, high power, ultrafast laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 253102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, E. P. Ippen, Z. Sun, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Generation and direct measurement of giant chirp in a passively mode-locked laser,” Opt. Lett.34, 3526–3528 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater.21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 061114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Carbon Nanotube Polycarbonate Composites for Ultrafast Lasers,” Adv. Mater.20, 4040–4043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Schmidt, S. Rivier, G. Steinmeyer, J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Passive mode locking of Yb:KLuW using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett.33, 729–731 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97, 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast Stretched-Pulse Fiber Laser Mode-Locked by Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Res.3, 404–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater.21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 061114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Carbon Nanotube Polycarbonate Composites for Ultrafast Lasers,” Adv. Mater.20, 4040–4043 (2008).
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F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3, 738–742 (2008).
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Wang, G.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55um,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 975– 977 (2002).
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Wang, Q.

Wang, Y. G.

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[CrossRef]

White, I. H.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast Stretched-Pulse Fiber Laser Mode-Locked by Carbon Nanotubes,” Nano Res.3, 404–411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol.3, 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Carbon Nanotube Polycarbonate Composites for Ultrafast Lasers,” Adv. Mater.20, 4040–4043 (2008).
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Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 061114 (2008).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Raman spectra of flake on Si/SiO2, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), graphene-PVA composite.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmittance of PVA and graphene-composite.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TDFA-Tm-doped fiber amplifier; ISO-isolator; BPF-bandpass filter; OC-output coupler; GSA-graphene-SA; PC-polarization controller

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Autocorrelation, (b) optical spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

RF spectra. (a) Fundamental, (c) 60th harmonic on a long range span (1MHz), with 300Hz resolution; (b) Fundamental, and (d) 60th harmonic on a short range span (8kHz), with 30Hz resolution.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Blue) RF spectrum over 100 MHz, with 3 kHz resolution. (Red) analyzer background.

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