Abstract

Load balancing is an attractive technique to achieve maximum throughput and optimal resource utilization in large-scale switching systems. However current electronic load-balanced switches suffer from severe problems in implementation cost, power consumption and scaling. To overcome these problems, in this paper we propose a single-stage optical load-balanced switch architecture based on an arrayed waveguide grating router (AWGR) in conjunction with fast tunable lasers. By reuse of the fast tunable lasers, the switch achieves both functions of load balancing and switching through the AWGR. With this architecture, proof-of-concept experiments have been conducted to investigate the feasibility of the optical load-balanced switch and to examine its physical performance. Compared to three-stage load-balanced switches, the reported switch needs only half of optical devices such as tunable lasers and AWGRs, which can provide a cost-effective solution for future data centers.

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  1. C. F. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optical communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(7), 32–39 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. J. Chao and J. S. Park, “Centralized contention resolution schemes for a large-capacity optical ATM switch,” in Proceedings of IEEE ATM Workshop, Fairfax, Virginia (1998), pp. 11–16.
  3. A. Greenbery, P. Lahiri, D. A. Maltz, P. Patel, and S. Sengupta, “Towards a next generation data center architecture: scalability and commoditization,” in Proceedings of ACM workshop on Programmable Routers for Extensible Services of Tomorrow (PRESTO’08) (2008), pp. 57–62.
  4. C. S. Chang, D. S. Lee, and Y. S. Jou, “Load balanced Birkoff-von Neuman switches, part I: one-stage buffering,” Comput. Commun.25(6), 611–622 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Gripp, D. Stiliadis, J. E. Simsarian, P. Bernasconi, J. D. Le Grange, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, and D. T. Neilson, “IRIS optical packet router [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw.5(8), 589–597 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit router: the IRIS project,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) 2010 (2010), OThP3.
  7. J. E. Simsarian, J. Gripp, J. D. LeGrange, A. L. Adamiecki, P. Bernasconi, L. L. Buhl, E. C. Burrows, J.-Y. Dupuy, C. D. Howland, F. Jorge, A. Konczykowska, and D. T. Neilson, “A load-balanced optical packet router interconnected with a 10-GbEthernet electronic router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(16), 1124–1126 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Cassinelli, A. Goulet, M. Naruse, F. Kubota, and M. Ishikawa, “Load-balanced optical packet switching using two-stage time-slot interchangers,” in Proceedings of IEICE Conference, 2004, 49–50 (2004).
  9. I. Keslassy, S. Chuang, K. Yu, D. Miller, M. Horowitz, O. Solgaard, and N. Mckeown, “Scaling Internet routers using optics,” in Proceedings of SIGCOMM’03 (2003), pp. 189–200.
  10. N. McKeown, V. Anatharam, and J. Walrand, “Achieving 100% throughput in an input-queued switch,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM96, 296–302 (1996).
  11. Y. K. Yeo, Z. Xu, D. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Wang, and T. H. Cheng, “High-speed optical switch fabrics with large port count,” Opt. Express17(13), 10990–10997 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Qiu, S. Cao, L. Wei, H. Zhao, C. Ding, J. Xiang, Q. Zhong, M. Ye, H. Zhou, N. Deng, K. Jordan, W. Saulsberry, Z. Feng, and Q. Xiong, “A cost-effective scheme of high-radix optical burst switch based on fast tunable lasers and cyclic AWG,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2012), OTh1G4.
  13. Y. K. Yeo, Z. Xu, C. Y. Liaw, D. Wang, Y. Wang, and T. H. Cheng, “A 448×448 optical cross-connect for high performance computers and multi-terabit/s routers,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) 2010 (2010), OMP6.

2011 (1)

J. E. Simsarian, J. Gripp, J. D. LeGrange, A. L. Adamiecki, P. Bernasconi, L. L. Buhl, E. C. Burrows, J.-Y. Dupuy, C. D. Howland, F. Jorge, A. Konczykowska, and D. T. Neilson, “A load-balanced optical packet router interconnected with a 10-GbEthernet electronic router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(16), 1124–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

C. F. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optical communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

2002 (1)

C. S. Chang, D. S. Lee, and Y. S. Jou, “Load balanced Birkoff-von Neuman switches, part I: one-stage buffering,” Comput. Commun.25(6), 611–622 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

N. McKeown, V. Anatharam, and J. Walrand, “Achieving 100% throughput in an input-queued switch,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM96, 296–302 (1996).

Adamiecki, A. L.

J. E. Simsarian, J. Gripp, J. D. LeGrange, A. L. Adamiecki, P. Bernasconi, L. L. Buhl, E. C. Burrows, J.-Y. Dupuy, C. D. Howland, F. Jorge, A. Konczykowska, and D. T. Neilson, “A load-balanced optical packet router interconnected with a 10-GbEthernet electronic router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(16), 1124–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anatharam, V.

N. McKeown, V. Anatharam, and J. Walrand, “Achieving 100% throughput in an input-queued switch,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM96, 296–302 (1996).

Bernasconi, P.

J. E. Simsarian, J. Gripp, J. D. LeGrange, A. L. Adamiecki, P. Bernasconi, L. L. Buhl, E. C. Burrows, J.-Y. Dupuy, C. D. Howland, F. Jorge, A. Konczykowska, and D. T. Neilson, “A load-balanced optical packet router interconnected with a 10-GbEthernet electronic router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(16), 1124–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gripp, D. Stiliadis, J. E. Simsarian, P. Bernasconi, J. D. Le Grange, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, and D. T. Neilson, “IRIS optical packet router [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw.5(8), 589–597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L.

Buhl, L. L.

J. E. Simsarian, J. Gripp, J. D. LeGrange, A. L. Adamiecki, P. Bernasconi, L. L. Buhl, E. C. Burrows, J.-Y. Dupuy, C. D. Howland, F. Jorge, A. Konczykowska, and D. T. Neilson, “A load-balanced optical packet router interconnected with a 10-GbEthernet electronic router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(16), 1124–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, E. C.

J. E. Simsarian, J. Gripp, J. D. LeGrange, A. L. Adamiecki, P. Bernasconi, L. L. Buhl, E. C. Burrows, J.-Y. Dupuy, C. D. Howland, F. Jorge, A. Konczykowska, and D. T. Neilson, “A load-balanced optical packet router interconnected with a 10-GbEthernet electronic router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(16), 1124–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. S.

C. S. Chang, D. S. Lee, and Y. S. Jou, “Load balanced Birkoff-von Neuman switches, part I: one-stage buffering,” Comput. Commun.25(6), 611–622 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T. H.

Dupuy, J.-Y.

J. E. Simsarian, J. Gripp, J. D. LeGrange, A. L. Adamiecki, P. Bernasconi, L. L. Buhl, E. C. Burrows, J.-Y. Dupuy, C. D. Howland, F. Jorge, A. Konczykowska, and D. T. Neilson, “A load-balanced optical packet router interconnected with a 10-GbEthernet electronic router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(16), 1124–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gill, V.

C. F. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optical communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gripp, J.

J. E. Simsarian, J. Gripp, J. D. LeGrange, A. L. Adamiecki, P. Bernasconi, L. L. Buhl, E. C. Burrows, J.-Y. Dupuy, C. D. Howland, F. Jorge, A. Konczykowska, and D. T. Neilson, “A load-balanced optical packet router interconnected with a 10-GbEthernet electronic router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(16), 1124–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gripp, D. Stiliadis, J. E. Simsarian, P. Bernasconi, J. D. Le Grange, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, and D. T. Neilson, “IRIS optical packet router [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw.5(8), 589–597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Howland, C. D.

J. E. Simsarian, J. Gripp, J. D. LeGrange, A. L. Adamiecki, P. Bernasconi, L. L. Buhl, E. C. Burrows, J.-Y. Dupuy, C. D. Howland, F. Jorge, A. Konczykowska, and D. T. Neilson, “A load-balanced optical packet router interconnected with a 10-GbEthernet electronic router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(16), 1124–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jorge, F.

J. E. Simsarian, J. Gripp, J. D. LeGrange, A. L. Adamiecki, P. Bernasconi, L. L. Buhl, E. C. Burrows, J.-Y. Dupuy, C. D. Howland, F. Jorge, A. Konczykowska, and D. T. Neilson, “A load-balanced optical packet router interconnected with a 10-GbEthernet electronic router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(16), 1124–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jou, Y. S.

C. S. Chang, D. S. Lee, and Y. S. Jou, “Load balanced Birkoff-von Neuman switches, part I: one-stage buffering,” Comput. Commun.25(6), 611–622 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kamalov, V.

C. F. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optical communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koley, B.

C. F. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optical communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Konczykowska, A.

J. E. Simsarian, J. Gripp, J. D. LeGrange, A. L. Adamiecki, P. Bernasconi, L. L. Buhl, E. C. Burrows, J.-Y. Dupuy, C. D. Howland, F. Jorge, A. Konczykowska, and D. T. Neilson, “A load-balanced optical packet router interconnected with a 10-GbEthernet electronic router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(16), 1124–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lam, C. F.

C. F. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optical communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Le Grange, J. D.

Lee, D. S.

C. S. Chang, D. S. Lee, and Y. S. Jou, “Load balanced Birkoff-von Neuman switches, part I: one-stage buffering,” Comput. Commun.25(6), 611–622 (2002).
[CrossRef]

LeGrange, J. D.

J. E. Simsarian, J. Gripp, J. D. LeGrange, A. L. Adamiecki, P. Bernasconi, L. L. Buhl, E. C. Burrows, J.-Y. Dupuy, C. D. Howland, F. Jorge, A. Konczykowska, and D. T. Neilson, “A load-balanced optical packet router interconnected with a 10-GbEthernet electronic router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(16), 1124–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

C. F. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optical communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

McKeown, N.

N. McKeown, V. Anatharam, and J. Walrand, “Achieving 100% throughput in an input-queued switch,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM96, 296–302 (1996).

Neilson, D. T.

J. E. Simsarian, J. Gripp, J. D. LeGrange, A. L. Adamiecki, P. Bernasconi, L. L. Buhl, E. C. Burrows, J.-Y. Dupuy, C. D. Howland, F. Jorge, A. Konczykowska, and D. T. Neilson, “A load-balanced optical packet router interconnected with a 10-GbEthernet electronic router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(16), 1124–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gripp, D. Stiliadis, J. E. Simsarian, P. Bernasconi, J. D. Le Grange, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, and D. T. Neilson, “IRIS optical packet router [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw.5(8), 589–597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Simsarian, J. E.

J. E. Simsarian, J. Gripp, J. D. LeGrange, A. L. Adamiecki, P. Bernasconi, L. L. Buhl, E. C. Burrows, J.-Y. Dupuy, C. D. Howland, F. Jorge, A. Konczykowska, and D. T. Neilson, “A load-balanced optical packet router interconnected with a 10-GbEthernet electronic router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(16), 1124–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Gripp, D. Stiliadis, J. E. Simsarian, P. Bernasconi, J. D. Le Grange, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, and D. T. Neilson, “IRIS optical packet router [Invited],” J. Opt. Netw.5(8), 589–597 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stiliadis, D.

Walrand, J.

N. McKeown, V. Anatharam, and J. Walrand, “Achieving 100% throughput in an input-queued switch,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM96, 296–302 (1996).

Wang, D.

Wang, Y.

Xu, Z.

Yeo, Y. K.

Zhang, L.

Zhao, X.

C. F. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optical communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Commun. (1)

C. S. Chang, D. S. Lee, and Y. S. Jou, “Load balanced Birkoff-von Neuman switches, part I: one-stage buffering,” Comput. Commun.25(6), 611–622 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

C. F. Lam, H. Liu, B. Koley, X. Zhao, V. Kamalov, and V. Gill, “Fiber optical communication technologies: what’s needed for datacenter network operations,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(7), 32–39 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. E. Simsarian, J. Gripp, J. D. LeGrange, A. L. Adamiecki, P. Bernasconi, L. L. Buhl, E. C. Burrows, J.-Y. Dupuy, C. D. Howland, F. Jorge, A. Konczykowska, and D. T. Neilson, “A load-balanced optical packet router interconnected with a 10-GbEthernet electronic router,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(16), 1124–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. IEEE INFOCOM (1)

N. McKeown, V. Anatharam, and J. Walrand, “Achieving 100% throughput in an input-queued switch,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM96, 296–302 (1996).

Other (7)

S. Qiu, S. Cao, L. Wei, H. Zhao, C. Ding, J. Xiang, Q. Zhong, M. Ye, H. Zhou, N. Deng, K. Jordan, W. Saulsberry, Z. Feng, and Q. Xiong, “A cost-effective scheme of high-radix optical burst switch based on fast tunable lasers and cyclic AWG,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2012), OTh1G4.

Y. K. Yeo, Z. Xu, C. Y. Liaw, D. Wang, Y. Wang, and T. H. Cheng, “A 448×448 optical cross-connect for high performance computers and multi-terabit/s routers,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) 2010 (2010), OMP6.

A. Cassinelli, A. Goulet, M. Naruse, F. Kubota, and M. Ishikawa, “Load-balanced optical packet switching using two-stage time-slot interchangers,” in Proceedings of IEICE Conference, 2004, 49–50 (2004).

I. Keslassy, S. Chuang, K. Yu, D. Miller, M. Horowitz, O. Solgaard, and N. Mckeown, “Scaling Internet routers using optics,” in Proceedings of SIGCOMM’03 (2003), pp. 189–200.

H. J. Chao and J. S. Park, “Centralized contention resolution schemes for a large-capacity optical ATM switch,” in Proceedings of IEEE ATM Workshop, Fairfax, Virginia (1998), pp. 11–16.

A. Greenbery, P. Lahiri, D. A. Maltz, P. Patel, and S. Sengupta, “Towards a next generation data center architecture: scalability and commoditization,” in Proceedings of ACM workshop on Programmable Routers for Extensible Services of Tomorrow (PRESTO’08) (2008), pp. 57–62.

J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit router: the IRIS project,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) 2010 (2010), OThP3.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical architecture of load-balanced switch [4].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Architecture of the proposed optical load-balanced switch. (b) The fast-reconfigurable linecard.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Load balancing mode of the fast-reconfigurable linecard. (b) Wavelength tuning scheme for a 4 × 4 switch in load balancing mode. t is operation period (linecard timeslot).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Switching mode of the fast-reconfigurable linecard. (b) Round-robin scheduling scheme for wavelength allocation in switching mode. t is operation period (linecard timeslot).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Operation period of the linecard for the scenario whereby wavelength tuning is required between load balancing and switching modes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Operation period of the linecard for the scenario whereby no wavelength tuning is required between load balancing and switching modes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Experimental setup of the proposed optical load-balanced switch. (b) Photo of the linecard (the optical receiver is not shown here).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Packet traces in load balancing mode. (b) Packet traces in switching mode.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Optical spectra of the input and output signals in load balancing mode. (b) BER performance of the switch in load balancing mode.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Optical spectra of the input and output signals in switching mode. (b) BER performance of the switch in switching mode.

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