Abstract

A highly-sensitive optical fiber surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor has been developed by interference lithography. While one facet of the optical fiber is patterned with silver-coated nanopillar array as a SERS platform, the other end of the probe is used, in a remote end detection, to couple the excitation laser into the fiber and send the SERS signal to the spectrometer. SERS performance of the probe is characterized using trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)-ethylene (BPE) monolayer and an enhancement factor of 1.2 × 107 can be achieved by focusing the laser directly onto the nanopillar array (front end detection). We also demonstrate that this probe can be used for in situ remote sensing of toluene vapor by the remote end detection. Such a fiber SERS probe shows great potential for molecular detection in various sensing applications.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett.26(2), 163–166 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. T. Carron and B. J. Kennedy, “Molecular-specific chromatographic detector using modified SERS substrates,” Anal. Chem.67(18), 3353–3356 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Tao, F. Kim, C. Hess, J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Sun, Y. Xia, and P. Yang, “Langmuir-Blodgett silver nanowire monolayers for molecular sensing using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.3(9), 1229–1233 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Shanmukh, L. Jones, J. Driskell, Y. Zhao, R. Dluhy, and R. A. Tripp, “Rapid and sensitive detection of respiratory virus molecular signatures using a silver nanorod array SERS substrate,” Nano Lett.6(11), 2630–2636 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. S. Schmidt, J. Hübner, and A. Boisen, “Large area fabrication of leaning silicon nanopillars for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)24(10), OP11–OP18 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. I. Mullen and K. T. Carron, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with abrasively modified fiber optic probes,” Anal. Chem.63(19), 2196–2199 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  21. E. J. Smythe, M. D. Dickey, J. Bao, G. M. Whitesides, and F. Capasso, “Optical antenna arrays on a fiber facet for in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection,” Nano Lett.9(3), 1132–1138 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. G. Kostovski, D. J. White, A. Mitchell, M. W. Austin, and P. R. Stoddart, “Nanoimprinted optical fibres: biotemplated nanostructures for SERS sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(5), 1531–1535 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Bora, B. J. Fasenfest, E. M. Behymer, A. S. P. Chang, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. C. Larson, J. W. Chan, R. R. Miles, and T. C. Bond, “Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.10(8), 2832–2837 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. S. P. Chang, M. Bora, H. T. Nguyen, E. M. Behymer, C. C. Larson, J. A. Britten, J. C. Carter, and T. C. Bond, “Nanopillars array for surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240I, 80240I-8 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Gutes, I. Laboriante, C. Carraro, and R. Maboudian, “Silver nanostructures on silicon based on galvanic displacement process,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(39), 16939–16944 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Kim, F. S. Ou, D. A. A. Ohlberg, M. Hu, R. S. Williams, and Z. Li, “Study of molecular trapping inside gold nanofinger arrays on surface-enhanced Raman substrates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(21), 8234–8239 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. X. Yang, Z. Tanaka, R. Newhouse, Q. Xu, B. Chen, S. Chen, J. Z. Zhang, and C. Gu, “Portable fiber sensors based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(12), 123103 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

M. S. Schmidt, J. Hübner, and A. Boisen, “Large area fabrication of leaning silicon nanopillars for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)24(10), OP11–OP18 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

A. S. P. Chang, M. Bora, H. T. Nguyen, E. M. Behymer, C. C. Larson, J. A. Britten, J. C. Carter, and T. C. Bond, “Nanopillars array for surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240I, 80240I-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Kim, F. S. Ou, D. A. A. Ohlberg, M. Hu, R. S. Williams, and Z. Li, “Study of molecular trapping inside gold nanofinger arrays on surface-enhanced Raman substrates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(21), 8234–8239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yang, C. Gu, F. Qian, Y. Li, and J. Z. Zhang, “Highly sensitive detection of proteins and bacteria in aqueous solution using surface-enhanced Raman scattering and optical fibers,” Anal. Chem.83(15), 5888–5894 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, R. A. Dluhy, and Y. Zhao, “Development of silver nanorod array based fiber optic probes for SERS detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.157(1), 42–50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (7)

G. F. S. Andrade, M. Fan, and A. G. Brolo, “Multilayer silver nanoparticles-modified optical fiber tip for high performance SERS remote sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.25(10), 2270–2275 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yang, C. Shi, D. Wheeler, R. Newhouse, B. Chen, J. Z. Zhang, and C. Gu, “High-sensitivity molecular sensing using hollow-core photonic crystal fiber and surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(5), 977–984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yang, Z. Tanaka, R. Newhouse, Q. Xu, B. Chen, S. Chen, J. Z. Zhang, and C. Gu, “Portable fiber sensors based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(12), 123103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Feng, X. Zhang, H. Wang, M. Xin, and Z. Lu, “Fiber coupled waveguide grating structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 133101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gartia, Z. Xu, E. Behymer, H. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. Larson, R. Miles, M. Bora, A. S. P. Chang, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Rigorous surface enhanced Raman spectral characterization of large-area high-uniformity silver-coated tapered silica nanopillar arrays,” Nanotechnology21(39), 395701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bora, B. J. Fasenfest, E. M. Behymer, A. S. P. Chang, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. C. Larson, J. W. Chan, R. R. Miles, and T. C. Bond, “Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.10(8), 2832–2837 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gu, X. Yang, J. Zhang, R. Newhouse, and L. Cao, “Fiber sensors for molecular detection,” Proc. SPIE7851, 785105, 785105-14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

A. Dhawan, M. Gerhold, A. Madison, J. Fowlkes, P. E. Russell, T. Vo-Dinh, and D. N. Leonard, “Fabrication of nanodot plasmonic waveguide structures using FIB milling and electron beam-induced deposition,” Scanning31(4), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Smythe, M. D. Dickey, J. Bao, G. M. Whitesides, and F. Capasso, “Optical antenna arrays on a fiber facet for in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection,” Nano Lett.9(3), 1132–1138 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kostovski, D. J. White, A. Mitchell, M. W. Austin, and P. R. Stoddart, “Nanoimprinted optical fibres: biotemplated nanostructures for SERS sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(5), 1531–1535 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gutes, I. Laboriante, C. Carraro, and R. Maboudian, “Silver nanostructures on silicon based on galvanic displacement process,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(39), 16939–16944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Guieu, P. Garrigue, F. Lagugné-Labarthet, L. Servant, N. Sojic, and D. Talaga, “Remote surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy imaging via a nanostructured optical fiber bundle,” Opt. Express17(26), 24030–24035 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. Lucotti and G. Zerbi, “Fiber-optic SERS sensor with optimized geometry,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.121(2), 356–364 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Shanmukh, L. Jones, J. Driskell, Y. Zhao, R. Dluhy, and R. A. Tripp, “Rapid and sensitive detection of respiratory virus molecular signatures using a silver nanorod array SERS substrate,” Nano Lett.6(11), 2630–2636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Tao, F. Kim, C. Hess, J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Sun, Y. Xia, and P. Yang, “Langmuir-Blodgett silver nanowire monolayers for molecular sensing using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.3(9), 1229–1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter14(18), R597–R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. Viets and W. Hill, “Single-fiber surface-enhanced Raman sensors with angled tips,” J. Raman Spectrosc.31(7), 625–631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

C. Viets and W. Hill, “Comparison of fiber-optic SERS sensors with differently prepared tips,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.51(1-3), 92–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Campion and P. Kambhampati, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev.27(4), 241–250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fernandez, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, R. D. Boyd, M. D. Perry, D. R. Kania, and A. M. Hawryluk, “Use of interference lithography to pattern arrays of submicron resist structures for field emission flat panel displays,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B15(3), 729–735 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. T. Carron and B. J. Kennedy, “Molecular-specific chromatographic detector using modified SERS substrates,” Anal. Chem.67(18), 3353–3356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. I. Mullen and K. T. Carron, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with abrasively modified fiber optic probes,” Anal. Chem.63(19), 2196–2199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett.26(2), 163–166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Andrade, G. F. S.

G. F. S. Andrade, M. Fan, and A. G. Brolo, “Multilayer silver nanoparticles-modified optical fiber tip for high performance SERS remote sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.25(10), 2270–2275 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Austin, M. W.

G. Kostovski, D. J. White, A. Mitchell, M. W. Austin, and P. R. Stoddart, “Nanoimprinted optical fibres: biotemplated nanostructures for SERS sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(5), 1531–1535 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, J.

E. J. Smythe, M. D. Dickey, J. Bao, G. M. Whitesides, and F. Capasso, “Optical antenna arrays on a fiber facet for in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection,” Nano Lett.9(3), 1132–1138 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behymer, E.

M. R. Gartia, Z. Xu, E. Behymer, H. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. Larson, R. Miles, M. Bora, A. S. P. Chang, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Rigorous surface enhanced Raman spectral characterization of large-area high-uniformity silver-coated tapered silica nanopillar arrays,” Nanotechnology21(39), 395701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behymer, E. M.

A. S. P. Chang, M. Bora, H. T. Nguyen, E. M. Behymer, C. C. Larson, J. A. Britten, J. C. Carter, and T. C. Bond, “Nanopillars array for surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240I, 80240I-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Bora, B. J. Fasenfest, E. M. Behymer, A. S. P. Chang, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. C. Larson, J. W. Chan, R. R. Miles, and T. C. Bond, “Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.10(8), 2832–2837 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boisen, A.

M. S. Schmidt, J. Hübner, and A. Boisen, “Large area fabrication of leaning silicon nanopillars for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)24(10), OP11–OP18 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bond, T. C.

A. S. P. Chang, M. Bora, H. T. Nguyen, E. M. Behymer, C. C. Larson, J. A. Britten, J. C. Carter, and T. C. Bond, “Nanopillars array for surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240I, 80240I-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Bora, B. J. Fasenfest, E. M. Behymer, A. S. P. Chang, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. C. Larson, J. W. Chan, R. R. Miles, and T. C. Bond, “Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.10(8), 2832–2837 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Gartia, Z. Xu, E. Behymer, H. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. Larson, R. Miles, M. Bora, A. S. P. Chang, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Rigorous surface enhanced Raman spectral characterization of large-area high-uniformity silver-coated tapered silica nanopillar arrays,” Nanotechnology21(39), 395701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bora, M.

A. S. P. Chang, M. Bora, H. T. Nguyen, E. M. Behymer, C. C. Larson, J. A. Britten, J. C. Carter, and T. C. Bond, “Nanopillars array for surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240I, 80240I-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Bora, B. J. Fasenfest, E. M. Behymer, A. S. P. Chang, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. C. Larson, J. W. Chan, R. R. Miles, and T. C. Bond, “Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.10(8), 2832–2837 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Gartia, Z. Xu, E. Behymer, H. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. Larson, R. Miles, M. Bora, A. S. P. Chang, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Rigorous surface enhanced Raman spectral characterization of large-area high-uniformity silver-coated tapered silica nanopillar arrays,” Nanotechnology21(39), 395701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. D.

A. Fernandez, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, R. D. Boyd, M. D. Perry, D. R. Kania, and A. M. Hawryluk, “Use of interference lithography to pattern arrays of submicron resist structures for field emission flat panel displays,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B15(3), 729–735 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Britten, J. A.

A. S. P. Chang, M. Bora, H. T. Nguyen, E. M. Behymer, C. C. Larson, J. A. Britten, J. C. Carter, and T. C. Bond, “Nanopillars array for surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240I, 80240I-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Bora, B. J. Fasenfest, E. M. Behymer, A. S. P. Chang, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. C. Larson, J. W. Chan, R. R. Miles, and T. C. Bond, “Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.10(8), 2832–2837 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Gartia, Z. Xu, E. Behymer, H. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. Larson, R. Miles, M. Bora, A. S. P. Chang, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Rigorous surface enhanced Raman spectral characterization of large-area high-uniformity silver-coated tapered silica nanopillar arrays,” Nanotechnology21(39), 395701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fernandez, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, R. D. Boyd, M. D. Perry, D. R. Kania, and A. M. Hawryluk, “Use of interference lithography to pattern arrays of submicron resist structures for field emission flat panel displays,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B15(3), 729–735 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brolo, A. G.

G. F. S. Andrade, M. Fan, and A. G. Brolo, “Multilayer silver nanoparticles-modified optical fiber tip for high performance SERS remote sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.25(10), 2270–2275 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campion, A.

A. Campion and P. Kambhampati, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev.27(4), 241–250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cao, L.

C. Gu, X. Yang, J. Zhang, R. Newhouse, and L. Cao, “Fiber sensors for molecular detection,” Proc. SPIE7851, 785105, 785105-14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

E. J. Smythe, M. D. Dickey, J. Bao, G. M. Whitesides, and F. Capasso, “Optical antenna arrays on a fiber facet for in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection,” Nano Lett.9(3), 1132–1138 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carraro, C.

A. Gutes, I. Laboriante, C. Carraro, and R. Maboudian, “Silver nanostructures on silicon based on galvanic displacement process,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(39), 16939–16944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carron, K. T.

K. T. Carron and B. J. Kennedy, “Molecular-specific chromatographic detector using modified SERS substrates,” Anal. Chem.67(18), 3353–3356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. I. Mullen and K. T. Carron, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with abrasively modified fiber optic probes,” Anal. Chem.63(19), 2196–2199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Carter, J. C.

A. S. P. Chang, M. Bora, H. T. Nguyen, E. M. Behymer, C. C. Larson, J. A. Britten, J. C. Carter, and T. C. Bond, “Nanopillars array for surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240I, 80240I-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J. W.

M. Bora, B. J. Fasenfest, E. M. Behymer, A. S. P. Chang, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. C. Larson, J. W. Chan, R. R. Miles, and T. C. Bond, “Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.10(8), 2832–2837 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, A. S. P.

A. S. P. Chang, M. Bora, H. T. Nguyen, E. M. Behymer, C. C. Larson, J. A. Britten, J. C. Carter, and T. C. Bond, “Nanopillars array for surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240I, 80240I-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Bora, B. J. Fasenfest, E. M. Behymer, A. S. P. Chang, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. C. Larson, J. W. Chan, R. R. Miles, and T. C. Bond, “Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.10(8), 2832–2837 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Gartia, Z. Xu, E. Behymer, H. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. Larson, R. Miles, M. Bora, A. S. P. Chang, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Rigorous surface enhanced Raman spectral characterization of large-area high-uniformity silver-coated tapered silica nanopillar arrays,” Nanotechnology21(39), 395701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, B.

X. Yang, C. Shi, D. Wheeler, R. Newhouse, B. Chen, J. Z. Zhang, and C. Gu, “High-sensitivity molecular sensing using hollow-core photonic crystal fiber and surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(5), 977–984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yang, Z. Tanaka, R. Newhouse, Q. Xu, B. Chen, S. Chen, J. Z. Zhang, and C. Gu, “Portable fiber sensors based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(12), 123103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

X. Yang, Z. Tanaka, R. Newhouse, Q. Xu, B. Chen, S. Chen, J. Z. Zhang, and C. Gu, “Portable fiber sensors based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(12), 123103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter14(18), R597–R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dhawan, A.

A. Dhawan, M. Gerhold, A. Madison, J. Fowlkes, P. E. Russell, T. Vo-Dinh, and D. N. Leonard, “Fabrication of nanodot plasmonic waveguide structures using FIB milling and electron beam-induced deposition,” Scanning31(4), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickey, M. D.

E. J. Smythe, M. D. Dickey, J. Bao, G. M. Whitesides, and F. Capasso, “Optical antenna arrays on a fiber facet for in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection,” Nano Lett.9(3), 1132–1138 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dluhy, R.

S. Shanmukh, L. Jones, J. Driskell, Y. Zhao, R. Dluhy, and R. A. Tripp, “Rapid and sensitive detection of respiratory virus molecular signatures using a silver nanorod array SERS substrate,” Nano Lett.6(11), 2630–2636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dluhy, R. A.

Y. Zhu, R. A. Dluhy, and Y. Zhao, “Development of silver nanorod array based fiber optic probes for SERS detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.157(1), 42–50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Driskell, J.

S. Shanmukh, L. Jones, J. Driskell, Y. Zhao, R. Dluhy, and R. A. Tripp, “Rapid and sensitive detection of respiratory virus molecular signatures using a silver nanorod array SERS substrate,” Nano Lett.6(11), 2630–2636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, M.

G. F. S. Andrade, M. Fan, and A. G. Brolo, “Multilayer silver nanoparticles-modified optical fiber tip for high performance SERS remote sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.25(10), 2270–2275 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fasenfest, B. J.

M. Bora, B. J. Fasenfest, E. M. Behymer, A. S. P. Chang, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. C. Larson, J. W. Chan, R. R. Miles, and T. C. Bond, “Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.10(8), 2832–2837 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter14(18), R597–R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feng, S.

S. Feng, X. Zhang, H. Wang, M. Xin, and Z. Lu, “Fiber coupled waveguide grating structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 133101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, A.

A. Fernandez, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, R. D. Boyd, M. D. Perry, D. R. Kania, and A. M. Hawryluk, “Use of interference lithography to pattern arrays of submicron resist structures for field emission flat panel displays,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B15(3), 729–735 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fleischmann, M.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett.26(2), 163–166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Fowlkes, J.

A. Dhawan, M. Gerhold, A. Madison, J. Fowlkes, P. E. Russell, T. Vo-Dinh, and D. N. Leonard, “Fabrication of nanodot plasmonic waveguide structures using FIB milling and electron beam-induced deposition,” Scanning31(4), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garrigue, P.

Gartia, M. R.

M. R. Gartia, Z. Xu, E. Behymer, H. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. Larson, R. Miles, M. Bora, A. S. P. Chang, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Rigorous surface enhanced Raman spectral characterization of large-area high-uniformity silver-coated tapered silica nanopillar arrays,” Nanotechnology21(39), 395701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerhold, M.

A. Dhawan, M. Gerhold, A. Madison, J. Fowlkes, P. E. Russell, T. Vo-Dinh, and D. N. Leonard, “Fabrication of nanodot plasmonic waveguide structures using FIB milling and electron beam-induced deposition,” Scanning31(4), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberger, J.

A. Tao, F. Kim, C. Hess, J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Sun, Y. Xia, and P. Yang, “Langmuir-Blodgett silver nanowire monolayers for molecular sensing using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.3(9), 1229–1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gu, C.

X. Yang, C. Gu, F. Qian, Y. Li, and J. Z. Zhang, “Highly sensitive detection of proteins and bacteria in aqueous solution using surface-enhanced Raman scattering and optical fibers,” Anal. Chem.83(15), 5888–5894 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yang, Z. Tanaka, R. Newhouse, Q. Xu, B. Chen, S. Chen, J. Z. Zhang, and C. Gu, “Portable fiber sensors based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(12), 123103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gu, X. Yang, J. Zhang, R. Newhouse, and L. Cao, “Fiber sensors for molecular detection,” Proc. SPIE7851, 785105, 785105-14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, C. Shi, D. Wheeler, R. Newhouse, B. Chen, J. Z. Zhang, and C. Gu, “High-sensitivity molecular sensing using hollow-core photonic crystal fiber and surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(5), 977–984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guieu, V.

Gutes, A.

A. Gutes, I. Laboriante, C. Carraro, and R. Maboudian, “Silver nanostructures on silicon based on galvanic displacement process,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(39), 16939–16944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hawryluk, A. M.

A. Fernandez, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, R. D. Boyd, M. D. Perry, D. R. Kania, and A. M. Hawryluk, “Use of interference lithography to pattern arrays of submicron resist structures for field emission flat panel displays,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B15(3), 729–735 (1997).
[CrossRef]

He, R.

A. Tao, F. Kim, C. Hess, J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Sun, Y. Xia, and P. Yang, “Langmuir-Blodgett silver nanowire monolayers for molecular sensing using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.3(9), 1229–1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hendra, P. J.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett.26(2), 163–166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hess, C.

A. Tao, F. Kim, C. Hess, J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Sun, Y. Xia, and P. Yang, “Langmuir-Blodgett silver nanowire monolayers for molecular sensing using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.3(9), 1229–1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hill, W.

C. Viets and W. Hill, “Single-fiber surface-enhanced Raman sensors with angled tips,” J. Raman Spectrosc.31(7), 625–631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Viets and W. Hill, “Comparison of fiber-optic SERS sensors with differently prepared tips,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.51(1-3), 92–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hu, M.

A. Kim, F. S. Ou, D. A. A. Ohlberg, M. Hu, R. S. Williams, and Z. Li, “Study of molecular trapping inside gold nanofinger arrays on surface-enhanced Raman substrates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(21), 8234–8239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hübner, J.

M. S. Schmidt, J. Hübner, and A. Boisen, “Large area fabrication of leaning silicon nanopillars for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)24(10), OP11–OP18 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter14(18), R597–R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jones, L.

S. Shanmukh, L. Jones, J. Driskell, Y. Zhao, R. Dluhy, and R. A. Tripp, “Rapid and sensitive detection of respiratory virus molecular signatures using a silver nanorod array SERS substrate,” Nano Lett.6(11), 2630–2636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kambhampati, P.

A. Campion and P. Kambhampati, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Chem. Soc. Rev.27(4), 241–250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kania, D. R.

A. Fernandez, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, R. D. Boyd, M. D. Perry, D. R. Kania, and A. M. Hawryluk, “Use of interference lithography to pattern arrays of submicron resist structures for field emission flat panel displays,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B15(3), 729–735 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, B. J.

K. T. Carron and B. J. Kennedy, “Molecular-specific chromatographic detector using modified SERS substrates,” Anal. Chem.67(18), 3353–3356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, A.

A. Kim, F. S. Ou, D. A. A. Ohlberg, M. Hu, R. S. Williams, and Z. Li, “Study of molecular trapping inside gold nanofinger arrays on surface-enhanced Raman substrates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(21), 8234–8239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, F.

A. Tao, F. Kim, C. Hess, J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Sun, Y. Xia, and P. Yang, “Langmuir-Blodgett silver nanowire monolayers for molecular sensing using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.3(9), 1229–1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter14(18), R597–R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter14(18), R597–R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kostovski, G.

G. Kostovski, D. J. White, A. Mitchell, M. W. Austin, and P. R. Stoddart, “Nanoimprinted optical fibres: biotemplated nanostructures for SERS sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(5), 1531–1535 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laboriante, I.

A. Gutes, I. Laboriante, C. Carraro, and R. Maboudian, “Silver nanostructures on silicon based on galvanic displacement process,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(39), 16939–16944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lagugné-Labarthet, F.

Larson, C.

M. R. Gartia, Z. Xu, E. Behymer, H. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. Larson, R. Miles, M. Bora, A. S. P. Chang, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Rigorous surface enhanced Raman spectral characterization of large-area high-uniformity silver-coated tapered silica nanopillar arrays,” Nanotechnology21(39), 395701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larson, C. C.

A. S. P. Chang, M. Bora, H. T. Nguyen, E. M. Behymer, C. C. Larson, J. A. Britten, J. C. Carter, and T. C. Bond, “Nanopillars array for surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240I, 80240I-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Bora, B. J. Fasenfest, E. M. Behymer, A. S. P. Chang, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. C. Larson, J. W. Chan, R. R. Miles, and T. C. Bond, “Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.10(8), 2832–2837 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leonard, D. N.

A. Dhawan, M. Gerhold, A. Madison, J. Fowlkes, P. E. Russell, T. Vo-Dinh, and D. N. Leonard, “Fabrication of nanodot plasmonic waveguide structures using FIB milling and electron beam-induced deposition,” Scanning31(4), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

X. Yang, C. Gu, F. Qian, Y. Li, and J. Z. Zhang, “Highly sensitive detection of proteins and bacteria in aqueous solution using surface-enhanced Raman scattering and optical fibers,” Anal. Chem.83(15), 5888–5894 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

A. Kim, F. S. Ou, D. A. A. Ohlberg, M. Hu, R. S. Williams, and Z. Li, “Study of molecular trapping inside gold nanofinger arrays on surface-enhanced Raman substrates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(21), 8234–8239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G. L.

M. R. Gartia, Z. Xu, E. Behymer, H. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. Larson, R. Miles, M. Bora, A. S. P. Chang, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Rigorous surface enhanced Raman spectral characterization of large-area high-uniformity silver-coated tapered silica nanopillar arrays,” Nanotechnology21(39), 395701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Z.

S. Feng, X. Zhang, H. Wang, M. Xin, and Z. Lu, “Fiber coupled waveguide grating structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 133101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lucotti, A.

A. Lucotti and G. Zerbi, “Fiber-optic SERS sensor with optimized geometry,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.121(2), 356–364 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maboudian, R.

A. Gutes, I. Laboriante, C. Carraro, and R. Maboudian, “Silver nanostructures on silicon based on galvanic displacement process,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(39), 16939–16944 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Madison, A.

A. Dhawan, M. Gerhold, A. Madison, J. Fowlkes, P. E. Russell, T. Vo-Dinh, and D. N. Leonard, “Fabrication of nanodot plasmonic waveguide structures using FIB milling and electron beam-induced deposition,” Scanning31(4), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McQuillan, A. J.

M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem. Phys. Lett.26(2), 163–166 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Miles, R.

M. R. Gartia, Z. Xu, E. Behymer, H. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. Larson, R. Miles, M. Bora, A. S. P. Chang, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Rigorous surface enhanced Raman spectral characterization of large-area high-uniformity silver-coated tapered silica nanopillar arrays,” Nanotechnology21(39), 395701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miles, R. R.

M. Bora, B. J. Fasenfest, E. M. Behymer, A. S. P. Chang, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. C. Larson, J. W. Chan, R. R. Miles, and T. C. Bond, “Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.10(8), 2832–2837 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, A.

G. Kostovski, D. J. White, A. Mitchell, M. W. Austin, and P. R. Stoddart, “Nanoimprinted optical fibres: biotemplated nanostructures for SERS sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(5), 1531–1535 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullen, K. I.

K. I. Mullen and K. T. Carron, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with abrasively modified fiber optic probes,” Anal. Chem.63(19), 2196–2199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Newhouse, R.

X. Yang, C. Shi, D. Wheeler, R. Newhouse, B. Chen, J. Z. Zhang, and C. Gu, “High-sensitivity molecular sensing using hollow-core photonic crystal fiber and surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(5), 977–984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gu, X. Yang, J. Zhang, R. Newhouse, and L. Cao, “Fiber sensors for molecular detection,” Proc. SPIE7851, 785105, 785105-14 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, Z. Tanaka, R. Newhouse, Q. Xu, B. Chen, S. Chen, J. Z. Zhang, and C. Gu, “Portable fiber sensors based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(12), 123103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, H.

M. R. Gartia, Z. Xu, E. Behymer, H. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. Larson, R. Miles, M. Bora, A. S. P. Chang, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Rigorous surface enhanced Raman spectral characterization of large-area high-uniformity silver-coated tapered silica nanopillar arrays,” Nanotechnology21(39), 395701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, H. T.

A. S. P. Chang, M. Bora, H. T. Nguyen, E. M. Behymer, C. C. Larson, J. A. Britten, J. C. Carter, and T. C. Bond, “Nanopillars array for surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Proc. SPIE8024, 80240I, 80240I-8 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Bora, B. J. Fasenfest, E. M. Behymer, A. S. P. Chang, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. C. Larson, J. W. Chan, R. R. Miles, and T. C. Bond, “Plasmon resonant cavities in vertical nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett.10(8), 2832–2837 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fernandez, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, R. D. Boyd, M. D. Perry, D. R. Kania, and A. M. Hawryluk, “Use of interference lithography to pattern arrays of submicron resist structures for field emission flat panel displays,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B15(3), 729–735 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nie, S.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohlberg, D. A. A.

A. Kim, F. S. Ou, D. A. A. Ohlberg, M. Hu, R. S. Williams, and Z. Li, “Study of molecular trapping inside gold nanofinger arrays on surface-enhanced Raman substrates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(21), 8234–8239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ou, F. S.

A. Kim, F. S. Ou, D. A. A. Ohlberg, M. Hu, R. S. Williams, and Z. Li, “Study of molecular trapping inside gold nanofinger arrays on surface-enhanced Raman substrates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(21), 8234–8239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

A. Fernandez, H. T. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, R. D. Boyd, M. D. Perry, D. R. Kania, and A. M. Hawryluk, “Use of interference lithography to pattern arrays of submicron resist structures for field emission flat panel displays,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B15(3), 729–735 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Qian, F.

X. Yang, C. Gu, F. Qian, Y. Li, and J. Z. Zhang, “Highly sensitive detection of proteins and bacteria in aqueous solution using surface-enhanced Raman scattering and optical fibers,” Anal. Chem.83(15), 5888–5894 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. E.

A. Dhawan, M. Gerhold, A. Madison, J. Fowlkes, P. E. Russell, T. Vo-Dinh, and D. N. Leonard, “Fabrication of nanodot plasmonic waveguide structures using FIB milling and electron beam-induced deposition,” Scanning31(4), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, M. S.

M. S. Schmidt, J. Hübner, and A. Boisen, “Large area fabrication of leaning silicon nanopillars for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)24(10), OP11–OP18 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Servant, L.

Shanmukh, S.

S. Shanmukh, L. Jones, J. Driskell, Y. Zhao, R. Dluhy, and R. A. Tripp, “Rapid and sensitive detection of respiratory virus molecular signatures using a silver nanorod array SERS substrate,” Nano Lett.6(11), 2630–2636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, C.

Smythe, E. J.

E. J. Smythe, M. D. Dickey, J. Bao, G. M. Whitesides, and F. Capasso, “Optical antenna arrays on a fiber facet for in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection,” Nano Lett.9(3), 1132–1138 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sojic, N.

Stoddart, P. R.

G. Kostovski, D. J. White, A. Mitchell, M. W. Austin, and P. R. Stoddart, “Nanoimprinted optical fibres: biotemplated nanostructures for SERS sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(5), 1531–1535 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

A. Tao, F. Kim, C. Hess, J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Sun, Y. Xia, and P. Yang, “Langmuir-Blodgett silver nanowire monolayers for molecular sensing using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.3(9), 1229–1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Talaga, D.

Tanaka, Z.

X. Yang, Z. Tanaka, R. Newhouse, Q. Xu, B. Chen, S. Chen, J. Z. Zhang, and C. Gu, “Portable fiber sensors based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(12), 123103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, A.

A. Tao, F. Kim, C. Hess, J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Sun, Y. Xia, and P. Yang, “Langmuir-Blodgett silver nanowire monolayers for molecular sensing using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.3(9), 1229–1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tripp, R. A.

S. Shanmukh, L. Jones, J. Driskell, Y. Zhao, R. Dluhy, and R. A. Tripp, “Rapid and sensitive detection of respiratory virus molecular signatures using a silver nanorod array SERS substrate,” Nano Lett.6(11), 2630–2636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viets, C.

C. Viets and W. Hill, “Single-fiber surface-enhanced Raman sensors with angled tips,” J. Raman Spectrosc.31(7), 625–631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Viets and W. Hill, “Comparison of fiber-optic SERS sensors with differently prepared tips,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.51(1-3), 92–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vo-Dinh, T.

A. Dhawan, M. Gerhold, A. Madison, J. Fowlkes, P. E. Russell, T. Vo-Dinh, and D. N. Leonard, “Fabrication of nanodot plasmonic waveguide structures using FIB milling and electron beam-induced deposition,” Scanning31(4), 139–146 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

S. Feng, X. Zhang, H. Wang, M. Xin, and Z. Lu, “Fiber coupled waveguide grating structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 133101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wheeler, D.

White, D. J.

G. Kostovski, D. J. White, A. Mitchell, M. W. Austin, and P. R. Stoddart, “Nanoimprinted optical fibres: biotemplated nanostructures for SERS sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(5), 1531–1535 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

E. J. Smythe, M. D. Dickey, J. Bao, G. M. Whitesides, and F. Capasso, “Optical antenna arrays on a fiber facet for in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection,” Nano Lett.9(3), 1132–1138 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. S.

A. Kim, F. S. Ou, D. A. A. Ohlberg, M. Hu, R. S. Williams, and Z. Li, “Study of molecular trapping inside gold nanofinger arrays on surface-enhanced Raman substrates,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(21), 8234–8239 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, Y.

A. Tao, F. Kim, C. Hess, J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Sun, Y. Xia, and P. Yang, “Langmuir-Blodgett silver nanowire monolayers for molecular sensing using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.3(9), 1229–1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xin, M.

S. Feng, X. Zhang, H. Wang, M. Xin, and Z. Lu, “Fiber coupled waveguide grating structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(13), 133101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

X. Yang, Z. Tanaka, R. Newhouse, Q. Xu, B. Chen, S. Chen, J. Z. Zhang, and C. Gu, “Portable fiber sensors based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.81(12), 123103 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

M. R. Gartia, Z. Xu, E. Behymer, H. Nguyen, J. A. Britten, C. Larson, R. Miles, M. Bora, A. S. P. Chang, T. C. Bond, and G. L. Liu, “Rigorous surface enhanced Raman spectral characterization of large-area high-uniformity silver-coated tapered silica nanopillar arrays,” Nanotechnology21(39), 395701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

A. Tao, F. Kim, C. Hess, J. Goldberger, R. He, Y. Sun, Y. Xia, and P. Yang, “Langmuir-Blodgett silver nanowire monolayers for molecular sensing using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.3(9), 1229–1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, C. Gu, F. Qian, Y. Li, and J. Z. Zhang, “Highly sensitive detection of proteins and bacteria in aqueous solution using surface-enhanced Raman scattering and optical fibers,” Anal. Chem.83(15), 5888–5894 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the spin coating process for the optical fiber sample; (b) photograph of the fiber ferrule; (c) SEM images of the fiber ferrule facet.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of the silver-coated nanopillar array patterned on the fiber core (tilted view: 45°).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance spectra of the fiber SERS probe in both the front end configuration (A) and remote end configuration (B).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) SERS spectra of BPE monolayer using the fiber SERS probe in both the front end configuration and remote end configuration (laser power: 0.2 mW, integration time: 10 s); (b) Raman spectrum of 0.1 M BPE obtained with the same spectroscopy system (laser power: 2 mW, integration time: 10 s).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Curve A: the SERS spectrum of the fiber probe for the remote detection of toluene vapor (laser power: 2 mW, integration time: 10 s); Curve B: the spectrum obtained by the unpatterned optical fiber in the toluene vapor with the same system configuration.

Equations (1)

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EF= I SERS I Raman · P Raman · T Raman P SERS · T SERS · N Raman N SERS

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