Abstract

Sub-single-cycle pulses in the mid-infrared (MIR) region were generated through a conical emission from a laser-induced filament. Fundamental and second-harmonic pulses of 25-fs Ti:sapphire amplifier output were focused into argon to produce phase-stable broadband MIR pulses in a well-focusable ring-shaped beam. The beam profile and spectrum of the MIR field are accurately reproduced with a simple calculation based on a four-wave mixing process. The ring-shaped pattern of the MIR beam originates from a dramatic confocal-parameter mismatch between the MIR field and the laser beams.

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  1. A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett.20, 73–75 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70, 1633–1713 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep.441, 47–189 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air,” Opt. Lett.25, 1210–1212 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. D. Thomson, M. Kress, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.1, 349–368 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 235002 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Fuji and T. Suzuki, “Generation of sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett.32, 3330–3332 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, and J. Dubois, “Generation of tunable and broadband far-infrared laser pulses during two-color filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A81, 033821 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. B. Petersen and A. Tokmakoff, “Source for ultrafast continuum infrared and terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett.35, 1962–1964 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. D. Thomson, V. Blank, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz white-light pulses from an air plasma photo-induced by incommensurate two-color optical fields,” Opt. Express18, 23173–23182 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Lassonde, F. Théberge, S. Payeur, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and J. C. Kieffer, “Infrared generation by filamentation in air of a spectrally shaped laser beam,” Opt. Express19, 14093–14098 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Bergé and S. Skupin, “Few-cycle light bullets created by femtosecond filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 113902 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. C. Bjorklund, “Effects of focusing on 3rd-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.11, 287–296 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG - a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi B206, 119–124 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 133901 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Fuji, N. Ishii, C. Y. Teisset, X. Gu, T. Metzger, A. Baltuška, N. Forget, D. Kaplan, A. Galvanauskas, and F. Krausz, “Parametric amplification of few-cycle carrier-envelope phase-stable pulses at 2.1 μm,” Opt. Lett.31, 1103–1105 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. X. Xie, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 075005 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. Bergé, C. L. Soulez, C. Koehler, and S. Skupin, “Role of the carrier-envelope phase in laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B103, 563–570 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Manzoni, M. Först, H. Ehrke, and A. Cavalleri, “Single-shot detection and direct control of carrier phase drift of midinfrared pulses,” Opt. Lett.35, 757–759 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Thai, M. Hemmer, P. K. Bates, O. Chalus, and J. Biegert, “Sub-250-mrad, passively carrier–envelope-phase-stable mid-infrared OPCPA source at high repetition rate,” Opt. Lett.36, 3918–3920 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. R. Baiz and K. J. Kubarych, “Ultrabroadband detection of a mid-ir continuum by chirped-pulse upconversion,” Opt. Lett.36, 187–189 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Zhu, T. Mathes, A. D. Stahl, J. T. M. Kennis, and M. L. Groot, “Ultrafast mid-infrared spectroscopy by chirped pulse upconversion in 1800–1000cm−1 region,” Opt. Express20, 10562–10571 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (4)

2010 (4)

2008 (1)

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, “Few-cycle light bullets created by femtosecond filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 113902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep.441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Thomson, M. Kress, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.1, 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji and T. Suzuki, “Generation of sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett.32, 3330–3332 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2002 (1)

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG - a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi B206, 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1975 (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, “Effects of focusing on 3rd-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.11, 287–296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Baiz, C. R.

Baltuška, A.

T. Fuji, N. Ishii, C. Y. Teisset, X. Gu, T. Metzger, A. Baltuška, N. Forget, D. Kaplan, A. Galvanauskas, and F. Krausz, “Parametric amplification of few-cycle carrier-envelope phase-stable pulses at 2.1 μm,” Opt. Lett.31, 1103–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bates, P. K.

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, C. L. Soulez, C. Koehler, and S. Skupin, “Role of the carrier-envelope phase in laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B103, 563–570 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, “Few-cycle light bullets created by femtosecond filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 113902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, “Effects of focusing on 3rd-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.11, 287–296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Blank, V.

Braun, A.

Cavalleri, A.

Chalus, O.

Châteauneuf, M.

P. Lassonde, F. Théberge, S. Payeur, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and J. C. Kieffer, “Infrared generation by filamentation in air of a spectrally shaped laser beam,” Opt. Express19, 14093–14098 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, and J. Dubois, “Generation of tunable and broadband far-infrared laser pulses during two-color filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A81, 033821 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cook, D. J.

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep.441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D’Amico, C.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, D.

Dubois, J.

P. Lassonde, F. Théberge, S. Payeur, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and J. C. Kieffer, “Infrared generation by filamentation in air of a spectrally shaped laser beam,” Opt. Express19, 14093–14098 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, and J. Dubois, “Generation of tunable and broadband far-infrared laser pulses during two-color filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A81, 033821 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ehrke, H.

Forget, N.

Först, M.

Franco, M.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fuji, T.

Galvanauskas, A.

Giessen, H.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG - a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi B206, 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Groot, M. L.

Gu, X.

Hemmer, M.

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Houard, A.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, N.

Kaplan, D.

Kasparian, J.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kennis, J. T. M.

Kieffer, J. C.

Kobayashi, T.

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koehler, C.

L. Bergé, C. L. Soulez, C. Koehler, and S. Skupin, “Role of the carrier-envelope phase in laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B103, 563–570 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

Krausz, F.

Kress, M.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kress, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.1, 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kubarych, K. J.

Kuhl, J.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG - a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi B206, 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lassonde, P.

Linden, S.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG - a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi B206, 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Loeffler, T.

M. D. Thomson, M. Kress, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.1, 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Manzoni, C.

Mathes, T.

Mathieu, P.

F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, and J. Dubois, “Generation of tunable and broadband far-infrared laser pulses during two-color filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A81, 033821 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Metzger, T.

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep.441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nuter, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Payeur, S.

Petersen, P. B.

Prade, B.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

M. D. Thomson, V. Blank, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz white-light pulses from an air plasma photo-induced by incommensurate two-color optical fields,” Opt. Express18, 23173–23182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Thomson, M. Kress, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.1, 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roy, G.

F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, and J. Dubois, “Generation of tunable and broadband far-infrared laser pulses during two-color filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A81, 033821 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé, C. L. Soulez, C. Koehler, and S. Skupin, “Role of the carrier-envelope phase in laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B103, 563–570 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, “Few-cycle light bullets created by femtosecond filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 113902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soulez, C. L.

L. Bergé, C. L. Soulez, C. Koehler, and S. Skupin, “Role of the carrier-envelope phase in laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B103, 563–570 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Stahl, A. D.

Suzuki, T.

Teisset, C. Y.

Thai, A.

Théberge, F.

P. Lassonde, F. Théberge, S. Payeur, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and J. C. Kieffer, “Infrared generation by filamentation in air of a spectrally shaped laser beam,” Opt. Express19, 14093–14098 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, and J. Dubois, “Generation of tunable and broadband far-infrared laser pulses during two-color filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A81, 033821 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M. D.

M. D. Thomson, V. Blank, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz white-light pulses from an air plasma photo-induced by incommensurate two-color optical fields,” Opt. Express18, 23173–23182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Thomson, M. Kress, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.1, 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tokmakoff, A.

Wolf, J. P.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. C.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

L. Bergé, C. L. Soulez, C. Koehler, and S. Skupin, “Role of the carrier-envelope phase in laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B103, 563–570 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, “Effects of focusing on 3rd-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.11, 287–296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

M. D. Thomson, M. Kress, T. Loeffler, and H. G. Roskos, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Laser Photon. Rev.1, 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (8)

A. Thai, M. Hemmer, P. K. Bates, O. Chalus, and J. Biegert, “Sub-250-mrad, passively carrier–envelope-phase-stable mid-infrared OPCPA source at high repetition rate,” Opt. Lett.36, 3918–3920 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Baiz and K. J. Kubarych, “Ultrabroadband detection of a mid-ir continuum by chirped-pulse upconversion,” Opt. Lett.36, 187–189 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett.20, 73–75 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air,” Opt. Lett.25, 1210–1212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, N. Ishii, C. Y. Teisset, X. Gu, T. Metzger, A. Baltuška, N. Forget, D. Kaplan, A. Galvanauskas, and F. Krausz, “Parametric amplification of few-cycle carrier-envelope phase-stable pulses at 2.1 μm,” Opt. Lett.31, 1103–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji and T. Suzuki, “Generation of sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett.32, 3330–3332 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Manzoni, M. Först, H. Ehrke, and A. Cavalleri, “Single-shot detection and direct control of carrier phase drift of midinfrared pulses,” Opt. Lett.35, 757–759 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Petersen and A. Tokmakoff, “Source for ultrafast continuum infrared and terahertz radiation,” Opt. Lett.35, 1962–1964 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep.441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, G. Roy, P. Mathieu, and J. Dubois, “Generation of tunable and broadband far-infrared laser pulses during two-color filamentation,” Phys. Rev. A81, 033821 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

L. Bergé and S. Skupin, “Few-cycle light bullets created by femtosecond filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 113902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical forward THz emission from femtosecond-laser-beam filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

S. Linden, H. Giessen, and J. Kuhl, “XFROG - a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Status Solidi B206, 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J. P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the system. Shaded region was purged with argon at around atmospheric pressure. BS: beam splitter (5% reflection), BBO: β-BaB2O4 crystal (Type 1, θ = 29°, t = 0.1 mm), D: dichroic mirror, P: periscope, CM1: r = 1 m concave mirror, CM2: r = 0.5 m concave mirror, MH: aluminium-coated mirror with a hole (ϕ = 7 mm), OAP: aluminium-coated off-axis parabolic mirror, BF: bandpass filter for 335–610 nm (FGB37, Thorlabs), OMA: spectrometer for ultraviolet region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) A typical spectrum of the mid-infrared pulse generated through filamentation in argon (filled curve). Sharp dips at 2400 cm−1 and at around 1600 cm−1 are due to absorption of residual carbon dioxide and water vapor, respectively. The four-wave mixing spectra calculated with the measured fundamental and the SH spectra before (dotted curve) and after (dashed curve) the filament. (b) Fundamental spectrum measured before and after the filament (dotted and filled curves, respectively). The spectrum did not change when the delay time between the fundamental and the SH pulses was adjusted. (c) SH spectra when the delay time between the fundamental and the SH pulses was not adjusted (solid curve) and was adjusted (filled curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental and (b) simulated radial intensity distributions 250 mm after the generation point (on CM2 in Fig. 1) of the MIR pulses. (c) The intensity distribution at the focal point of the MIR pulse focused with a concave mirror (r=2 m).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Experimental and (b) retrieved XFROG traces. The retrieved pulse in (c) time and (d) frequency domain. The spectrum measured with Fourier transform spectrometer (brown solid curve) is also shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Interference signal between the SH of the reference pulse and the XFROG signal. (b) Single shot measurement of the fringe pattern. (c) Fringe pattern change by iteratively scanning the distance (X in Fig. 1) between the fundamental and the SH.

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