Abstract

We demonstrate multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of historical artifacts by combining Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence (2PEF) microscopies. We first identify the nonlinear optical response of materials commonly encountered in coatings of cultural heritage artifacts by analyzing one- and multi-layered model samples. We observe 2PEF signals from cochineal lake and sandarac and show that pigments and varnish films can be discriminated by exploiting their different emission spectral ranges as in luminescence linear spectroscopy. We then demonstrate SHG imaging of a filler, plaster, composed of bassanite particles which exhibit a non centrosymmetric crystal structure. We also show that SHG/2PEF imaging enables the visualization of wood microstructure through typically 60 µm-thick coatings by revealing crystalline cellulose (SHG signal) and lignin (2PEF signal) in the wood cell walls. Finally, in situ multimodal nonlinear imaging is demonstrated in a historical violin. SHG/2PEF imaging thus appears as a promising non-destructive and contactless tool for in situ 3D investigation of historical coatings and more generally for wood characterization and coating analysis at micrometer scale.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Targowski and M. Iwanicka, “Optical coherence tomography: its role in the non-invasive structural examination and conservation of cultural heritage objects—a review,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.106(2), 265–277 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Latour, G. Georges, L. Siozade, C. Deumie, and J.-P. Echard, “Study of varnish layers with optical coherence tomography in both visible and infrared domains,” Proc. SPIE7391, 73910J, 73910J-7 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Latour, J. Moreau, M. Elias, and J.-M. Frigerio, “Micro-spectrometry in the visible range with full-field optical coherence tomography for single absorbing layers,” Opt. Commun.283(23), 4810–4815 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal nonlinear imaging of the human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. R. Hori, M. Müller, U. Watanabe, H. C. Lichtenegger, P. Fratzl, and J. Sugiyama, “The importance of seasonal differences in the cellulose microfibril angle in softwoods in determining acoustic properties,” J. Mater. Sci.37(20), 4279–4284 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. J. Eichhorn, R. J. Young, and G. R. Davies, “Modeling crystal and molecular deformation in regenerated cellulose fibers,” Biomacromolecules6(1), 507–513 (2005).
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  29. M.-J. Benquerença, N. F. C. Mendes, E. Castellucci, V. M. F. Gaspar, and F. P. S. C. Gil, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis of 16th century Portuguese Ferreirim Masters oil paintings,” J. Raman Spectrosc.40, 2135–2143 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. A.-M. Bakr, T. Kawiak, M. Pawlikowski, and Z. Sawlowicz, “Characterisation of 15th century red and black pastes used for wall decoration in the Qijmas El-Eshaqi mosque (Cairo, Egypt)” J. Cult. Herit.6(4), 351–356 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. Claro, M. J. Melo, S. Schäfer, J. S. S. de Melo, F. Pina, K. J. van den Berg, and A. Burnstock, “The use of microspectrofluorimetry for the characterization of lake pigments,” Talanta74(4), 922–929 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. A. Nevin, D. Anglos, S. Cather, and A. Burnstock, “The influence of visible light and inorganic pigments on fluorescence excitation emission spectra of egg-, casein- and collagen-based painting media,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.92(1), 69–76 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. Thoury, J.-P. Echard, M. Réfrégiers, B. Berrie, A. Nevin, F. Jamme, and L. Bertrand, “Synchrotron UV-visible multispectral luminescence microimaging of historical samples,” Anal. Chem.83(5), 1737–1745 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. J. Kirby and R. White, “The identification of red lake pigment dyestuffs and a discussion of their use,” The National Gallery Technical Bulletin17, 56–80 (1996).
  36. J.-P. Echard, L. Bertrand, A. von Bohlen, A.-S. Le Hô, C. Paris, L. Bellot-Gurlet, B. Soulier, A. Lattuati-Derieux, S. Thao, L. Robinet, B. Lavédrine, and S. Vaiedelich, “The nature of the extraordinary finish of Stradivari’s instruments,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(1), 197–201 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. C. Clementi, B. Doherty, P. Gentili, C. Miliani, A. Romani, B. G. Brunetti, and A. Sgamellotti, “Vibrational and electronic properties of painting lakes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.92(1), 25–33 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  38. M. Thoury, M. Elias, J. M. Frigerio, and C. Barthou, “Nondestructive varnish identification by ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc.61(12), 1275–1282 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. A. Nevin, J.-P. Echard, M. Thoury, D. Comelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Excitation emission and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of selected varnishes used in historical musical instruments,” Talanta80(1), 286–293 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. A. Pena, M. Strupler, T. Boulesteix, and M. Schanne-Klein, “Spectroscopic analysis of keratin endogenous signal for skin multiphoton microscopy,” Opt. Express13(16), 6268–6274 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

P. Targowski and M. Iwanicka, “Optical coherence tomography: its role in the non-invasive structural examination and conservation of cultural heritage objects—a review,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.106(2), 265–277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Filippidis, M. Massaouti, A. Selimis, E. Gualda, J.-M. Manceau, and S. Tzortzakis, “Nonlinear imaging and THz diagnostic tools in the service of cultural heritage,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.106(2), 257–263 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Samineni, A. deCruz, T. E. Villafaña, W. S. Warren, and M. C. Fischer, “Pump-probe imaging of historical pigments used in paintings,” Opt. Lett.37(8), 1310–1312 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Latour, I. Gusachenko, L. Kowalczuk, I. Lamarre, and M. C. Schanne-Klein, “In vivo structural imaging of the cornea by polarization-resolved second harmonic microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(1), 1–15 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Gusachenko, V. Tran, Y. G. Houssen, J.-M. Allain, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Polarization-resolved second-harmonic generation in tendon upon mechanical stretching,” Biophys. J.102(9), 2220–2229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

J. Hafren, D. Muhic, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. N. Bader, “Two-photon autofluorescence spectral imaging applied to probe process-effects in thermomechanical pulp refining,” Nordic Pulp Paper Res. J.26(04), 3372–3379 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Thoury, J.-P. Echard, M. Réfrégiers, B. Berrie, A. Nevin, F. Jamme, and L. Bertrand, “Synchrotron UV-visible multispectral luminescence microimaging of historical samples,” Anal. Chem.83(5), 1737–1745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

F. Rosi, A. Daveri, B. Doherty, S. Nazzareni, B. G. Brunetti, A. Sgamellotti, and C. Miliani, “On the use of overtone and combination bands for the analysis of the CaSO4-H2O system by mid-infrared reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc.64(8), 956–963 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res.3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B.-C. Chen, J. Sung, and S.-H. Lim, “Chemical imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy at the vibrational fingerprint region,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(50), 16871–16880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Latour, J. Moreau, M. Elias, and J.-M. Frigerio, “Micro-spectrometry in the visible range with full-field optical coherence tomography for single absorbing layers,” Opt. Commun.283(23), 4810–4815 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal nonlinear imaging of the human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zimmerley, R. Younger, T. Valenton, D. C. Oertel, J. L. Ward, and E. O. Potma, “Molecular orientation in dry and hydrated cellulose fibers: A coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy study,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(31), 10200–10208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-P. Echard, L. Bertrand, A. von Bohlen, A.-S. Le Hô, C. Paris, L. Bellot-Gurlet, B. Soulier, A. Lattuati-Derieux, S. Thao, L. Robinet, B. Lavédrine, and S. Vaiedelich, “The nature of the extraordinary finish of Stradivari’s instruments,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(1), 197–201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. Nevin, J.-P. Echard, M. Thoury, D. Comelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Excitation emission and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of selected varnishes used in historical musical instruments,” Talanta80(1), 286–293 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-J. Benquerença, N. F. C. Mendes, E. Castellucci, V. M. F. Gaspar, and F. P. S. C. Gil, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis of 16th century Portuguese Ferreirim Masters oil paintings,” J. Raman Spectrosc.40, 2135–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. Siozade, C. Deumie, and J.-P. Echard, “Study of varnish layers with optical coherence tomography in both visible and infrared domains,” Proc. SPIE7391, 73910J, 73910J-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Latour, J.-P. Echard, B. Soulier, I. Emond, S. Vaiedelich, and M. Elias, “Structural and optical properties of wood and wood finishes studied using optical coherence tomography: application to an 18th century Italian violin,” Appl. Opt.48(33), 6485–6491 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Filippidis, K. Melessanaki, and C. Fotakis, “Second and third harmonic generation measurements of glues used for lining textile supports of painted artworks,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.395(7), 2161–2166 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

G. Filippidis, E. J. Gualda, K. Melessanaki, and C. Fotakis, “Nonlinear imaging microscopy techniques as diagnostic tools for art conservation studies,” Opt. Lett.33(3), 240–242 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vazquez-Cooz and R. W. Meyer, “Fundamental differences between two fiber types in Acer,” IAWA J.29, 129–141 (2008).

A. Claro, M. J. Melo, S. Schäfer, J. S. S. de Melo, F. Pina, K. J. van den Berg, and A. Burnstock, “The use of microspectrofluorimetry for the characterization of lake pigments,” Talanta74(4), 922–929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nevin, D. Anglos, S. Cather, and A. Burnstock, “The influence of visible light and inorganic pigments on fluorescence excitation emission spectra of egg-, casein- and collagen-based painting media,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.92(1), 69–76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Clementi, B. Doherty, P. Gentili, C. Miliani, A. Romani, B. G. Brunetti, and A. Sgamellotti, “Vibrational and electronic properties of painting lakes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.92(1), 25–33 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

N. Gierlinger and M. Schwanninger, “Chemical imaging of poplar wood cell walls by confocal Raman microscopy,” Plant Physiol.140(4), 1246–1254 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

G. Cox, N. Moreno, and J. Feijó, “Second-harmonic imaging of plant polysaccharides,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.-M. Bakr, T. Kawiak, M. Pawlikowski, and Z. Sawlowicz, “Characterisation of 15th century red and black pastes used for wall decoration in the Qijmas El-Eshaqi mosque (Cairo, Egypt)” J. Cult. Herit.6(4), 351–356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Eichhorn, R. J. Young, and G. R. Davies, “Modeling crystal and molecular deformation in regenerated cellulose fibers,” Biomacromolecules6(1), 507–513 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pena, M. Strupler, T. Boulesteix, and M. Schanne-Klein, “Spectroscopic analysis of keratin endogenous signal for skin multiphoton microscopy,” Opt. Express13(16), 6268–6274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

Y. Marubashi, T. Higashi, S. Hirakawa, S. Tani, T. Erata, P. Takai, and J. Kawamata, “Second harmonic generation measurements for biomacromolecules: celluloses,” Opt. Rev.11(6), 385–387 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. M. Brown, A. C. Millard, and P. J. Campagnola, “Macromolecular structure of cellulose studied by second-harmonic generation imaging microscopy,” Opt. Lett.28(22), 2207–2209 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. Hori, M. Müller, U. Watanabe, H. C. Lichtenegger, P. Fratzl, and J. Sugiyama, “The importance of seasonal differences in the cellulose microfibril angle in softwoods in determining acoustic properties,” J. Mater. Sci.37(20), 4279–4284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. Kirby and R. White, “The identification of red lake pigment dyestuffs and a discussion of their use,” The National Gallery Technical Bulletin17, 56–80 (1996).

1992

E. Martin, N. Sonoda, and A. R. Duval, “Contribution à l’étude des préparations blanches des tableaux italiens sur bois,” Stud. Conserv.37(2), 82–92 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Allain, J.-M.

I. Gusachenko, V. Tran, Y. G. Houssen, J.-M. Allain, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Polarization-resolved second-harmonic generation in tendon upon mechanical stretching,” Biophys. J.102(9), 2220–2229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amat-Roldan, I.

I. G. Cormack, P. Loza-Alvarez, L. Sarrado, S. Tomás, I. Amat-Roldan, L. Torner, D. Artigas, J. Guitart, J. Pera, and J. Ros, “Lost writing uncovered by laser two-photon fluorescence provides a terminus post quem for Roman colonization of Hispania Citerior,” J. Archaeol. Sci.34(10), 1594–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anglos, D.

A. Nevin, D. Anglos, S. Cather, and A. Burnstock, “The influence of visible light and inorganic pigments on fluorescence excitation emission spectra of egg-, casein- and collagen-based painting media,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.92(1), 69–76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aptel, F.

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal nonlinear imaging of the human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artigas, D.

I. G. Cormack, P. Loza-Alvarez, L. Sarrado, S. Tomás, I. Amat-Roldan, L. Torner, D. Artigas, J. Guitart, J. Pera, and J. Ros, “Lost writing uncovered by laser two-photon fluorescence provides a terminus post quem for Roman colonization of Hispania Citerior,” J. Archaeol. Sci.34(10), 1594–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bader, A. N.

J. Hafren, D. Muhic, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. N. Bader, “Two-photon autofluorescence spectral imaging applied to probe process-effects in thermomechanical pulp refining,” Nordic Pulp Paper Res. J.26(04), 3372–3379 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bakr, A.-M.

A.-M. Bakr, T. Kawiak, M. Pawlikowski, and Z. Sawlowicz, “Characterisation of 15th century red and black pastes used for wall decoration in the Qijmas El-Eshaqi mosque (Cairo, Egypt)” J. Cult. Herit.6(4), 351–356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barthou, C.

Beaurepaire, E.

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal nonlinear imaging of the human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Débarre, N. Olivier, and E. Beaurepaire, “Signal epidetection in third-harmonic generation microscopy of turbid media,” Opt. Express15(14), 8913–8924 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellot-Gurlet, L.

J.-P. Echard, L. Bertrand, A. von Bohlen, A.-S. Le Hô, C. Paris, L. Bellot-Gurlet, B. Soulier, A. Lattuati-Derieux, S. Thao, L. Robinet, B. Lavédrine, and S. Vaiedelich, “The nature of the extraordinary finish of Stradivari’s instruments,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(1), 197–201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benquerença, M.-J.

M.-J. Benquerença, N. F. C. Mendes, E. Castellucci, V. M. F. Gaspar, and F. P. S. C. Gil, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis of 16th century Portuguese Ferreirim Masters oil paintings,” J. Raman Spectrosc.40, 2135–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berrie, B.

M. Thoury, J.-P. Echard, M. Réfrégiers, B. Berrie, A. Nevin, F. Jamme, and L. Bertrand, “Synchrotron UV-visible multispectral luminescence microimaging of historical samples,” Anal. Chem.83(5), 1737–1745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertrand, L.

M. Thoury, J.-P. Echard, M. Réfrégiers, B. Berrie, A. Nevin, F. Jamme, and L. Bertrand, “Synchrotron UV-visible multispectral luminescence microimaging of historical samples,” Anal. Chem.83(5), 1737–1745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-P. Echard, L. Bertrand, A. von Bohlen, A.-S. Le Hô, C. Paris, L. Bellot-Gurlet, B. Soulier, A. Lattuati-Derieux, S. Thao, L. Robinet, B. Lavédrine, and S. Vaiedelich, “The nature of the extraordinary finish of Stradivari’s instruments,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(1), 197–201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boulesteix, T.

Brown, R. M.

Brunetti, B. G.

F. Rosi, A. Daveri, B. Doherty, S. Nazzareni, B. G. Brunetti, A. Sgamellotti, and C. Miliani, “On the use of overtone and combination bands for the analysis of the CaSO4-H2O system by mid-infrared reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc.64(8), 956–963 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Clementi, B. Doherty, P. Gentili, C. Miliani, A. Romani, B. G. Brunetti, and A. Sgamellotti, “Vibrational and electronic properties of painting lakes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.92(1), 25–33 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burnstock, A.

A. Nevin, D. Anglos, S. Cather, and A. Burnstock, “The influence of visible light and inorganic pigments on fluorescence excitation emission spectra of egg-, casein- and collagen-based painting media,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.92(1), 69–76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Claro, M. J. Melo, S. Schäfer, J. S. S. de Melo, F. Pina, K. J. van den Berg, and A. Burnstock, “The use of microspectrofluorimetry for the characterization of lake pigments,” Talanta74(4), 922–929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campagnola, P. J.

Castellucci, E.

M.-J. Benquerença, N. F. C. Mendes, E. Castellucci, V. M. F. Gaspar, and F. P. S. C. Gil, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis of 16th century Portuguese Ferreirim Masters oil paintings,” J. Raman Spectrosc.40, 2135–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cather, S.

A. Nevin, D. Anglos, S. Cather, and A. Burnstock, “The influence of visible light and inorganic pigments on fluorescence excitation emission spectra of egg-, casein- and collagen-based painting media,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.92(1), 69–76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.-C.

B.-C. Chen, J. Sung, and S.-H. Lim, “Chemical imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy at the vibrational fingerprint region,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(50), 16871–16880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, F.

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res.3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Claro, A.

A. Claro, M. J. Melo, S. Schäfer, J. S. S. de Melo, F. Pina, K. J. van den Berg, and A. Burnstock, “The use of microspectrofluorimetry for the characterization of lake pigments,” Talanta74(4), 922–929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clementi, C.

C. Clementi, B. Doherty, P. Gentili, C. Miliani, A. Romani, B. G. Brunetti, and A. Sgamellotti, “Vibrational and electronic properties of painting lakes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.92(1), 25–33 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Comelli, D.

A. Nevin, J.-P. Echard, M. Thoury, D. Comelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Excitation emission and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of selected varnishes used in historical musical instruments,” Talanta80(1), 286–293 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cormack, I. G.

I. G. Cormack, P. Loza-Alvarez, L. Sarrado, S. Tomás, I. Amat-Roldan, L. Torner, D. Artigas, J. Guitart, J. Pera, and J. Ros, “Lost writing uncovered by laser two-photon fluorescence provides a terminus post quem for Roman colonization of Hispania Citerior,” J. Archaeol. Sci.34(10), 1594–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cox, G.

G. Cox, N. Moreno, and J. Feijó, “Second-harmonic imaging of plant polysaccharides,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

A. Nevin, J.-P. Echard, M. Thoury, D. Comelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Excitation emission and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of selected varnishes used in historical musical instruments,” Talanta80(1), 286–293 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daveri, A.

Davies, G. R.

S. J. Eichhorn, R. J. Young, and G. R. Davies, “Modeling crystal and molecular deformation in regenerated cellulose fibers,” Biomacromolecules6(1), 507–513 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Melo, J. S. S.

A. Claro, M. J. Melo, S. Schäfer, J. S. S. de Melo, F. Pina, K. J. van den Berg, and A. Burnstock, “The use of microspectrofluorimetry for the characterization of lake pigments,” Talanta74(4), 922–929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Débarre, D.

deCruz, A.

Deniset-Besseau, A.

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal nonlinear imaging of the human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deumie, C.

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. Siozade, C. Deumie, and J.-P. Echard, “Study of varnish layers with optical coherence tomography in both visible and infrared domains,” Proc. SPIE7391, 73910J, 73910J-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ding, S.-Y.

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res.3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, R.

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res.3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Doherty, B.

F. Rosi, A. Daveri, B. Doherty, S. Nazzareni, B. G. Brunetti, A. Sgamellotti, and C. Miliani, “On the use of overtone and combination bands for the analysis of the CaSO4-H2O system by mid-infrared reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc.64(8), 956–963 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Clementi, B. Doherty, P. Gentili, C. Miliani, A. Romani, B. G. Brunetti, and A. Sgamellotti, “Vibrational and electronic properties of painting lakes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.92(1), 25–33 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duval, A. R.

E. Martin, N. Sonoda, and A. R. Duval, “Contribution à l’étude des préparations blanches des tableaux italiens sur bois,” Stud. Conserv.37(2), 82–92 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Echard, J.-P.

M. Thoury, J.-P. Echard, M. Réfrégiers, B. Berrie, A. Nevin, F. Jamme, and L. Bertrand, “Synchrotron UV-visible multispectral luminescence microimaging of historical samples,” Anal. Chem.83(5), 1737–1745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-P. Echard, L. Bertrand, A. von Bohlen, A.-S. Le Hô, C. Paris, L. Bellot-Gurlet, B. Soulier, A. Lattuati-Derieux, S. Thao, L. Robinet, B. Lavédrine, and S. Vaiedelich, “The nature of the extraordinary finish of Stradivari’s instruments,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(1), 197–201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nevin, J.-P. Echard, M. Thoury, D. Comelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Excitation emission and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of selected varnishes used in historical musical instruments,” Talanta80(1), 286–293 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. Siozade, C. Deumie, and J.-P. Echard, “Study of varnish layers with optical coherence tomography in both visible and infrared domains,” Proc. SPIE7391, 73910J, 73910J-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Latour, J.-P. Echard, B. Soulier, I. Emond, S. Vaiedelich, and M. Elias, “Structural and optical properties of wood and wood finishes studied using optical coherence tomography: application to an 18th century Italian violin,” Appl. Opt.48(33), 6485–6491 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eichhorn, S. J.

S. J. Eichhorn, R. J. Young, and G. R. Davies, “Modeling crystal and molecular deformation in regenerated cellulose fibers,” Biomacromolecules6(1), 507–513 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elias, M.

Emond, I.

Erata, T.

Y. Marubashi, T. Higashi, S. Hirakawa, S. Tani, T. Erata, P. Takai, and J. Kawamata, “Second harmonic generation measurements for biomacromolecules: celluloses,” Opt. Rev.11(6), 385–387 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feijó, J.

G. Cox, N. Moreno, and J. Feijó, “Second-harmonic imaging of plant polysaccharides,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Filippidis, G.

G. Filippidis, M. Massaouti, A. Selimis, E. Gualda, J.-M. Manceau, and S. Tzortzakis, “Nonlinear imaging and THz diagnostic tools in the service of cultural heritage,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.106(2), 257–263 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Filippidis, K. Melessanaki, and C. Fotakis, “Second and third harmonic generation measurements of glues used for lining textile supports of painted artworks,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.395(7), 2161–2166 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Filippidis, E. J. Gualda, K. Melessanaki, and C. Fotakis, “Nonlinear imaging microscopy techniques as diagnostic tools for art conservation studies,” Opt. Lett.33(3), 240–242 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, M. C.

Fotakis, C.

G. Filippidis, K. Melessanaki, and C. Fotakis, “Second and third harmonic generation measurements of glues used for lining textile supports of painted artworks,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.395(7), 2161–2166 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Filippidis, E. J. Gualda, K. Melessanaki, and C. Fotakis, “Nonlinear imaging microscopy techniques as diagnostic tools for art conservation studies,” Opt. Lett.33(3), 240–242 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fratzl, P.

R. Hori, M. Müller, U. Watanabe, H. C. Lichtenegger, P. Fratzl, and J. Sugiyama, “The importance of seasonal differences in the cellulose microfibril angle in softwoods in determining acoustic properties,” J. Mater. Sci.37(20), 4279–4284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, M.

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res.3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frigerio, J. M.

Frigerio, J.-M.

G. Latour, J. Moreau, M. Elias, and J.-M. Frigerio, “Micro-spectrometry in the visible range with full-field optical coherence tomography for single absorbing layers,” Opt. Commun.283(23), 4810–4815 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaspar, V. M. F.

M.-J. Benquerença, N. F. C. Mendes, E. Castellucci, V. M. F. Gaspar, and F. P. S. C. Gil, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis of 16th century Portuguese Ferreirim Masters oil paintings,” J. Raman Spectrosc.40, 2135–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, P.

C. Clementi, B. Doherty, P. Gentili, C. Miliani, A. Romani, B. G. Brunetti, and A. Sgamellotti, “Vibrational and electronic properties of painting lakes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.92(1), 25–33 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Georges, G.

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. Siozade, C. Deumie, and J.-P. Echard, “Study of varnish layers with optical coherence tomography in both visible and infrared domains,” Proc. SPIE7391, 73910J, 73910J-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gerritsen, H. C.

J. Hafren, D. Muhic, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. N. Bader, “Two-photon autofluorescence spectral imaging applied to probe process-effects in thermomechanical pulp refining,” Nordic Pulp Paper Res. J.26(04), 3372–3379 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gierlinger, N.

N. Gierlinger and M. Schwanninger, “Chemical imaging of poplar wood cell walls by confocal Raman microscopy,” Plant Physiol.140(4), 1246–1254 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gil, F. P. S. C.

M.-J. Benquerença, N. F. C. Mendes, E. Castellucci, V. M. F. Gaspar, and F. P. S. C. Gil, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis of 16th century Portuguese Ferreirim Masters oil paintings,” J. Raman Spectrosc.40, 2135–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gualda, E.

G. Filippidis, M. Massaouti, A. Selimis, E. Gualda, J.-M. Manceau, and S. Tzortzakis, “Nonlinear imaging and THz diagnostic tools in the service of cultural heritage,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.106(2), 257–263 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gualda, E. J.

Guitart, J.

I. G. Cormack, P. Loza-Alvarez, L. Sarrado, S. Tomás, I. Amat-Roldan, L. Torner, D. Artigas, J. Guitart, J. Pera, and J. Ros, “Lost writing uncovered by laser two-photon fluorescence provides a terminus post quem for Roman colonization of Hispania Citerior,” J. Archaeol. Sci.34(10), 1594–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gusachenko, I.

G. Latour, I. Gusachenko, L. Kowalczuk, I. Lamarre, and M. C. Schanne-Klein, “In vivo structural imaging of the cornea by polarization-resolved second harmonic microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(1), 1–15 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Gusachenko, V. Tran, Y. G. Houssen, J.-M. Allain, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Polarization-resolved second-harmonic generation in tendon upon mechanical stretching,” Biophys. J.102(9), 2220–2229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hafren, J.

J. Hafren, D. Muhic, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. N. Bader, “Two-photon autofluorescence spectral imaging applied to probe process-effects in thermomechanical pulp refining,” Nordic Pulp Paper Res. J.26(04), 3372–3379 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Higashi, T.

Y. Marubashi, T. Higashi, S. Hirakawa, S. Tani, T. Erata, P. Takai, and J. Kawamata, “Second harmonic generation measurements for biomacromolecules: celluloses,” Opt. Rev.11(6), 385–387 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Himmel, M.

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res.3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hirakawa, S.

Y. Marubashi, T. Higashi, S. Hirakawa, S. Tani, T. Erata, P. Takai, and J. Kawamata, “Second harmonic generation measurements for biomacromolecules: celluloses,” Opt. Rev.11(6), 385–387 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hori, R.

R. Hori, M. Müller, U. Watanabe, H. C. Lichtenegger, P. Fratzl, and J. Sugiyama, “The importance of seasonal differences in the cellulose microfibril angle in softwoods in determining acoustic properties,” J. Mater. Sci.37(20), 4279–4284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Houssen, Y. G.

I. Gusachenko, V. Tran, Y. G. Houssen, J.-M. Allain, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Polarization-resolved second-harmonic generation in tendon upon mechanical stretching,” Biophys. J.102(9), 2220–2229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwanicka, M.

P. Targowski and M. Iwanicka, “Optical coherence tomography: its role in the non-invasive structural examination and conservation of cultural heritage objects—a review,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.106(2), 265–277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jamme, F.

M. Thoury, J.-P. Echard, M. Réfrégiers, B. Berrie, A. Nevin, F. Jamme, and L. Bertrand, “Synchrotron UV-visible multispectral luminescence microimaging of historical samples,” Anal. Chem.83(5), 1737–1745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawamata, J.

Y. Marubashi, T. Higashi, S. Hirakawa, S. Tani, T. Erata, P. Takai, and J. Kawamata, “Second harmonic generation measurements for biomacromolecules: celluloses,” Opt. Rev.11(6), 385–387 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawiak, T.

A.-M. Bakr, T. Kawiak, M. Pawlikowski, and Z. Sawlowicz, “Characterisation of 15th century red and black pastes used for wall decoration in the Qijmas El-Eshaqi mosque (Cairo, Egypt)” J. Cult. Herit.6(4), 351–356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kirby, J.

J. Kirby and R. White, “The identification of red lake pigment dyestuffs and a discussion of their use,” The National Gallery Technical Bulletin17, 56–80 (1996).

Kowalczuk, L.

Lacomb, R. B.

Lamarre, I.

Latour, G.

G. Latour, I. Gusachenko, L. Kowalczuk, I. Lamarre, and M. C. Schanne-Klein, “In vivo structural imaging of the cornea by polarization-resolved second harmonic microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(1), 1–15 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Latour, J. Moreau, M. Elias, and J.-M. Frigerio, “Micro-spectrometry in the visible range with full-field optical coherence tomography for single absorbing layers,” Opt. Commun.283(23), 4810–4815 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. Siozade, C. Deumie, and J.-P. Echard, “Study of varnish layers with optical coherence tomography in both visible and infrared domains,” Proc. SPIE7391, 73910J, 73910J-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Latour, J.-P. Echard, B. Soulier, I. Emond, S. Vaiedelich, and M. Elias, “Structural and optical properties of wood and wood finishes studied using optical coherence tomography: application to an 18th century Italian violin,” Appl. Opt.48(33), 6485–6491 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lattuati-Derieux, A.

J.-P. Echard, L. Bertrand, A. von Bohlen, A.-S. Le Hô, C. Paris, L. Bellot-Gurlet, B. Soulier, A. Lattuati-Derieux, S. Thao, L. Robinet, B. Lavédrine, and S. Vaiedelich, “The nature of the extraordinary finish of Stradivari’s instruments,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(1), 197–201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavédrine, B.

J.-P. Echard, L. Bertrand, A. von Bohlen, A.-S. Le Hô, C. Paris, L. Bellot-Gurlet, B. Soulier, A. Lattuati-Derieux, S. Thao, L. Robinet, B. Lavédrine, and S. Vaiedelich, “The nature of the extraordinary finish of Stradivari’s instruments,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(1), 197–201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Hô, A.-S.

J.-P. Echard, L. Bertrand, A. von Bohlen, A.-S. Le Hô, C. Paris, L. Bellot-Gurlet, B. Soulier, A. Lattuati-Derieux, S. Thao, L. Robinet, B. Lavédrine, and S. Vaiedelich, “The nature of the extraordinary finish of Stradivari’s instruments,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(1), 197–201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Legeais, J.-M.

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal nonlinear imaging of the human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lichtenegger, H. C.

R. Hori, M. Müller, U. Watanabe, H. C. Lichtenegger, P. Fratzl, and J. Sugiyama, “The importance of seasonal differences in the cellulose microfibril angle in softwoods in determining acoustic properties,” J. Mater. Sci.37(20), 4279–4284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S.-H.

B.-C. Chen, J. Sung, and S.-H. Lim, “Chemical imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy at the vibrational fingerprint region,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(50), 16871–16880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.-S.

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res.3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loza-Alvarez, P.

I. G. Cormack, P. Loza-Alvarez, L. Sarrado, S. Tomás, I. Amat-Roldan, L. Torner, D. Artigas, J. Guitart, J. Pera, and J. Ros, “Lost writing uncovered by laser two-photon fluorescence provides a terminus post quem for Roman colonization of Hispania Citerior,” J. Archaeol. Sci.34(10), 1594–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Manceau, J.-M.

G. Filippidis, M. Massaouti, A. Selimis, E. Gualda, J.-M. Manceau, and S. Tzortzakis, “Nonlinear imaging and THz diagnostic tools in the service of cultural heritage,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.106(2), 257–263 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martin, E.

E. Martin, N. Sonoda, and A. R. Duval, “Contribution à l’étude des préparations blanches des tableaux italiens sur bois,” Stud. Conserv.37(2), 82–92 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Marubashi, Y.

Y. Marubashi, T. Higashi, S. Hirakawa, S. Tani, T. Erata, P. Takai, and J. Kawamata, “Second harmonic generation measurements for biomacromolecules: celluloses,” Opt. Rev.11(6), 385–387 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Massaouti, M.

G. Filippidis, M. Massaouti, A. Selimis, E. Gualda, J.-M. Manceau, and S. Tzortzakis, “Nonlinear imaging and THz diagnostic tools in the service of cultural heritage,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.106(2), 257–263 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Melessanaki, K.

G. Filippidis, K. Melessanaki, and C. Fotakis, “Second and third harmonic generation measurements of glues used for lining textile supports of painted artworks,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.395(7), 2161–2166 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Filippidis, E. J. Gualda, K. Melessanaki, and C. Fotakis, “Nonlinear imaging microscopy techniques as diagnostic tools for art conservation studies,” Opt. Lett.33(3), 240–242 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melo, M. J.

A. Claro, M. J. Melo, S. Schäfer, J. S. S. de Melo, F. Pina, K. J. van den Berg, and A. Burnstock, “The use of microspectrofluorimetry for the characterization of lake pigments,” Talanta74(4), 922–929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mendes, N. F. C.

M.-J. Benquerença, N. F. C. Mendes, E. Castellucci, V. M. F. Gaspar, and F. P. S. C. Gil, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis of 16th century Portuguese Ferreirim Masters oil paintings,” J. Raman Spectrosc.40, 2135–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, R. W.

I. Vazquez-Cooz and R. W. Meyer, “Fundamental differences between two fiber types in Acer,” IAWA J.29, 129–141 (2008).

Miliani, C.

F. Rosi, A. Daveri, B. Doherty, S. Nazzareni, B. G. Brunetti, A. Sgamellotti, and C. Miliani, “On the use of overtone and combination bands for the analysis of the CaSO4-H2O system by mid-infrared reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc.64(8), 956–963 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Clementi, B. Doherty, P. Gentili, C. Miliani, A. Romani, B. G. Brunetti, and A. Sgamellotti, “Vibrational and electronic properties of painting lakes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.92(1), 25–33 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Millard, A. C.

Mohler, W. A.

Moreau, J.

G. Latour, J. Moreau, M. Elias, and J.-M. Frigerio, “Micro-spectrometry in the visible range with full-field optical coherence tomography for single absorbing layers,” Opt. Commun.283(23), 4810–4815 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, N.

G. Cox, N. Moreno, and J. Feijó, “Second-harmonic imaging of plant polysaccharides,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muhic, D.

J. Hafren, D. Muhic, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. N. Bader, “Two-photon autofluorescence spectral imaging applied to probe process-effects in thermomechanical pulp refining,” Nordic Pulp Paper Res. J.26(04), 3372–3379 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M.

R. Hori, M. Müller, U. Watanabe, H. C. Lichtenegger, P. Fratzl, and J. Sugiyama, “The importance of seasonal differences in the cellulose microfibril angle in softwoods in determining acoustic properties,” J. Mater. Sci.37(20), 4279–4284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nadiarnykh, O.

Nazzareni, S.

Nevin, A.

M. Thoury, J.-P. Echard, M. Réfrégiers, B. Berrie, A. Nevin, F. Jamme, and L. Bertrand, “Synchrotron UV-visible multispectral luminescence microimaging of historical samples,” Anal. Chem.83(5), 1737–1745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nevin, J.-P. Echard, M. Thoury, D. Comelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Excitation emission and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of selected varnishes used in historical musical instruments,” Talanta80(1), 286–293 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nevin, D. Anglos, S. Cather, and A. Burnstock, “The influence of visible light and inorganic pigments on fluorescence excitation emission spectra of egg-, casein- and collagen-based painting media,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.92(1), 69–76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oertel, D. C.

M. Zimmerley, R. Younger, T. Valenton, D. C. Oertel, J. L. Ward, and E. O. Potma, “Molecular orientation in dry and hydrated cellulose fibers: A coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy study,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(31), 10200–10208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivier, N.

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal nonlinear imaging of the human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Débarre, N. Olivier, and E. Beaurepaire, “Signal epidetection in third-harmonic generation microscopy of turbid media,” Opt. Express15(14), 8913–8924 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paris, C.

J.-P. Echard, L. Bertrand, A. von Bohlen, A.-S. Le Hô, C. Paris, L. Bellot-Gurlet, B. Soulier, A. Lattuati-Derieux, S. Thao, L. Robinet, B. Lavédrine, and S. Vaiedelich, “The nature of the extraordinary finish of Stradivari’s instruments,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(1), 197–201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pawlikowski, M.

A.-M. Bakr, T. Kawiak, M. Pawlikowski, and Z. Sawlowicz, “Characterisation of 15th century red and black pastes used for wall decoration in the Qijmas El-Eshaqi mosque (Cairo, Egypt)” J. Cult. Herit.6(4), 351–356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pena, A.

Pera, J.

I. G. Cormack, P. Loza-Alvarez, L. Sarrado, S. Tomás, I. Amat-Roldan, L. Torner, D. Artigas, J. Guitart, J. Pera, and J. Ros, “Lost writing uncovered by laser two-photon fluorescence provides a terminus post quem for Roman colonization of Hispania Citerior,” J. Archaeol. Sci.34(10), 1594–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pina, F.

A. Claro, M. J. Melo, S. Schäfer, J. S. S. de Melo, F. Pina, K. J. van den Berg, and A. Burnstock, “The use of microspectrofluorimetry for the characterization of lake pigments,” Talanta74(4), 922–929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plamann, K.

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal nonlinear imaging of the human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potma, E. O.

M. Zimmerley, R. Younger, T. Valenton, D. C. Oertel, J. L. Ward, and E. O. Potma, “Molecular orientation in dry and hydrated cellulose fibers: A coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy study,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(31), 10200–10208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Réfrégiers, M.

M. Thoury, J.-P. Echard, M. Réfrégiers, B. Berrie, A. Nevin, F. Jamme, and L. Bertrand, “Synchrotron UV-visible multispectral luminescence microimaging of historical samples,” Anal. Chem.83(5), 1737–1745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinet, L.

J.-P. Echard, L. Bertrand, A. von Bohlen, A.-S. Le Hô, C. Paris, L. Bellot-Gurlet, B. Soulier, A. Lattuati-Derieux, S. Thao, L. Robinet, B. Lavédrine, and S. Vaiedelich, “The nature of the extraordinary finish of Stradivari’s instruments,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(1), 197–201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romani, A.

C. Clementi, B. Doherty, P. Gentili, C. Miliani, A. Romani, B. G. Brunetti, and A. Sgamellotti, “Vibrational and electronic properties of painting lakes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.92(1), 25–33 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ros, J.

I. G. Cormack, P. Loza-Alvarez, L. Sarrado, S. Tomás, I. Amat-Roldan, L. Torner, D. Artigas, J. Guitart, J. Pera, and J. Ros, “Lost writing uncovered by laser two-photon fluorescence provides a terminus post quem for Roman colonization of Hispania Citerior,” J. Archaeol. Sci.34(10), 1594–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosi, F.

Saar, B.

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res.3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Samineni, P.

Sarrado, L.

I. G. Cormack, P. Loza-Alvarez, L. Sarrado, S. Tomás, I. Amat-Roldan, L. Torner, D. Artigas, J. Guitart, J. Pera, and J. Ros, “Lost writing uncovered by laser two-photon fluorescence provides a terminus post quem for Roman colonization of Hispania Citerior,” J. Archaeol. Sci.34(10), 1594–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sawlowicz, Z.

A.-M. Bakr, T. Kawiak, M. Pawlikowski, and Z. Sawlowicz, “Characterisation of 15th century red and black pastes used for wall decoration in the Qijmas El-Eshaqi mosque (Cairo, Egypt)” J. Cult. Herit.6(4), 351–356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, S.

A. Claro, M. J. Melo, S. Schäfer, J. S. S. de Melo, F. Pina, K. J. van den Berg, and A. Burnstock, “The use of microspectrofluorimetry for the characterization of lake pigments,” Talanta74(4), 922–929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schanne-Klein, M.

Schanne-Klein, M. C.

Schanne-Klein, M.-C.

I. Gusachenko, V. Tran, Y. G. Houssen, J.-M. Allain, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Polarization-resolved second-harmonic generation in tendon upon mechanical stretching,” Biophys. J.102(9), 2220–2229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal nonlinear imaging of the human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwanninger, M.

N. Gierlinger and M. Schwanninger, “Chemical imaging of poplar wood cell walls by confocal Raman microscopy,” Plant Physiol.140(4), 1246–1254 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selimis, A.

G. Filippidis, M. Massaouti, A. Selimis, E. Gualda, J.-M. Manceau, and S. Tzortzakis, “Nonlinear imaging and THz diagnostic tools in the service of cultural heritage,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.106(2), 257–263 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sgamellotti, A.

F. Rosi, A. Daveri, B. Doherty, S. Nazzareni, B. G. Brunetti, A. Sgamellotti, and C. Miliani, “On the use of overtone and combination bands for the analysis of the CaSO4-H2O system by mid-infrared reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc.64(8), 956–963 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Clementi, B. Doherty, P. Gentili, C. Miliani, A. Romani, B. G. Brunetti, and A. Sgamellotti, “Vibrational and electronic properties of painting lakes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.92(1), 25–33 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siozade, L.

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. Siozade, C. Deumie, and J.-P. Echard, “Study of varnish layers with optical coherence tomography in both visible and infrared domains,” Proc. SPIE7391, 73910J, 73910J-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sonoda, N.

E. Martin, N. Sonoda, and A. R. Duval, “Contribution à l’étude des préparations blanches des tableaux italiens sur bois,” Stud. Conserv.37(2), 82–92 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soulier, B.

J.-P. Echard, L. Bertrand, A. von Bohlen, A.-S. Le Hô, C. Paris, L. Bellot-Gurlet, B. Soulier, A. Lattuati-Derieux, S. Thao, L. Robinet, B. Lavédrine, and S. Vaiedelich, “The nature of the extraordinary finish of Stradivari’s instruments,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(1), 197–201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Latour, J.-P. Echard, B. Soulier, I. Emond, S. Vaiedelich, and M. Elias, “Structural and optical properties of wood and wood finishes studied using optical coherence tomography: application to an 18th century Italian violin,” Appl. Opt.48(33), 6485–6491 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strupler, M.

Sugiyama, J.

R. Hori, M. Müller, U. Watanabe, H. C. Lichtenegger, P. Fratzl, and J. Sugiyama, “The importance of seasonal differences in the cellulose microfibril angle in softwoods in determining acoustic properties,” J. Mater. Sci.37(20), 4279–4284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sung, J.

B.-C. Chen, J. Sung, and S.-H. Lim, “Chemical imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy at the vibrational fingerprint region,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(50), 16871–16880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takai, P.

Y. Marubashi, T. Higashi, S. Hirakawa, S. Tani, T. Erata, P. Takai, and J. Kawamata, “Second harmonic generation measurements for biomacromolecules: celluloses,” Opt. Rev.11(6), 385–387 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tani, S.

Y. Marubashi, T. Higashi, S. Hirakawa, S. Tani, T. Erata, P. Takai, and J. Kawamata, “Second harmonic generation measurements for biomacromolecules: celluloses,” Opt. Rev.11(6), 385–387 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Targowski, P.

P. Targowski and M. Iwanicka, “Optical coherence tomography: its role in the non-invasive structural examination and conservation of cultural heritage objects—a review,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.106(2), 265–277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thao, S.

J.-P. Echard, L. Bertrand, A. von Bohlen, A.-S. Le Hô, C. Paris, L. Bellot-Gurlet, B. Soulier, A. Lattuati-Derieux, S. Thao, L. Robinet, B. Lavédrine, and S. Vaiedelich, “The nature of the extraordinary finish of Stradivari’s instruments,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(1), 197–201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thoury, M.

M. Thoury, J.-P. Echard, M. Réfrégiers, B. Berrie, A. Nevin, F. Jamme, and L. Bertrand, “Synchrotron UV-visible multispectral luminescence microimaging of historical samples,” Anal. Chem.83(5), 1737–1745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nevin, J.-P. Echard, M. Thoury, D. Comelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Excitation emission and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of selected varnishes used in historical musical instruments,” Talanta80(1), 286–293 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Thoury, M. Elias, J. M. Frigerio, and C. Barthou, “Nondestructive varnish identification by ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc.61(12), 1275–1282 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomás, S.

I. G. Cormack, P. Loza-Alvarez, L. Sarrado, S. Tomás, I. Amat-Roldan, L. Torner, D. Artigas, J. Guitart, J. Pera, and J. Ros, “Lost writing uncovered by laser two-photon fluorescence provides a terminus post quem for Roman colonization of Hispania Citerior,” J. Archaeol. Sci.34(10), 1594–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torner, L.

I. G. Cormack, P. Loza-Alvarez, L. Sarrado, S. Tomás, I. Amat-Roldan, L. Torner, D. Artigas, J. Guitart, J. Pera, and J. Ros, “Lost writing uncovered by laser two-photon fluorescence provides a terminus post quem for Roman colonization of Hispania Citerior,” J. Archaeol. Sci.34(10), 1594–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tran, V.

I. Gusachenko, V. Tran, Y. G. Houssen, J.-M. Allain, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Polarization-resolved second-harmonic generation in tendon upon mechanical stretching,” Biophys. J.102(9), 2220–2229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tzortzakis, S.

G. Filippidis, M. Massaouti, A. Selimis, E. Gualda, J.-M. Manceau, and S. Tzortzakis, “Nonlinear imaging and THz diagnostic tools in the service of cultural heritage,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.106(2), 257–263 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vaiedelich, S.

J.-P. Echard, L. Bertrand, A. von Bohlen, A.-S. Le Hô, C. Paris, L. Bellot-Gurlet, B. Soulier, A. Lattuati-Derieux, S. Thao, L. Robinet, B. Lavédrine, and S. Vaiedelich, “The nature of the extraordinary finish of Stradivari’s instruments,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(1), 197–201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Latour, J.-P. Echard, B. Soulier, I. Emond, S. Vaiedelich, and M. Elias, “Structural and optical properties of wood and wood finishes studied using optical coherence tomography: application to an 18th century Italian violin,” Appl. Opt.48(33), 6485–6491 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentini, G.

A. Nevin, J.-P. Echard, M. Thoury, D. Comelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Excitation emission and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of selected varnishes used in historical musical instruments,” Talanta80(1), 286–293 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valenton, T.

M. Zimmerley, R. Younger, T. Valenton, D. C. Oertel, J. L. Ward, and E. O. Potma, “Molecular orientation in dry and hydrated cellulose fibers: A coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy study,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(31), 10200–10208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van den Berg, K. J.

A. Claro, M. J. Melo, S. Schäfer, J. S. S. de Melo, F. Pina, K. J. van den Berg, and A. Burnstock, “The use of microspectrofluorimetry for the characterization of lake pigments,” Talanta74(4), 922–929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vazquez-Cooz, I.

I. Vazquez-Cooz and R. W. Meyer, “Fundamental differences between two fiber types in Acer,” IAWA J.29, 129–141 (2008).

Villafaña, T. E.

von Bohlen, A.

J.-P. Echard, L. Bertrand, A. von Bohlen, A.-S. Le Hô, C. Paris, L. Bellot-Gurlet, B. Soulier, A. Lattuati-Derieux, S. Thao, L. Robinet, B. Lavédrine, and S. Vaiedelich, “The nature of the extraordinary finish of Stradivari’s instruments,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(1), 197–201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, J. L.

M. Zimmerley, R. Younger, T. Valenton, D. C. Oertel, J. L. Ward, and E. O. Potma, “Molecular orientation in dry and hydrated cellulose fibers: A coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy study,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(31), 10200–10208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, W. S.

Watanabe, U.

R. Hori, M. Müller, U. Watanabe, H. C. Lichtenegger, P. Fratzl, and J. Sugiyama, “The importance of seasonal differences in the cellulose microfibril angle in softwoods in determining acoustic properties,” J. Mater. Sci.37(20), 4279–4284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, R.

J. Kirby and R. White, “The identification of red lake pigment dyestuffs and a discussion of their use,” The National Gallery Technical Bulletin17, 56–80 (1996).

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X.

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res.3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. J.

S. J. Eichhorn, R. J. Young, and G. R. Davies, “Modeling crystal and molecular deformation in regenerated cellulose fibers,” Biomacromolecules6(1), 507–513 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Younger, R.

M. Zimmerley, R. Younger, T. Valenton, D. C. Oertel, J. L. Ward, and E. O. Potma, “Molecular orientation in dry and hydrated cellulose fibers: A coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy study,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(31), 10200–10208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, Y.

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res.3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zimmerley, M.

M. Zimmerley, R. Younger, T. Valenton, D. C. Oertel, J. L. Ward, and E. O. Potma, “Molecular orientation in dry and hydrated cellulose fibers: A coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy study,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(31), 10200–10208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

G. Filippidis, K. Melessanaki, and C. Fotakis, “Second and third harmonic generation measurements of glues used for lining textile supports of painted artworks,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.395(7), 2161–2166 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

M. Thoury, J.-P. Echard, M. Réfrégiers, B. Berrie, A. Nevin, F. Jamme, and L. Bertrand, “Synchrotron UV-visible multispectral luminescence microimaging of historical samples,” Anal. Chem.83(5), 1737–1745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.

J.-P. Echard, L. Bertrand, A. von Bohlen, A.-S. Le Hô, C. Paris, L. Bellot-Gurlet, B. Soulier, A. Lattuati-Derieux, S. Thao, L. Robinet, B. Lavédrine, and S. Vaiedelich, “The nature of the extraordinary finish of Stradivari’s instruments,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(1), 197–201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.

P. Targowski and M. Iwanicka, “Optical coherence tomography: its role in the non-invasive structural examination and conservation of cultural heritage objects—a review,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.106(2), 265–277 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Filippidis, M. Massaouti, A. Selimis, E. Gualda, J.-M. Manceau, and S. Tzortzakis, “Nonlinear imaging and THz diagnostic tools in the service of cultural heritage,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.106(2), 257–263 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Nevin, D. Anglos, S. Cather, and A. Burnstock, “The influence of visible light and inorganic pigments on fluorescence excitation emission spectra of egg-, casein- and collagen-based painting media,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.92(1), 69–76 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

C. Clementi, B. Doherty, P. Gentili, C. Miliani, A. Romani, B. G. Brunetti, and A. Sgamellotti, “Vibrational and electronic properties of painting lakes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.92(1), 25–33 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

BioEnergy Res.

Y. Zeng, B. Saar, M. Friedrich, F. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, R. Dixon, M. Himmel, X. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Imaging lignin-downregulated alfalfa using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” BioEnergy Res.3(3), 272–277 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biomacromolecules

S. J. Eichhorn, R. J. Young, and G. R. Davies, “Modeling crystal and molecular deformation in regenerated cellulose fibers,” Biomacromolecules6(1), 507–513 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express

Biophys. J.

I. Gusachenko, V. Tran, Y. G. Houssen, J.-M. Allain, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Polarization-resolved second-harmonic generation in tendon upon mechanical stretching,” Biophys. J.102(9), 2220–2229 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IAWA J.

I. Vazquez-Cooz and R. W. Meyer, “Fundamental differences between two fiber types in Acer,” IAWA J.29, 129–141 (2008).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

F. Aptel, N. Olivier, A. Deniset-Besseau, J.-M. Legeais, K. Plamann, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, and E. Beaurepaire, “Multimodal nonlinear imaging of the human cornea,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.51(5), 2459–2465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Archaeol. Sci.

I. G. Cormack, P. Loza-Alvarez, L. Sarrado, S. Tomás, I. Amat-Roldan, L. Torner, D. Artigas, J. Guitart, J. Pera, and J. Ros, “Lost writing uncovered by laser two-photon fluorescence provides a terminus post quem for Roman colonization of Hispania Citerior,” J. Archaeol. Sci.34(10), 1594–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

G. Cox, N. Moreno, and J. Feijó, “Second-harmonic imaging of plant polysaccharides,” J. Biomed. Opt.10(2), 024013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cult. Herit.

A.-M. Bakr, T. Kawiak, M. Pawlikowski, and Z. Sawlowicz, “Characterisation of 15th century red and black pastes used for wall decoration in the Qijmas El-Eshaqi mosque (Cairo, Egypt)” J. Cult. Herit.6(4), 351–356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci.

R. Hori, M. Müller, U. Watanabe, H. C. Lichtenegger, P. Fratzl, and J. Sugiyama, “The importance of seasonal differences in the cellulose microfibril angle in softwoods in determining acoustic properties,” J. Mater. Sci.37(20), 4279–4284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

B.-C. Chen, J. Sung, and S.-H. Lim, “Chemical imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy at the vibrational fingerprint region,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(50), 16871–16880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zimmerley, R. Younger, T. Valenton, D. C. Oertel, J. L. Ward, and E. O. Potma, “Molecular orientation in dry and hydrated cellulose fibers: A coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy study,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(31), 10200–10208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Raman Spectrosc.

M.-J. Benquerença, N. F. C. Mendes, E. Castellucci, V. M. F. Gaspar, and F. P. S. C. Gil, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis of 16th century Portuguese Ferreirim Masters oil paintings,” J. Raman Spectrosc.40, 2135–2143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordic Pulp Paper Res. J.

J. Hafren, D. Muhic, H. C. Gerritsen, and A. N. Bader, “Two-photon autofluorescence spectral imaging applied to probe process-effects in thermomechanical pulp refining,” Nordic Pulp Paper Res. J.26(04), 3372–3379 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

G. Latour, J. Moreau, M. Elias, and J.-M. Frigerio, “Micro-spectrometry in the visible range with full-field optical coherence tomography for single absorbing layers,” Opt. Commun.283(23), 4810–4815 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Rev.

Y. Marubashi, T. Higashi, S. Hirakawa, S. Tani, T. Erata, P. Takai, and J. Kawamata, “Second harmonic generation measurements for biomacromolecules: celluloses,” Opt. Rev.11(6), 385–387 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Plant Physiol.

N. Gierlinger and M. Schwanninger, “Chemical imaging of poplar wood cell walls by confocal Raman microscopy,” Plant Physiol.140(4), 1246–1254 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

G. Latour, G. Georges, L. Siozade, C. Deumie, and J.-P. Echard, “Study of varnish layers with optical coherence tomography in both visible and infrared domains,” Proc. SPIE7391, 73910J, 73910J-7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stud. Conserv.

E. Martin, N. Sonoda, and A. R. Duval, “Contribution à l’étude des préparations blanches des tableaux italiens sur bois,” Stud. Conserv.37(2), 82–92 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Talanta

A. Claro, M. J. Melo, S. Schäfer, J. S. S. de Melo, F. Pina, K. J. van den Berg, and A. Burnstock, “The use of microspectrofluorimetry for the characterization of lake pigments,” Talanta74(4), 922–929 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nevin, J.-P. Echard, M. Thoury, D. Comelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Excitation emission and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of selected varnishes used in historical musical instruments,” Talanta80(1), 286–293 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

The National Gallery Technical Bulletin

J. Kirby and R. White, “The identification of red lake pigment dyestuffs and a discussion of their use,” The National Gallery Technical Bulletin17, 56–80 (1996).

Other

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, third edition (Elsevier, 2008).

Supplementary Material (4)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. (a) Scheme of the multiphoton microscope with air objective (20x, NA 0.75) and three detection channels with well-suited filters for the different modes of contrast: 2PEF and backward-SHG for non-transparent and bulky samples, and forward SHG for thin samples. (b) Detection spectral ranges for excitation at 860 nm: half the excitation wavelength for SHG and two spectral bands for 2PEF. (c) Experimental setup adapted for in situ analysis of a historical violin.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Model samples and nonlinear signals collected. Description of the model samples (composition, thickness and scheme) and origin of the corresponding 2PEF and SHG signals.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MPM imaging of a thin wood shaving. (a) 2PEF signals from lignin. (b) Forward and (c) backward SHG signals from crystalline cellulose. (d) Merged 2PEF (red) and forward-SHG (green) image and (e) 3D reconstruction of the same region (see also Media 1). Scale bar: 100 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SHG and TLM imaging of plaster particles dispersed in gelatin-based film. (a, d) Forward and (b, e) backward SHG images compared to (c) TLM image in the same area. (a-b) Optically sectioned SHG images at depth z = 20 µm within the sample and (d-e) sum of 120 SHG images in a 40 µm-thick z-stack, providing projected images similar to the TLM one. (f) 3D reconstruction of the forward SHG image z-stack that allows the spatial localization of the plaster particles within the layer. Scale bar: 100µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

2PEF and TLM imaging of cochineal lake pigments dispersed in gelatin-based glue and sandarac films. Cochineal lake pigments (a-c) in gelatin-based glue film and (d-f) in sandarac film observed by (a-b, d-e) 2PEF microscopy and compared to (c, f) TLM. 2PEF signals were detected in two spectral bands: (a, d) around 485 nm and (d, e) above 590 nm. Scale bar: 100 µm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Multiphoton microscopy of a multilayered coating system on wood. 2PEF (a, d, g) around 485 nm and (b, e, h) above 590 nm and (c, f, i) SHG imaging at three different depths (z1 = 27 µm, z2 = 43 µm and z3 = 60 µm) (Media 2). Scale bar: 100µm. (j, k) Axial reconstruction of MPM images combining SHG (green), revealing plaster particles and wood cellulose, and 2PEF (red) in two spectral bands: (j) around 485 nm, revealing the sandarac film and the wood lignin and (k) above 590 nm, revealing cochineal lake pigments. Scale bar: 100 µm. (l) 3D reconstruction allowing identification and spatial localization of the particles. See also Media 3 in another region. (m) 2PEF (red, around 485 nm) and SHG (green) imaging of wood at 50 µm depth, below the varnish coatings. Scale bar: 50 µm. Inset: zoomed view of a few wood fibers that enables the spatial localization of lignin and cellulose. Scale bar: 15 µm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

In situ observation of a historical violin by multiphoton microscopy. Observations were performed in two areas: (a-i) the side of the soundbox and (j-k) the head of the violin as represented in the scheme (l). Images of the side area by 2PEF microscopy (a, c, e) around 485 nm and (b, d, f) above 590 nm (Media 4) and by (g) luminescence and (h-i) dark field microscopy. 2PEF microscopy was performed at three different depths: (a-b) 3 µm, (c-d) 9 µm and (e-f) 24 µm. Scale bar: 100 µm. (j) 2PEF and (k) SHG images of wood on the head. Scale bar: 30 µm.

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