Abstract

We present a simple and intriguing device that generates highly circularly polarized white light. It comprises white polymer light-emitting diodes (WPLEDs) attached to a wideband cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) reflector with a wide photonic bandgap (PBG) covering the visible range. The degree of circular polarization realized is very high over the visible range. The wide PBG was realized by introducing a gradient in pitch of the cholesteric helix by controlling the twisting power within the CLC medium. WPLEDs fabricated using a ternary (red, green, and blue) fluorescent polymer blend with the same moiety showed a low turn-on voltage, high brightness, high efficiency, and good color stability.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

M. Lee, H. Jang, S.-W. Choi, and K. Song, “Fabrication of broadband cholesteric liquid crystal films by photopolymerization-induced phase separation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)530(1), 169–174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

areJ.-C. Kuhlmann, P. Bruyn, R. K. M. Bouwer, A. Meetsma, P. W. M. Blom, and J. C. Hummelen, “Improving the compatibility of fullerene acceptors with fluorene-containing donor-polymers in organic photovoltaic devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(38), 7232–7234 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M. Lee, H. Jang, S.-W. Choi, and K. Song, “Direct observation of pitch gradient in cholesteric liquid crystal film using fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc.30(7), 1625–1627 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater.4, 383–387 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liedtke, M. O’Neill, A. Wertmöller, S. P. Kitney, and S. M. Kelly, “White-light OLEDs using liquid crystal polymer networks,” Chem. Mater.20(11), 3579–3586 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. G. Chee, M. H. Song, D. Kim, H. Takezoe, and I. J. Chung, “Lowring lasing threshold in chiral nematic liquid crystal structure with different anisotropies,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(18), L437–L439 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, Y. Ohtsuka, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes with wide-band reflective polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(21), 211106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Belalia, M. Mitov, C. Bourgerette, A. Krallafa, M. Belhakem, and D. Bormann, “Cholesteric liquid crystals with a helical pitch gradient: spatial distribution of the concentration of chiral groups by raman mapping in relation with the optical response and the microstructure,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.74(5), 051704 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect mode lasing with lowered threshold in a three-layered hetero cholesteric liquid crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(2), 193–197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, I. J. Chung, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electrotunable non-reciprocal laser emission from a liquid-crystal photonic device,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(14), 1793–1798 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Popescu, P. van 't Hof, A. B. Sieval, H. T. Jonkman, and J. C. Hummelen, “Thienyl analog of 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)Propyl-1-Phenyl-[6,6]-methanofullerene for bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices in combination with polythiophenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 213507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Kim, H. K. Lee, O. O. Park, B. D. Chin, S. H. Lee, and K. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes based on iridium complexes via efficient energy transfer from a conjugated polymer,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(5), 611–617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Tu, C. Y. Mei, Q. G. Zhou, Y. X. Cheng, Y. H. Geng, L. X. Wang, D. G. Ma, X. B. Jing, and F. S. Wang, “Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(1), 101–106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

V. Vaenkatesan, R. T. Wegh, J.-P. Teunissen, J. Lub, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Improving the brightness and daylight contrast of organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(1), 138–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. Seo, H. K. Jung, J. J. Kim, and S. Y. Park, “White luminescence from polymer thin films containing excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer dyes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(17), 2077–2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes: white-light emission with high efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(17), 2053–2058 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. H. Kim, P. Herguth, M.-S. Kang, A. K. Y. Jen, Y.-H. Tseng, and C.-F. Shu, “Bright white light electroluminescent devices based on a dye-dispersed polyfluorene derivative,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1116–1118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Gong, W. Ma, J. C. Ostrowski, G. C. Bazan, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “White electrophosphorescence from semiconducting polymer blends,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)16(7), 615–619 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D'Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Bai, C. C. Wu, T. D. Dang, F. E. Arnold, and B. Sakaran, “Tunable and white light-emitting diodes of monolayer fluorinated benzoxazole graft copolymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(10), 1656–1658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

Y.-Z. Lee, X. Chen, M.-C. Chen, S.-A. Chen, J.-H. Hsu, and W. Fann, “White-light electroluminescence from soluble oxadiazole-containing phenylene vinylene ether-linkage copolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(3), 308–310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, “A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(8), 577–580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Geoghegan, H. Ermer, G. Jüngst, G. Krausch, and R. Brenn, “Wetting in a phase separating polymer blend film: quench depth dependence,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics62(11 Pt B), 940–950 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Yang, Y. D. Jin, P. L. Heremans, R. Hoefnagels, P. Dieltiens, F. Blockhuys, H. J. Geise, M. Van der Auweraer, and G. Borghs, “White light emission from a single layer organic light emitting diode fabricated by spincoating,” Chem. Phys. Lett.325(1-3), 251–256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Oda, H. G. Nothofer, G. Lieser, U. Scherf, S. C. J. Meskers, and D. Neher, “Circularly polarized electroluminescence from liquid-crystalline chiral polyfluorenes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)12(5), 362–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

E. Peeters, M. P. T. Christiaans, R. A. J. Janssen, H. F. M. Schoo, H. P. J. M. Dekkers, and E. W. Meijer, “Circularly polarized electroluminescence from a polymer light-emitting diode,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.119(41), 9909–9910 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. Kido, H. Shionoya, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on dye‐dispersed poly(N‐vinylcarbazole),” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(16), 2281–2283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N‐vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent deyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990

S. V. Belayev, M. Schadt, M. I. Barnik, J. Funfschilling, N. V. Malimoneko, and K. Schmitt, “Large aperture polarized light source and novel liquid crystal display operating modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.29(Part 2, No. 4), L634–L637 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Amemiya, K.

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect mode lasing with lowered threshold in a three-layered hetero cholesteric liquid crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(2), 193–197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, F. E.

S. J. Bai, C. C. Wu, T. D. Dang, F. E. Arnold, and B. Sakaran, “Tunable and white light-emitting diodes of monolayer fluorinated benzoxazole graft copolymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(10), 1656–1658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Asimakis, A.

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, “A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(8), 577–580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bai, S. J.

S. J. Bai, C. C. Wu, T. D. Dang, F. E. Arnold, and B. Sakaran, “Tunable and white light-emitting diodes of monolayer fluorinated benzoxazole graft copolymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(10), 1656–1658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M. A.

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barnik, M. I.

S. V. Belayev, M. Schadt, M. I. Barnik, J. Funfschilling, N. V. Malimoneko, and K. Schmitt, “Large aperture polarized light source and novel liquid crystal display operating modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.29(Part 2, No. 4), L634–L637 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaansen, C. W. M.

V. Vaenkatesan, R. T. Wegh, J.-P. Teunissen, J. Lub, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Improving the brightness and daylight contrast of organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(1), 138–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bazan, G. C.

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes: white-light emission with high efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(17), 2053–2058 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Gong, W. Ma, J. C. Ostrowski, G. C. Bazan, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “White electrophosphorescence from semiconducting polymer blends,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)16(7), 615–619 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Belalia, M.

M. Belalia, M. Mitov, C. Bourgerette, A. Krallafa, M. Belhakem, and D. Bormann, “Cholesteric liquid crystals with a helical pitch gradient: spatial distribution of the concentration of chiral groups by raman mapping in relation with the optical response and the microstructure,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.74(5), 051704 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belayev, S. V.

S. V. Belayev, M. Schadt, M. I. Barnik, J. Funfschilling, N. V. Malimoneko, and K. Schmitt, “Large aperture polarized light source and novel liquid crystal display operating modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.29(Part 2, No. 4), L634–L637 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Belhakem, M.

M. Belalia, M. Mitov, C. Bourgerette, A. Krallafa, M. Belhakem, and D. Bormann, “Cholesteric liquid crystals with a helical pitch gradient: spatial distribution of the concentration of chiral groups by raman mapping in relation with the optical response and the microstructure,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.74(5), 051704 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blockhuys, F.

J. P. Yang, Y. D. Jin, P. L. Heremans, R. Hoefnagels, P. Dieltiens, F. Blockhuys, H. J. Geise, M. Van der Auweraer, and G. Borghs, “White light emission from a single layer organic light emitting diode fabricated by spincoating,” Chem. Phys. Lett.325(1-3), 251–256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blom, P. W. M.

areJ.-C. Kuhlmann, P. Bruyn, R. K. M. Bouwer, A. Meetsma, P. W. M. Blom, and J. C. Hummelen, “Improving the compatibility of fullerene acceptors with fluorene-containing donor-polymers in organic photovoltaic devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(38), 7232–7234 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borghs, G.

J. P. Yang, Y. D. Jin, P. L. Heremans, R. Hoefnagels, P. Dieltiens, F. Blockhuys, H. J. Geise, M. Van der Auweraer, and G. Borghs, “White light emission from a single layer organic light emitting diode fabricated by spincoating,” Chem. Phys. Lett.325(1-3), 251–256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bormann, D.

M. Belalia, M. Mitov, C. Bourgerette, A. Krallafa, M. Belhakem, and D. Bormann, “Cholesteric liquid crystals with a helical pitch gradient: spatial distribution of the concentration of chiral groups by raman mapping in relation with the optical response and the microstructure,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.74(5), 051704 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourgerette, C.

M. Belalia, M. Mitov, C. Bourgerette, A. Krallafa, M. Belhakem, and D. Bormann, “Cholesteric liquid crystals with a helical pitch gradient: spatial distribution of the concentration of chiral groups by raman mapping in relation with the optical response and the microstructure,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.74(5), 051704 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouwer, R. K. M.

areJ.-C. Kuhlmann, P. Bruyn, R. K. M. Bouwer, A. Meetsma, P. W. M. Blom, and J. C. Hummelen, “Improving the compatibility of fullerene acceptors with fluorene-containing donor-polymers in organic photovoltaic devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(38), 7232–7234 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, D. D. C.

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, “A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(8), 577–580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brenn, R.

M. Geoghegan, H. Ermer, G. Jüngst, G. Krausch, and R. Brenn, “Wetting in a phase separating polymer blend film: quench depth dependence,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics62(11 Pt B), 940–950 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broer, D. J.

V. Vaenkatesan, R. T. Wegh, J.-P. Teunissen, J. Lub, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Improving the brightness and daylight contrast of organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(1), 138–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bruyn, P.

areJ.-C. Kuhlmann, P. Bruyn, R. K. M. Bouwer, A. Meetsma, P. W. M. Blom, and J. C. Hummelen, “Improving the compatibility of fullerene acceptors with fluorene-containing donor-polymers in organic photovoltaic devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(38), 7232–7234 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burrows, P. E.

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chee, M. G.

M. G. Chee, M. H. Song, D. Kim, H. Takezoe, and I. J. Chung, “Lowring lasing threshold in chiral nematic liquid crystal structure with different anisotropies,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(18), L437–L439 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.-C.

Y.-Z. Lee, X. Chen, M.-C. Chen, S.-A. Chen, J.-H. Hsu, and W. Fann, “White-light electroluminescence from soluble oxadiazole-containing phenylene vinylene ether-linkage copolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(3), 308–310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-A.

Y.-Z. Lee, X. Chen, M.-C. Chen, S.-A. Chen, J.-H. Hsu, and W. Fann, “White-light electroluminescence from soluble oxadiazole-containing phenylene vinylene ether-linkage copolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(3), 308–310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Y.-Z. Lee, X. Chen, M.-C. Chen, S.-A. Chen, J.-H. Hsu, and W. Fann, “White-light electroluminescence from soluble oxadiazole-containing phenylene vinylene ether-linkage copolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(3), 308–310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. X.

G. L. Tu, C. Y. Mei, Q. G. Zhou, Y. X. Cheng, Y. H. Geng, L. X. Wang, D. G. Ma, X. B. Jing, and F. S. Wang, “Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(1), 101–106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chin, B. D.

T. H. Kim, H. K. Lee, O. O. Park, B. D. Chin, S. H. Lee, and K. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes based on iridium complexes via efficient energy transfer from a conjugated polymer,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(5), 611–617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.-W.

M. Lee, H. Jang, S.-W. Choi, and K. Song, “Fabrication of broadband cholesteric liquid crystal films by photopolymerization-induced phase separation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)530(1), 169–174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, H. Jang, S.-W. Choi, and K. Song, “Direct observation of pitch gradient in cholesteric liquid crystal film using fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc.30(7), 1625–1627 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Christiaans, M. P. T.

E. Peeters, M. P. T. Christiaans, R. A. J. Janssen, H. F. M. Schoo, H. P. J. M. Dekkers, and E. W. Meijer, “Circularly polarized electroluminescence from a polymer light-emitting diode,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.119(41), 9909–9910 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chung, I. J.

M. G. Chee, M. H. Song, D. Kim, H. Takezoe, and I. J. Chung, “Lowring lasing threshold in chiral nematic liquid crystal structure with different anisotropies,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(18), L437–L439 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, I. J. Chung, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electrotunable non-reciprocal laser emission from a liquid-crystal photonic device,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(14), 1793–1798 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D'Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D'Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dang, T. D.

S. J. Bai, C. C. Wu, T. D. Dang, F. E. Arnold, and B. Sakaran, “Tunable and white light-emitting diodes of monolayer fluorinated benzoxazole graft copolymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(10), 1656–1658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dekkers, H. P. J. M.

E. Peeters, M. P. T. Christiaans, R. A. J. Janssen, H. F. M. Schoo, H. P. J. M. Dekkers, and E. W. Meijer, “Circularly polarized electroluminescence from a polymer light-emitting diode,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.119(41), 9909–9910 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dieltiens, P.

J. P. Yang, Y. D. Jin, P. L. Heremans, R. Hoefnagels, P. Dieltiens, F. Blockhuys, H. J. Geise, M. Van der Auweraer, and G. Borghs, “White light emission from a single layer organic light emitting diode fabricated by spincoating,” Chem. Phys. Lett.325(1-3), 251–256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ermer, H.

M. Geoghegan, H. Ermer, G. Jüngst, G. Krausch, and R. Brenn, “Wetting in a phase separating polymer blend film: quench depth dependence,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics62(11 Pt B), 940–950 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fann, W.

Y.-Z. Lee, X. Chen, M.-C. Chen, S.-A. Chen, J.-H. Hsu, and W. Fann, “White-light electroluminescence from soluble oxadiazole-containing phenylene vinylene ether-linkage copolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(3), 308–310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

B. W. D'Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Funfschilling, J.

S. V. Belayev, M. Schadt, M. I. Barnik, J. Funfschilling, N. V. Malimoneko, and K. Schmitt, “Large aperture polarized light source and novel liquid crystal display operating modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.29(Part 2, No. 4), L634–L637 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Geise, H. J.

J. P. Yang, Y. D. Jin, P. L. Heremans, R. Hoefnagels, P. Dieltiens, F. Blockhuys, H. J. Geise, M. Van der Auweraer, and G. Borghs, “White light emission from a single layer organic light emitting diode fabricated by spincoating,” Chem. Phys. Lett.325(1-3), 251–256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geng, Y. H.

G. L. Tu, C. Y. Mei, Q. G. Zhou, Y. X. Cheng, Y. H. Geng, L. X. Wang, D. G. Ma, X. B. Jing, and F. S. Wang, “Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(1), 101–106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Geoghegan, M.

M. Geoghegan, H. Ermer, G. Jüngst, G. Krausch, and R. Brenn, “Wetting in a phase separating polymer blend film: quench depth dependence,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics62(11 Pt B), 940–950 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, X.

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes: white-light emission with high efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(17), 2053–2058 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Gong, W. Ma, J. C. Ostrowski, G. C. Bazan, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “White electrophosphorescence from semiconducting polymer blends,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)16(7), 615–619 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grell, M.

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, “A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(8), 577–580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ha, N. Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater.4, 383–387 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Jeong, Y. Ohtsuka, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes with wide-band reflective polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(21), 211106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect mode lasing with lowered threshold in a three-layered hetero cholesteric liquid crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(2), 193–197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes: white-light emission with high efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(17), 2053–2058 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Gong, W. Ma, J. C. Ostrowski, G. C. Bazan, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “White electrophosphorescence from semiconducting polymer blends,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)16(7), 615–619 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heremans, P. L.

J. P. Yang, Y. D. Jin, P. L. Heremans, R. Hoefnagels, P. Dieltiens, F. Blockhuys, H. J. Geise, M. Van der Auweraer, and G. Borghs, “White light emission from a single layer organic light emitting diode fabricated by spincoating,” Chem. Phys. Lett.325(1-3), 251–256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herguth, P.

J. H. Kim, P. Herguth, M.-S. Kang, A. K. Y. Jen, Y.-H. Tseng, and C.-F. Shu, “Bright white light electroluminescent devices based on a dye-dispersed polyfluorene derivative,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1116–1118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoefnagels, R.

J. P. Yang, Y. D. Jin, P. L. Heremans, R. Hoefnagels, P. Dieltiens, F. Blockhuys, H. J. Geise, M. Van der Auweraer, and G. Borghs, “White light emission from a single layer organic light emitting diode fabricated by spincoating,” Chem. Phys. Lett.325(1-3), 251–256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hongawa, K.

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N‐vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent deyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J.-H.

Y.-Z. Lee, X. Chen, M.-C. Chen, S.-A. Chen, J.-H. Hsu, and W. Fann, “White-light electroluminescence from soluble oxadiazole-containing phenylene vinylene ether-linkage copolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(3), 308–310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hummelen, J. C.

areJ.-C. Kuhlmann, P. Bruyn, R. K. M. Bouwer, A. Meetsma, P. W. M. Blom, and J. C. Hummelen, “Improving the compatibility of fullerene acceptors with fluorene-containing donor-polymers in organic photovoltaic devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(38), 7232–7234 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Popescu, P. van 't Hof, A. B. Sieval, H. T. Jonkman, and J. C. Hummelen, “Thienyl analog of 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)Propyl-1-Phenyl-[6,6]-methanofullerene for bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices in combination with polythiophenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 213507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater.4, 383–387 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Jeong, Y. Ohtsuka, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes with wide-band reflective polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(21), 211106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, I. J. Chung, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electrotunable non-reciprocal laser emission from a liquid-crystal photonic device,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(14), 1793–1798 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect mode lasing with lowered threshold in a three-layered hetero cholesteric liquid crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(2), 193–197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H.

M. Lee, H. Jang, S.-W. Choi, and K. Song, “Fabrication of broadband cholesteric liquid crystal films by photopolymerization-induced phase separation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)530(1), 169–174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, H. Jang, S.-W. Choi, and K. Song, “Direct observation of pitch gradient in cholesteric liquid crystal film using fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc.30(7), 1625–1627 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, R. A. J.

E. Peeters, M. P. T. Christiaans, R. A. J. Janssen, H. F. M. Schoo, H. P. J. M. Dekkers, and E. W. Meijer, “Circularly polarized electroluminescence from a polymer light-emitting diode,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.119(41), 9909–9910 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

J. H. Kim, P. Herguth, M.-S. Kang, A. K. Y. Jen, Y.-H. Tseng, and C.-F. Shu, “Bright white light electroluminescent devices based on a dye-dispersed polyfluorene derivative,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1116–1118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S. M.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater.4, 383–387 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Jeong, Y. Ohtsuka, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes with wide-band reflective polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(21), 211106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y. D.

J. P. Yang, Y. D. Jin, P. L. Heremans, R. Hoefnagels, P. Dieltiens, F. Blockhuys, H. J. Geise, M. Van der Auweraer, and G. Borghs, “White light emission from a single layer organic light emitting diode fabricated by spincoating,” Chem. Phys. Lett.325(1-3), 251–256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jing, X. B.

G. L. Tu, C. Y. Mei, Q. G. Zhou, Y. X. Cheng, Y. H. Geng, L. X. Wang, D. G. Ma, X. B. Jing, and F. S. Wang, “Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(1), 101–106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jonkman, H. T.

L. M. Popescu, P. van 't Hof, A. B. Sieval, H. T. Jonkman, and J. C. Hummelen, “Thienyl analog of 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)Propyl-1-Phenyl-[6,6]-methanofullerene for bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices in combination with polythiophenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 213507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, H. K.

S. Kim, J. Seo, H. K. Jung, J. J. Kim, and S. Y. Park, “White luminescence from polymer thin films containing excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer dyes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(17), 2077–2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jüngst, G.

M. Geoghegan, H. Ermer, G. Jüngst, G. Krausch, and R. Brenn, “Wetting in a phase separating polymer blend film: quench depth dependence,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics62(11 Pt B), 940–950 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, M.-S.

J. H. Kim, P. Herguth, M.-S. Kang, A. K. Y. Jen, Y.-H. Tseng, and C.-F. Shu, “Bright white light electroluminescent devices based on a dye-dispersed polyfluorene derivative,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1116–1118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, S. M.

A. Liedtke, M. O’Neill, A. Wertmöller, S. P. Kitney, and S. M. Kelly, “White-light OLEDs using liquid crystal polymer networks,” Chem. Mater.20(11), 3579–3586 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kido, J.

J. Kido, H. Shionoya, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on dye‐dispersed poly(N‐vinylcarbazole),” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(16), 2281–2283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N‐vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent deyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

M. G. Chee, M. H. Song, D. Kim, H. Takezoe, and I. J. Chung, “Lowring lasing threshold in chiral nematic liquid crystal structure with different anisotropies,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(18), L437–L439 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

J. H. Kim, P. Herguth, M.-S. Kang, A. K. Y. Jen, Y.-H. Tseng, and C.-F. Shu, “Bright white light electroluminescent devices based on a dye-dispersed polyfluorene derivative,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1116–1118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. J.

S. Kim, J. Seo, H. K. Jung, J. J. Kim, and S. Y. Park, “White luminescence from polymer thin films containing excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer dyes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(17), 2077–2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

T. H. Kim, H. K. Lee, O. O. Park, B. D. Chin, S. H. Lee, and K. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes based on iridium complexes via efficient energy transfer from a conjugated polymer,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(5), 611–617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, J. Seo, H. K. Jung, J. J. Kim, and S. Y. Park, “White luminescence from polymer thin films containing excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer dyes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(17), 2077–2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. H.

T. H. Kim, H. K. Lee, O. O. Park, B. D. Chin, S. H. Lee, and K. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes based on iridium complexes via efficient energy transfer from a conjugated polymer,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(5), 611–617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kitney, S. P.

A. Liedtke, M. O’Neill, A. Wertmöller, S. P. Kitney, and S. M. Kelly, “White-light OLEDs using liquid crystal polymer networks,” Chem. Mater.20(11), 3579–3586 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krallafa, A.

M. Belalia, M. Mitov, C. Bourgerette, A. Krallafa, M. Belhakem, and D. Bormann, “Cholesteric liquid crystals with a helical pitch gradient: spatial distribution of the concentration of chiral groups by raman mapping in relation with the optical response and the microstructure,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.74(5), 051704 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausch, G.

M. Geoghegan, H. Ermer, G. Jüngst, G. Krausch, and R. Brenn, “Wetting in a phase separating polymer blend film: quench depth dependence,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics62(11 Pt B), 940–950 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhlmann, J.-C.

areJ.-C. Kuhlmann, P. Bruyn, R. K. M. Bouwer, A. Meetsma, P. W. M. Blom, and J. C. Hummelen, “Improving the compatibility of fullerene acceptors with fluorene-containing donor-polymers in organic photovoltaic devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(38), 7232–7234 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamansky, S.

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. K.

T. H. Kim, H. K. Lee, O. O. Park, B. D. Chin, S. H. Lee, and K. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes based on iridium complexes via efficient energy transfer from a conjugated polymer,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(5), 611–617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. Lee, H. Jang, S.-W. Choi, and K. Song, “Fabrication of broadband cholesteric liquid crystal films by photopolymerization-induced phase separation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)530(1), 169–174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, H. Jang, S.-W. Choi, and K. Song, “Direct observation of pitch gradient in cholesteric liquid crystal film using fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc.30(7), 1625–1627 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

T. H. Kim, H. K. Lee, O. O. Park, B. D. Chin, S. H. Lee, and K. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes based on iridium complexes via efficient energy transfer from a conjugated polymer,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(5), 611–617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-Z.

Y.-Z. Lee, X. Chen, M.-C. Chen, S.-A. Chen, J.-H. Hsu, and W. Fann, “White-light electroluminescence from soluble oxadiazole-containing phenylene vinylene ether-linkage copolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(3), 308–310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liedtke, A.

A. Liedtke, M. O’Neill, A. Wertmöller, S. P. Kitney, and S. M. Kelly, “White-light OLEDs using liquid crystal polymer networks,” Chem. Mater.20(11), 3579–3586 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lieser, G.

M. Oda, H. G. Nothofer, G. Lieser, U. Scherf, S. C. J. Meskers, and D. Neher, “Circularly polarized electroluminescence from liquid-crystalline chiral polyfluorenes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)12(5), 362–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lub, J.

V. Vaenkatesan, R. T. Wegh, J.-P. Teunissen, J. Lub, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Improving the brightness and daylight contrast of organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(1), 138–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ma, D. G.

G. L. Tu, C. Y. Mei, Q. G. Zhou, Y. X. Cheng, Y. H. Geng, L. X. Wang, D. G. Ma, X. B. Jing, and F. S. Wang, “Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(1), 101–106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, W.

X. Gong, W. Ma, J. C. Ostrowski, G. C. Bazan, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “White electrophosphorescence from semiconducting polymer blends,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)16(7), 615–619 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malimoneko, N. V.

S. V. Belayev, M. Schadt, M. I. Barnik, J. Funfschilling, N. V. Malimoneko, and K. Schmitt, “Large aperture polarized light source and novel liquid crystal display operating modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.29(Part 2, No. 4), L634–L637 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Meetsma, A.

areJ.-C. Kuhlmann, P. Bruyn, R. K. M. Bouwer, A. Meetsma, P. W. M. Blom, and J. C. Hummelen, “Improving the compatibility of fullerene acceptors with fluorene-containing donor-polymers in organic photovoltaic devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)46(38), 7232–7234 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mei, C. Y.

G. L. Tu, C. Y. Mei, Q. G. Zhou, Y. X. Cheng, Y. H. Geng, L. X. Wang, D. G. Ma, X. B. Jing, and F. S. Wang, “Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(1), 101–106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, E. W.

E. Peeters, M. P. T. Christiaans, R. A. J. Janssen, H. F. M. Schoo, H. P. J. M. Dekkers, and E. W. Meijer, “Circularly polarized electroluminescence from a polymer light-emitting diode,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.119(41), 9909–9910 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meskers, S. C. J.

M. Oda, H. G. Nothofer, G. Lieser, U. Scherf, S. C. J. Meskers, and D. Neher, “Circularly polarized electroluminescence from liquid-crystalline chiral polyfluorenes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)12(5), 362–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mitov, M.

M. Belalia, M. Mitov, C. Bourgerette, A. Krallafa, M. Belhakem, and D. Bormann, “Cholesteric liquid crystals with a helical pitch gradient: spatial distribution of the concentration of chiral groups by raman mapping in relation with the optical response and the microstructure,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.74(5), 051704 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moses, D.

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes: white-light emission with high efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(17), 2053–2058 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Gong, W. Ma, J. C. Ostrowski, G. C. Bazan, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “White electrophosphorescence from semiconducting polymer blends,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)16(7), 615–619 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, K.

J. Kido, H. Shionoya, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on dye‐dispersed poly(N‐vinylcarbazole),” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(16), 2281–2283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N‐vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent deyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Neher, D.

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, “A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(8), 577–580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Oda, H. G. Nothofer, G. Lieser, U. Scherf, S. C. J. Meskers, and D. Neher, “Circularly polarized electroluminescence from liquid-crystalline chiral polyfluorenes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)12(5), 362–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater.4, 383–387 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Jeong, Y. Ohtsuka, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes with wide-band reflective polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(21), 211106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, I. J. Chung, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electrotunable non-reciprocal laser emission from a liquid-crystal photonic device,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(14), 1793–1798 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect mode lasing with lowered threshold in a three-layered hetero cholesteric liquid crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(2), 193–197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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M. Oda, H. G. Nothofer, G. Lieser, U. Scherf, S. C. J. Meskers, and D. Neher, “Circularly polarized electroluminescence from liquid-crystalline chiral polyfluorenes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)12(5), 362–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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A. Liedtke, M. O’Neill, A. Wertmöller, S. P. Kitney, and S. M. Kelly, “White-light OLEDs using liquid crystal polymer networks,” Chem. Mater.20(11), 3579–3586 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oda, M.

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, “A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(8), 577–580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Oda, H. G. Nothofer, G. Lieser, U. Scherf, S. C. J. Meskers, and D. Neher, “Circularly polarized electroluminescence from liquid-crystalline chiral polyfluorenes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)12(5), 362–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater.4, 383–387 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Jeong, Y. Ohtsuka, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes with wide-band reflective polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(21), 211106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okuyama, K.

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N‐vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent deyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowski, J. C.

X. Gong, W. Ma, J. C. Ostrowski, G. C. Bazan, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “White electrophosphorescence from semiconducting polymer blends,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)16(7), 615–619 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, I. J. Chung, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electrotunable non-reciprocal laser emission from a liquid-crystal photonic device,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(14), 1793–1798 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect mode lasing with lowered threshold in a three-layered hetero cholesteric liquid crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(2), 193–197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, O. O.

T. H. Kim, H. K. Lee, O. O. Park, B. D. Chin, S. H. Lee, and K. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes based on iridium complexes via efficient energy transfer from a conjugated polymer,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(5), 611–617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. Y.

S. Kim, J. Seo, H. K. Jung, J. J. Kim, and S. Y. Park, “White luminescence from polymer thin films containing excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer dyes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(17), 2077–2082 (2005).
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E. Peeters, M. P. T. Christiaans, R. A. J. Janssen, H. F. M. Schoo, H. P. J. M. Dekkers, and E. W. Meijer, “Circularly polarized electroluminescence from a polymer light-emitting diode,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.119(41), 9909–9910 (1997).
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L. M. Popescu, P. van 't Hof, A. B. Sieval, H. T. Jonkman, and J. C. Hummelen, “Thienyl analog of 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)Propyl-1-Phenyl-[6,6]-methanofullerene for bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices in combination with polythiophenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 213507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sakaran, B.

S. J. Bai, C. C. Wu, T. D. Dang, F. E. Arnold, and B. Sakaran, “Tunable and white light-emitting diodes of monolayer fluorinated benzoxazole graft copolymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(10), 1656–1658 (2004).
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M. Oda, H. G. Nothofer, G. Lieser, U. Scherf, S. C. J. Meskers, and D. Neher, “Circularly polarized electroluminescence from liquid-crystalline chiral polyfluorenes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)12(5), 362–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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S. V. Belayev, M. Schadt, M. I. Barnik, J. Funfschilling, N. V. Malimoneko, and K. Schmitt, “Large aperture polarized light source and novel liquid crystal display operating modes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.29(Part 2, No. 4), L634–L637 (1990).
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E. Peeters, M. P. T. Christiaans, R. A. J. Janssen, H. F. M. Schoo, H. P. J. M. Dekkers, and E. W. Meijer, “Circularly polarized electroluminescence from a polymer light-emitting diode,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.119(41), 9909–9910 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J.

S. Kim, J. Seo, H. K. Jung, J. J. Kim, and S. Y. Park, “White luminescence from polymer thin films containing excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer dyes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(17), 2077–2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shionoya, H.

J. Kido, H. Shionoya, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on dye‐dispersed poly(N‐vinylcarbazole),” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(16), 2281–2283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shu, C.-F.

J. H. Kim, P. Herguth, M.-S. Kang, A. K. Y. Jen, Y.-H. Tseng, and C.-F. Shu, “Bright white light electroluminescent devices based on a dye-dispersed polyfluorene derivative,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1116–1118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sieval, A. B.

L. M. Popescu, P. van 't Hof, A. B. Sieval, H. T. Jonkman, and J. C. Hummelen, “Thienyl analog of 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)Propyl-1-Phenyl-[6,6]-methanofullerene for bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices in combination with polythiophenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 213507 (2006).
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M. Lee, H. Jang, S.-W. Choi, and K. Song, “Fabrication of broadband cholesteric liquid crystal films by photopolymerization-induced phase separation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)530(1), 169–174 (2010).
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M. Lee, H. Jang, S.-W. Choi, and K. Song, “Direct observation of pitch gradient in cholesteric liquid crystal film using fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging,” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc.30(7), 1625–1627 (2009).
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Song, M. H.

M. G. Chee, M. H. Song, D. Kim, H. Takezoe, and I. J. Chung, “Lowring lasing threshold in chiral nematic liquid crystal structure with different anisotropies,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(18), L437–L439 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect mode lasing with lowered threshold in a three-layered hetero cholesteric liquid crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(2), 193–197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, I. J. Chung, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electrotunable non-reciprocal laser emission from a liquid-crystal photonic device,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(14), 1793–1798 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suzaki, G.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater.4, 383–387 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Jeong, Y. Ohtsuka, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes with wide-band reflective polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(21), 211106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takanishi, Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater.4, 383–387 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Jeong, Y. Ohtsuka, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes with wide-band reflective polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(21), 211106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, I. J. Chung, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electrotunable non-reciprocal laser emission from a liquid-crystal photonic device,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(14), 1793–1798 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect mode lasing with lowered threshold in a three-layered hetero cholesteric liquid crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(2), 193–197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater.4, 383–387 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Chee, M. H. Song, D. Kim, H. Takezoe, and I. J. Chung, “Lowring lasing threshold in chiral nematic liquid crystal structure with different anisotropies,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.46(18), L437–L439 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, Y. Ohtsuka, N. Y. Ha, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, and G. Suzaki, “Highly circularly polarized electroluminescence from organic light-emitting diodes with wide-band reflective polymeric cholesteric liquid crystal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(21), 211106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, I. J. Chung, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electrotunable non-reciprocal laser emission from a liquid-crystal photonic device,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(14), 1793–1798 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect mode lasing with lowered threshold in a three-layered hetero cholesteric liquid crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(2), 193–197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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V. Vaenkatesan, R. T. Wegh, J.-P. Teunissen, J. Lub, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Improving the brightness and daylight contrast of organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(1), 138–142 (2005).
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M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(1), 4–6 (1999).
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M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, I. J. Chung, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electrotunable non-reciprocal laser emission from a liquid-crystal photonic device,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(14), 1793–1798 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect mode lasing with lowered threshold in a three-layered hetero cholesteric liquid crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(2), 193–197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, Y.-H.

J. H. Kim, P. Herguth, M.-S. Kang, A. K. Y. Jen, Y.-H. Tseng, and C.-F. Shu, “Bright white light electroluminescent devices based on a dye-dispersed polyfluorene derivative,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1116–1118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tu, G. L.

G. L. Tu, C. Y. Mei, Q. G. Zhou, Y. X. Cheng, Y. H. Geng, L. X. Wang, D. G. Ma, X. B. Jing, and F. S. Wang, “Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(1), 101–106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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V. Vaenkatesan, R. T. Wegh, J.-P. Teunissen, J. Lub, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Improving the brightness and daylight contrast of organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(1), 138–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van der Auweraer, M.

J. P. Yang, Y. D. Jin, P. L. Heremans, R. Hoefnagels, P. Dieltiens, F. Blockhuys, H. J. Geise, M. Van der Auweraer, and G. Borghs, “White light emission from a single layer organic light emitting diode fabricated by spincoating,” Chem. Phys. Lett.325(1-3), 251–256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van 't Hof, P.

L. M. Popescu, P. van 't Hof, A. B. Sieval, H. T. Jonkman, and J. C. Hummelen, “Thienyl analog of 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)Propyl-1-Phenyl-[6,6]-methanofullerene for bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices in combination with polythiophenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(21), 213507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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G. L. Tu, C. Y. Mei, Q. G. Zhou, Y. X. Cheng, Y. H. Geng, L. X. Wang, D. G. Ma, X. B. Jing, and F. S. Wang, “Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(1), 101–106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. X.

G. L. Tu, C. Y. Mei, Q. G. Zhou, Y. X. Cheng, Y. H. Geng, L. X. Wang, D. G. Ma, X. B. Jing, and F. S. Wang, “Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(1), 101–106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes: white-light emission with high efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(17), 2053–2058 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wegh, R. T.

V. Vaenkatesan, R. T. Wegh, J.-P. Teunissen, J. Lub, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Improving the brightness and daylight contrast of organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(1), 138–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wertmöller, A.

A. Liedtke, M. O’Neill, A. Wertmöller, S. P. Kitney, and S. M. Kelly, “White-light OLEDs using liquid crystal polymer networks,” Chem. Mater.20(11), 3579–3586 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Whitehead, K. S.

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, “A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(8), 577–580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. C.

S. J. Bai, C. C. Wu, T. D. Dang, F. E. Arnold, and B. Sakaran, “Tunable and white light-emitting diodes of monolayer fluorinated benzoxazole graft copolymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(10), 1656–1658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. W.

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect mode lasing with lowered threshold in a three-layered hetero cholesteric liquid crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(2), 193–197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. P.

J. P. Yang, Y. D. Jin, P. L. Heremans, R. Hoefnagels, P. Dieltiens, F. Blockhuys, H. J. Geise, M. Van der Auweraer, and G. Borghs, “White light emission from a single layer organic light emitting diode fabricated by spincoating,” Chem. Phys. Lett.325(1-3), 251–256 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q. G.

G. L. Tu, C. Y. Mei, Q. G. Zhou, Y. X. Cheng, Y. H. Geng, L. X. Wang, D. G. Ma, X. B. Jing, and F. S. Wang, “Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(1), 101–106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

T. H. Kim, H. K. Lee, O. O. Park, B. D. Chin, S. H. Lee, and K. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes based on iridium complexes via efficient energy transfer from a conjugated polymer,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(5), 611–617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Tu, C. Y. Mei, Q. G. Zhou, Y. X. Cheng, Y. H. Geng, L. X. Wang, D. G. Ma, X. B. Jing, and F. S. Wang, “Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(1), 101–106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Vaenkatesan, R. T. Wegh, J.-P. Teunissen, J. Lub, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Improving the brightness and daylight contrast of organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.15(1), 138–142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, I. J. Chung, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electrotunable non-reciprocal laser emission from a liquid-crystal photonic device,” Adv. Funct. Mater.16(14), 1793–1798 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

M. H. Song, N. Y. Ha, K. Amemiya, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. W. Wu, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Defect mode lasing with lowered threshold in a three-layered hetero cholesteric liquid crystal structure,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)18(2), 193–197 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Oda, H. G. Nothofer, G. Lieser, U. Scherf, S. C. J. Meskers, and D. Neher, “Circularly polarized electroluminescence from liquid-crystalline chiral polyfluorenes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)12(5), 362–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, “Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes: white-light emission with high efficiency,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(17), 2053–2058 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. Seo, H. K. Jung, J. J. Kim, and S. Y. Park, “White luminescence from polymer thin films containing excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer dyes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)17(17), 2077–2082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Grell, M. Oda, K. S. Whitehead, A. Asimakis, D. Neher, and D. D. C. Bradley, “A compact device for the efficient, electrically driven generation of highly circularly polarized light,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(8), 577–580 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Gong, W. Ma, J. C. Ostrowski, G. C. Bazan, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “White electrophosphorescence from semiconducting polymer blends,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)16(7), 615–619 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D'Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N‐vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent deyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Kido, H. Shionoya, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on dye‐dispersed poly(N‐vinylcarbazole),” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(16), 2281–2283 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kim, P. Herguth, M.-S. Kang, A. K. Y. Jen, Y.-H. Tseng, and C.-F. Shu, “Bright white light electroluminescent devices based on a dye-dispersed polyfluorene derivative,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(7), 1116–1118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Bai, C. C. Wu, T. D. Dang, F. E. Arnold, and B. Sakaran, “Tunable and white light-emitting diodes of monolayer fluorinated benzoxazole graft copolymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(10), 1656–1658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Detailed chemical structure of spirobifluorene (SBF) moiety contained in M-blue and M-red polymers and Super Yellow (SY). (b) Device configuration used in this study. The device structure was ITO/PEDOT:PSS/M-blue:SY:M-red/LiF/Al. (c) Chemical structure of host LC synthesized by our group. (d) Normalized UV-Vis absorption (dashed line) and photoluminescence (PL) (solid line) spectra of M-blue, SY, and M-red in the film: (I) absorption of the M-red film, (II) absorption of the M-blue film, (III) absorption of the SY film, (IV) PL of the M-blue film, (V) PL of the SY film, (VI) PL of the M-red film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Normalized EL spectra of white emission from PLEDs with 0.1 wt% SY and varying amounts of red dopant M-red at luminance of 500 cd/m2: 0.5 (case 1), 0.4 (case 2), 0.3 (case 3), and 0 wt% M-red (100% M-blue). (b) CIE color diagram of white emission from PLEDs with varying amounts of M-red.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Current density (J) and luminance (L) versus applied voltage (V), (b) luminous efficiency (LE) versus current density (J), (c) color stability, and (d) variation in CIE color coordinates with applied voltage for white emission device with the structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/M-blue (99.4 wt%):SY (0.1 wt%):M-red (0.5 wt%)/LiF/Al.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Topographical image (1 µm × 1 µm) in (a) height mode, (b) amplitude mode, and (c) three-dimensional height mode for RGB blend film with composition of M-blue:SY:M-red = 99.4:0.1:0.5 wt%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic device configuration for highly CP white EL from WPLED and corresponding structure of R-CLC reflector with wide bandgap covering visible range. (b) Right (R)- and left (L)-CP-EL spectra. (c) Calculated g-factor over the entire wavelength range of the emission band of WPLED. (d) Luminance versus the applied voltage (L–V) for different polarized emissions from the WPLED combined with RH-CLC reflector. R and L polarizers were inserted to measure the intensity of R-CP-EL and L-CP-EL, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Detailed device characteristics of PLEDs with the structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/M-blue(99.4wt%):SY(0.1wt%):M-red(0.5wt%)/LiF/Al at various applied voltages.

Equations (2)

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λ R =np
g(λ)=2 r(λ)-1 r(λ)+1

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