Abstract

We propose a cholesteric liquid crystal device with a three-terminal electrode structure that can be operated in both the dynamic and the bistable modes. Fast switching (less than 5 ms) between the planar and the in-plane-field-induced states can be realized by applying an in-plane electric field, and conventional bistable switching between the planar and focal conic states can be realized by applying a vertical electric field.

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  1. D.-K. Yang, J. W. Doane, Z. Yaniv, and J. Glasser, “Cholesteric reflective display: drive scheme and contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(15), 1905–1907 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L.-C. Chien, U. Muller, M.-F. Nabor, and J. W. Doane, “Multicolor reflective cholesteric displays,” Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 26, 169–171 (1995).
  3. B. Taheri, J. W. Doane, D. Davis, and D. St. John, “Optical properties of bistable cholesteric reflective displays,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 39–42 (1996).
  4. M.-H. Lu, “Bistable reflective cholesteric liquid crystal display,” J. Appl. Phys.81(3), 1063–1066 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Xu, F. Xu, and D.-K. Yang, “Effect of cell structure on the reflection of cholesteric liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys.83(4), 1938–1944 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Anderson, P. Watson, J. Ruth, V. Sergan, and P. Bos, “Fast frame rate bistable cholesteric texture reflective displays,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 29(1), 806–809 (1998).
  7. A. Khan, X.-Y. Huang, R. Armbruster, F. Nicholson, N. Miller, B. Wall, and J. W. Doane, “Super high brightness reflective cholesteric display,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 32(1), 460–463 (2001).
  8. C.-Y. Huang, K.-Y. Fu, K.-Y. Lo, and M.-S. Tsai, “Bistable transflective cholesteric light shutters,” Opt. Express11(6), 560–565 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D.-K. Yang, “Flexible bistable cholesteric reflective displays,” J. Disp. Technol.2(1), 32–37 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. H. Lee, J.-S. Yu, J.-H. Kim, S.-I. Yamamoto, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic device controlled by dielectric response of planarly aligned cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.106(1), 014503 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K.-H. Kim, H.-J. Jin, K.-H. Park, J.-H. Lee, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal cell for switchable achromatic reflection,” Opt. Express18(16), 16745–16750 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K.-H. Kim, H.-J. Jin, D. H. Song, B.-H. Cheong, H.-Y. Choi, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Switching of liquid-crystal devices between reflective and transmissive modes using long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3504–3506 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Ma, L. Shi, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express3(2), 021702 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W.-S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H.-J. Park, I.-J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 263508 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K.-H. Kim, D. H. Song, Z.-G. Shen, B. W. Park, K.-H. Park, J.-H. Lee, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast switching of long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal device,” Opt. Express19(11), 10174–10179 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford University Press, 1993).
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  18. D.-K. Yang and S.-T. Wu, Fundamentals of liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).
  19. J.-I. Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. T. Shin, and H. S. Woo, “Fast turn-off switching of a liquid crystal cell by optically hidden relaxation,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 39, 1846–1849 (2008).
  21. J. H. Lee, T. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, J. C. Kim, C. G. Jhun, and S. B. Kwon, “Transflective dual operating mode liquid crystal display with wideband configuration,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea14(3), 260–265 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W.-S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H.-J. Park, I.-J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 263508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Kim, D. H. Song, Z.-G. Shen, B. W. Park, K.-H. Park, J.-H. Lee, and T.-H. Yoon, “Fast switching of long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal device,” Opt. Express19(11), 10174–10179 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

H. H. Lee, J.-S. Yu, J.-H. Kim, S.-I. Yamamoto, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic device controlled by dielectric response of planarly aligned cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.106(1), 014503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

J.-I. Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D.-K. Yang, “Flexible bistable cholesteric reflective displays,” J. Disp. Technol.2(1), 32–37 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

1998

M. Xu, F. Xu, and D.-K. Yang, “Effect of cell structure on the reflection of cholesteric liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys.83(4), 1938–1944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M.-H. Lu, “Bistable reflective cholesteric liquid crystal display,” J. Appl. Phys.81(3), 1063–1066 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

D.-K. Yang, J. W. Doane, Z. Yaniv, and J. Glasser, “Cholesteric reflective display: drive scheme and contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(15), 1905–1907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J.-I.

J.-I. Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Castles, F.

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W.-S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H.-J. Park, I.-J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 263508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, B.-H.

Choi, H.-Y.

Choi, S. S.

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W.-S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H.-J. Park, I.-J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 263508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chung, I.-J.

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W.-S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H.-J. Park, I.-J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 263508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Coles, H. J.

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W.-S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H.-J. Park, I.-J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 263508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Doane, J. W.

D.-K. Yang, J. W. Doane, Z. Yaniv, and J. Glasser, “Cholesteric reflective display: drive scheme and contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(15), 1905–1907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fu, K.-Y.

Gardiner, D. J.

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W.-S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H.-J. Park, I.-J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 263508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Glasser, J.

D.-K. Yang, J. W. Doane, Z. Yaniv, and J. Glasser, “Cholesteric reflective display: drive scheme and contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(15), 1905–1907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-Y.

Jhun, C. G.

Jin, H.-J.

Kikuchi, H.

H. H. Lee, J.-S. Yu, J.-H. Kim, S.-I. Yamamoto, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic device controlled by dielectric response of planarly aligned cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.106(1), 014503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

Kim, J.-H.

H. H. Lee, J.-S. Yu, J.-H. Kim, S.-I. Yamamoto, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic device controlled by dielectric response of planarly aligned cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.106(1), 014503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-H.

Kim, T.

Kim, W.-S.

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W.-S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H.-J. Park, I.-J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 263508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S. B.

Kwon, Y.-H.

J.-I. Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. H.

H. H. Lee, J.-S. Yu, J.-H. Kim, S.-I. Yamamoto, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic device controlled by dielectric response of planarly aligned cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.106(1), 014503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

Lee, J.-H.

Lo, K.-Y.

Lu, M.-H.

M.-H. Lu, “Bistable reflective cholesteric liquid crystal display,” J. Appl. Phys.81(3), 1063–1066 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

J. Ma, L. Shi, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express3(2), 021702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morris, S. M.

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W.-S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H.-J. Park, I.-J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 263508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, B. W.

Park, H.-J.

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W.-S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H.-J. Park, I.-J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 263508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.-H.

Qasim, M. M.

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W.-S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H.-J. Park, I.-J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 263508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z.-G.

Shi, L.

J. Ma, L. Shi, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express3(2), 021702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S. T.

Song, D. H.

Tsai, M.-S.

Xu, F.

M. Xu, F. Xu, and D.-K. Yang, “Effect of cell structure on the reflection of cholesteric liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys.83(4), 1938–1944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M.

M. Xu, F. Xu, and D.-K. Yang, “Effect of cell structure on the reflection of cholesteric liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys.83(4), 1938–1944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.-I.

H. H. Lee, J.-S. Yu, J.-H. Kim, S.-I. Yamamoto, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic device controlled by dielectric response of planarly aligned cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.106(1), 014503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.-K.

J. Ma, L. Shi, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express3(2), 021702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D.-K. Yang, “Flexible bistable cholesteric reflective displays,” J. Disp. Technol.2(1), 32–37 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Xu, F. Xu, and D.-K. Yang, “Effect of cell structure on the reflection of cholesteric liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys.83(4), 1938–1944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D.-K. Yang, J. W. Doane, Z. Yaniv, and J. Glasser, “Cholesteric reflective display: drive scheme and contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(15), 1905–1907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yaniv, Z.

D.-K. Yang, J. W. Doane, Z. Yaniv, and J. Glasser, “Cholesteric reflective display: drive scheme and contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(15), 1905–1907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.-H.

Yu, J.-S.

H. H. Lee, J.-S. Yu, J.-H. Kim, S.-I. Yamamoto, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic device controlled by dielectric response of planarly aligned cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.106(1), 014503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

J. Ma, L. Shi, and D.-K. Yang, “Bistable polymer stabilized cholesteric texture light shutter,” Appl. Phys. Express3(2), 021702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. J. Gardiner, S. M. Morris, F. Castles, M. M. Qasim, W.-S. Kim, S. S. Choi, H.-J. Park, I.-J. Chung, and H. J. Coles, “Polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals for fast switching and high contrast electro-optic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 263508 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D.-K. Yang, J. W. Doane, Z. Yaniv, and J. Glasser, “Cholesteric reflective display: drive scheme and contrast,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(15), 1905–1907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J.-I. Baek, Y.-H. Kwon, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Dual-mode switching of a liquid crystal panel for viewing angle control,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M.-H. Lu, “Bistable reflective cholesteric liquid crystal display,” J. Appl. Phys.81(3), 1063–1066 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Xu, F. Xu, and D.-K. Yang, “Effect of cell structure on the reflection of cholesteric liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys.83(4), 1938–1944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Lee, J.-S. Yu, J.-H. Kim, S.-I. Yamamoto, and H. Kikuchi, “Fast electro-optic device controlled by dielectric response of planarly aligned cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.106(1), 014503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol.

D.-K. Yang, “Flexible bistable cholesteric reflective displays,” J. Disp. Technol.2(1), 32–37 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. T. Shin, and H. S. Woo, “Fast turn-off switching of a liquid crystal cell by optically hidden relaxation,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 39, 1846–1849 (2008).

L.-C. Chien, U. Muller, M.-F. Nabor, and J. W. Doane, “Multicolor reflective cholesteric displays,” Soc. Inf. Disp. Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 26, 169–171 (1995).

B. Taheri, J. W. Doane, D. Davis, and D. St. John, “Optical properties of bistable cholesteric reflective displays,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 27, 39–42 (1996).

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford University Press, 1993).

S. T. Wu and D.-K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2001).

D.-K. Yang and S.-T. Wu, Fundamentals of liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).

J. Anderson, P. Watson, J. Ruth, V. Sergan, and P. Bos, “Fast frame rate bistable cholesteric texture reflective displays,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 29(1), 806–809 (1998).

A. Khan, X.-Y. Huang, R. Armbruster, F. Nicholson, N. Miller, B. Wall, and J. W. Doane, “Super high brightness reflective cholesteric display,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 32(1), 460–463 (2001).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Bistable mode operation of the proposed ChLC device by applying a vertical electric field: (a) planar state, (b) focal conic state, and (c) homeotropic state.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Proposed ChLC device with a three-terminal electrode structure. The top electrode is used for vertical electric field switching. The patterned electrodes are used for in-plane switching.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflection spectra of the fabricated ChLC device with the applied in-plane voltage as a parameter. Initially, the ChLC device is in the planar state.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Voltage–reflectance curves of the proposed ChLC device with the three-terminal electrode structure when (a) a vertical electric field is applied and (b) an in-plane electric field is applied. The insets show images of the fabricated ChLC devices in each state.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal switching behavior of the proposed ChLC device for (a) vertical switching between the planar and homeotropic states and (b) in-plane switching between the planar and in-plane-field-induced states.

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