Abstract

We demonstrate mid-infrared (mid-IR) supercontinuum generation (SCG) with instantaneous bandwidth from 2.2 to 5 μm at 40 dB below the peak, covering the wavelength range desirable for molecular spectroscopy and numerous other applications. The SCG occurs in a tapered As2S3 fiber prepared by in-situ tapering and is pumped by femtosecond pulses from the subharmonic of a mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser. Interference with a narrow linewidth c.w. laser verifies that the coherence properties of the near-IR frequency comb have been preserved through these cascaded nonlinear processes. With this approach stable broad mid-IR frequency combs can be derived from commercially available near-IR frequency combs without an extra stabilization mechanism.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics6, 440–449 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Moselund, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, C. Agger, O. Bang, and S. R. Keiding, “Supercontinuum: broad as a lamp, bright as a laser, now in the mid-infrared”, Proc. SPIE8381, 83811A (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, “High efficiency and ultra broadband optical parametric four-wave mixing in chalcogenide-PMMA hybrid microwires,” Opt. Express.20, 9572–9580 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, K. L. Vodopyanov, J. Jiang, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, and P. G. Schunemann, “Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6–6.1μm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Express20, 7046–7053 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marandi, N. Leindecker, V. Pervak, R. L. Byer, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Coherence properties of a broadband femtosecond mid-IR optical parametric oscillator operating at degeneracy,” Opt. Express20, 7255–7262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

2010 (4)

2009 (2)

C. Xiong, E. Magi, F. Luan, A. Tuniz, S. Dekker, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterization of picosecond pulse nonlinear propagation in chalcogenide As2S3 fiber,” Appl. Opt.48, 5467–5474 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater.45, 1439–1460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

M. J. Thorpe, D. Balslev-Clausen, M. S. Kirchner, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy: application to human breath analysis,” Opt. Express16, 2387–2397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. S. Sears, E. Colby, R. J. England, R. Ischebeck, C. McGuinness, J. Nelson, R. Noble, R. H. Siemann, J. Spencer, D. Walz, T. Plettner, and R. L. Byer, “Phase stable net acceleration of electrons from a two-stage optical accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.11, 101301 (2008).

P. Domachuk, N. A. Wolchover, M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Wang, A. K. George, C. M. B. Cordeiro, J. C. Knight, and F. G. Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express6, 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature445, 627–630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78, 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

1992 (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol.10, 432–438 (1992)
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

R. R. Alfanao and S. L. Shapiro, “Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 A via four-photon coupling in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett.24, 584–587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

Aggarwal, I.

L. Brandon Shaw, R. R. Gattass, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “All-fiber mid-IR supercontinuum source from 1.5 to 5 μm,” Proc. SPIE7914, 79140P (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Agger, C.

P. M. Moselund, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, C. Agger, O. Bang, and S. R. Keiding, “Supercontinuum: broad as a lamp, bright as a laser, now in the mid-infrared”, Proc. SPIE8381, 83811A (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, R.

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, “High efficiency and ultra broadband optical parametric four-wave mixing in chalcogenide-PMMA hybrid microwires,” Opt. Express.20, 9572–9580 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfanao, R. R.

R. R. Alfanao and S. L. Shapiro, “Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 A via four-photon coupling in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett.24, 584–587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics4, 822–832 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Balslev-Clausen, D.

Bang, O.

P. M. Moselund, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, C. Agger, O. Bang, and S. R. Keiding, “Supercontinuum: broad as a lamp, bright as a laser, now in the mid-infrared”, Proc. SPIE8381, 83811A (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bellini, M.

Bernhardt, B.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics4, 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol.10, 432–438 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Brandon Shaw, L.

L. Brandon Shaw, R. R. Gattass, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “All-fiber mid-IR supercontinuum source from 1.5 to 5 μm,” Proc. SPIE7914, 79140P (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brilland, L.

Byer, R. L.

Chen, M. C.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics4, 822–832 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Churbanov, M. F.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater.45, 1439–1460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78, 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley and S. Coen, “Coherence properties of supercontinuum spectra generated in photonic crystal and tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.27, 1180–1182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Colby, E.

C. M. S. Sears, E. Colby, R. J. England, R. Ischebeck, C. McGuinness, J. Nelson, R. Noble, R. H. Siemann, J. Spencer, D. Walz, T. Plettner, and R. L. Byer, “Phase stable net acceleration of electrons from a two-stage optical accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.11, 101301 (2008).

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

P. Domachuk, N. A. Wolchover, M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Wang, A. K. George, C. M. B. Cordeiro, J. C. Knight, and F. G. Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express6, 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Corwin, K. L.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

P. Domachuk, N. A. Wolchover, M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Wang, A. K. George, C. M. B. Cordeiro, J. C. Knight, and F. G. Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express6, 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, S.

Dekker, S. A.

Dianov, E. M.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater.45, 1439–1460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature445, 627–630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Domachuk, P.

P. Domachuk, N. A. Wolchover, M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Wang, A. K. George, C. M. B. Cordeiro, J. C. Knight, and F. G. Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express6, 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duan, Z.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78, 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley and S. Coen, “Coherence properties of supercontinuum spectra generated in photonic crystal and tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.27, 1180–1182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, Supercontinuum generation in optical fibers (Cambridge University Press, 2010).
[CrossRef]

Dupont, S.

P. M. Moselund, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, C. Agger, O. Bang, and S. R. Keiding, “Supercontinuum: broad as a lamp, bright as a laser, now in the mid-infrared”, Proc. SPIE8381, 83811A (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

El-Amraoui, M.

England, R. J.

C. M. S. Sears, E. Colby, R. J. England, R. Ischebeck, C. McGuinness, J. Nelson, R. Noble, R. H. Siemann, J. Spencer, D. Walz, T. Plettner, and R. L. Byer, “Phase stable net acceleration of electrons from a two-stage optical accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.11, 101301 (2008).

Fatome, J.

Fermann, M.

Fortier, C.

Gadret, G.

Gao, W.

Gattass, R. R.

L. Brandon Shaw, R. R. Gattass, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “All-fiber mid-IR supercontinuum source from 1.5 to 5 μm,” Proc. SPIE7914, 79140P (2011).
[CrossRef]

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78, 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

George, A. K.

P. Domachuk, N. A. Wolchover, M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Wang, A. K. George, C. M. B. Cordeiro, J. C. Knight, and F. G. Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express6, 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gohle, C.

Guelachvili, G.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics4, 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hansch, T. W.

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics6, 440–449 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics4, 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellini and T. W. Hansch, “Phase-locked white-light continuum pulses: toward a universal optical frequency-comb synthesizer,” Opt. Lett.25, 1049–1051 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harbold, J. M.

Hartl, I.

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature445, 627–630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics4, 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Keilmann, C. Gohle, and R. Holzwarth, “Time-domain mid-infrared frequency-comb spectrometer,” Opt. Lett.29, 1542–1544 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

Hudson, D. D.

Ilday, F. O.

Ischebeck, R.

C. M. S. Sears, E. Colby, R. J. England, R. Ischebeck, C. McGuinness, J. Nelson, R. Noble, R. H. Siemann, J. Spencer, D. Walz, T. Plettner, and R. L. Byer, “Phase stable net acceleration of electrons from a two-stage optical accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.11, 101301 (2008).

Jackson, S. D.

Jacquet, P.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics4, 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jacquey, M.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics4, 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

Judge, A. C.

Jules, J. C.

Kapteyn, H. C.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics4, 822–832 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

P. M. Moselund, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, C. Agger, O. Bang, and S. R. Keiding, “Supercontinuum: broad as a lamp, bright as a laser, now in the mid-infrared”, Proc. SPIE8381, 83811A (2012).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

Kibler, B.

King, T. A.

Kirchner, M. S.

Knight, J. C.

P. Domachuk, N. A. Wolchover, M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Wang, A. K. George, C. M. B. Cordeiro, J. C. Knight, and F. G. Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express6, 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, Y.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics4, 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leindecker, N.

Li, E.

Li, Y. W.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol.10, 432–438 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Liao, M.

Luan, F.

Luther-Davies, B.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141148 (2011).

Magi, E.

Magi, E. C.

Maliston, I. H.

Marandi, A.

Mbele, V.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature445, 627–630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGuinness, C.

C. M. S. Sears, E. Colby, R. J. England, R. Ischebeck, C. McGuinness, J. Nelson, R. Noble, R. H. Siemann, J. Spencer, D. Walz, T. Plettner, and R. L. Byer, “Phase stable net acceleration of electrons from a two-stage optical accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.11, 101301 (2008).

Menyuk, C. R.

Messaddeq, Y.

Moselund, P. M.

P. M. Moselund, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, C. Agger, O. Bang, and S. R. Keiding, “Supercontinuum: broad as a lamp, bright as a laser, now in the mid-infrared”, Proc. SPIE8381, 83811A (2012).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics4, 822–832 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J.

C. M. S. Sears, E. Colby, R. J. England, R. Ischebeck, C. McGuinness, J. Nelson, R. Noble, R. H. Siemann, J. Spencer, D. Walz, T. Plettner, and R. L. Byer, “Phase stable net acceleration of electrons from a two-stage optical accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.11, 101301 (2008).

Newbury, N. R.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, V. Q.

Noble, R.

C. M. S. Sears, E. Colby, R. J. England, R. Ischebeck, C. McGuinness, J. Nelson, R. Noble, R. H. Siemann, J. Spencer, D. Walz, T. Plettner, and R. L. Byer, “Phase stable net acceleration of electrons from a two-stage optical accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.11, 101301 (2008).

Ohishi, Y.

Omenetto, F. G.

P. Domachuk, N. A. Wolchover, M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Wang, A. K. George, C. M. B. Cordeiro, J. C. Knight, and F. G. Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express6, 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozawa, A.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics4, 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pervak, V.

Petersen, C.

P. M. Moselund, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, C. Agger, O. Bang, and S. R. Keiding, “Supercontinuum: broad as a lamp, bright as a laser, now in the mid-infrared”, Proc. SPIE8381, 83811A (2012).
[CrossRef]

Picque, N.

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics6, 440–449 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics4, 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Plettner, T.

C. M. S. Sears, E. Colby, R. J. England, R. Ischebeck, C. McGuinness, J. Nelson, R. Noble, R. H. Siemann, J. Spencer, D. Walz, T. Plettner, and R. L. Byer, “Phase stable net acceleration of electrons from a two-stage optical accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.11, 101301 (2008).

Plotnichenko, V. G.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater.45, 1439–1460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Polacchini, C. F.

Popmintchev, T.

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics4, 822–832 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qin, G.

Renversez, G.

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141148 (2011).

Rochette, M.

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, “High efficiency and ultra broadband optical parametric four-wave mixing in chalcogenide-PMMA hybrid microwires,” Opt. Express.20, 9572–9580 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodney, W. S.

Sanghera, J.

L. Brandon Shaw, R. R. Gattass, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “All-fiber mid-IR supercontinuum source from 1.5 to 5 μm,” Proc. SPIE7914, 79140P (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

Schliesser, A.

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics6, 440–449 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schunemann, P. G.

Sears, C. M. S.

C. M. S. Sears, E. Colby, R. J. England, R. Ischebeck, C. McGuinness, J. Nelson, R. Noble, R. H. Siemann, J. Spencer, D. Walz, T. Plettner, and R. L. Byer, “Phase stable net acceleration of electrons from a two-stage optical accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.11, 101301 (2008).

Shapiro, S. L.

R. R. Alfanao and S. L. Shapiro, “Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 A via four-photon coupling in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett.24, 584–587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

Shiryaev, V. S.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater.45, 1439–1460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Siemann, R. H.

C. M. S. Sears, E. Colby, R. J. England, R. Ischebeck, C. McGuinness, J. Nelson, R. Noble, R. H. Siemann, J. Spencer, D. Walz, T. Plettner, and R. L. Byer, “Phase stable net acceleration of electrons from a two-stage optical accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.11, 101301 (2008).

Skripatchev, I.

Smektala, F.

Snopatin, G. E.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater.45, 1439–1460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, J.

C. M. S. Sears, E. Colby, R. J. England, R. Ischebeck, C. McGuinness, J. Nelson, R. Noble, R. H. Siemann, J. Spencer, D. Walz, T. Plettner, and R. L. Byer, “Phase stable net acceleration of electrons from a two-stage optical accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.11, 101301 (2008).

Suzuki, T.

Szpulak, M.

Taylor, J. R.

J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, Supercontinuum generation in optical fibers (Cambridge University Press, 2010).
[CrossRef]

Thorpe, M. J.

Troles, J.

Tuniz, A.

Udem, T.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics4, 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Walz, D.

C. M. S. Sears, E. Colby, R. J. England, R. Ischebeck, C. McGuinness, J. Nelson, R. Noble, R. H. Siemann, J. Spencer, D. Walz, T. Plettner, and R. L. Byer, “Phase stable net acceleration of electrons from a two-stage optical accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.11, 101301 (2008).

Wang, A.

P. Domachuk, N. A. Wolchover, M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Wang, A. K. George, C. M. B. Cordeiro, J. C. Knight, and F. G. Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express6, 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weber, K.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wise, F. W.

Wolchover, N. A.

P. Domachuk, N. A. Wolchover, M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Wang, A. K. George, C. M. B. Cordeiro, J. C. Knight, and F. G. Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express6, 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, C.

Yan, X.

Ye, J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Inorg. Mater. (1)

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater.45, 1439–1460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol.10, 432–438 (1992)
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nat. Photonics (4)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141148 (2011).

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics6, 440–449 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M. C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics4, 822–832 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics4, 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature445, 627–630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

P. Domachuk, N. A. Wolchover, M. Cronin-Golomb, A. Wang, A. K. George, C. M. B. Cordeiro, J. C. Knight, and F. G. Omenetto, “Over 4000 nm bandwidth of mid-IR supercontinuum generation in sub-centimeter segments of highly nonlinear tellurite PCFs,” Opt. Express6, 7161–7168 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Thorpe, D. Balslev-Clausen, M. S. Kirchner, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy: application to human breath analysis,” Opt. Express16, 2387–2397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liao, X. Yan, W. Gao, Z. Duan, G. Qin, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Five-order SRSs and supercontinuum generation from a tapered tellurite microstructured fiber with longitudinally varying dispersion,” Opt. Express19, 15389–15396 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, K. L. Vodopyanov, J. Jiang, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, and P. G. Schunemann, “Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6–6.1μm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Express20, 7046–7053 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marandi, N. Leindecker, V. Pervak, R. L. Byer, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Coherence properties of a broadband femtosecond mid-IR optical parametric oscillator operating at degeneracy,” Opt. Express20, 7255–7262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. El-Amraoui, J. Fatome, J. C. Jules, B. Kibler, G. Gadret, C. Fortier, F. Smektala, I. Skripatchev, C. F. Polacchini, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, M. Szpulak, and G. Renversez, “Strong infrared spectral broadening in low-loss As-S chalcogenide suspended core microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express18, 4547–4556 (2010)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, C. R. Menyuk, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Maximizing the bandwidth of supercontinuum generation in As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers,” Opt. Express18, 6722–6739 (2010)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, and K. L. Vodopyanov, “Broadband degenerate OPO for mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Opt. Express19, 6296–6302 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express. (1)

R. Ahmad and M. Rochette, “High efficiency and ultra broadband optical parametric four-wave mixing in chalcogenide-PMMA hybrid microwires,” Opt. Express.20, 9572–9580 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

R. R. Alfanao and S. L. Shapiro, “Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 A via four-photon coupling in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett.24, 584–587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

C. M. S. Sears, E. Colby, R. J. England, R. Ischebeck, C. McGuinness, J. Nelson, R. Noble, R. H. Siemann, J. Spencer, D. Walz, T. Plettner, and R. L. Byer, “Phase stable net acceleration of electrons from a two-stage optical accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.11, 101301 (2008).

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

P. M. Moselund, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, C. Agger, O. Bang, and S. R. Keiding, “Supercontinuum: broad as a lamp, bright as a laser, now in the mid-infrared”, Proc. SPIE8381, 83811A (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Brandon Shaw, R. R. Gattass, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “All-fiber mid-IR supercontinuum source from 1.5 to 5 μm,” Proc. SPIE7914, 79140P (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78, 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, Supercontinuum generation in optical fibers (Cambridge University Press, 2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) GVD parameter of the initial fiber, a step index As2S3 fiber with core and cladding diameter of 7 μm and 160 μm, respectively, and an NA of 0.2, compared with that of the fundamental mode of a tapered fiber with diameter of 2.3 μm, (b) GVD parameter of the fundamental mode of the tapered fiber at 3.1 μm as a function of the fiber diameter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The output power at 3.9 μm during the tapering process (blue curve) versus the pulling length (bottom axis) and corresponding diameter of the fiber waist (top axis), and the calculated GVD parameter of the fundamental mode in the taper waist (red curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic profile of the tapered fiber; the length of the untapered fiber is ∼18 mm on each side; the schematic is not to scale. (b) SEM images of the tapered fiber broken at the waist.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Spectrum of the OPO output broadened by the tapered As2S3 fiber compared with the simulation result (the OPO spectrum is intentionally shifted), (b) calculated degree of coherence, g 12 ( 1 ) as defined in [19].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

RF spectrum of the interference of a c.w. laser at 1564 nm with the free-running Er-doped fiber laser and the second harmonic (SH) of the tapered fiber output.

Equations (1)

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d taper = d initial exp ( L pull / 2 L H ) ,

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