Abstract

High quality and high quantity ultra-long KNbO3 microwires with diameters of 200 nm to a few microns and lengths up to several milimeters have been synthesized by using a simple solvothermal method. The high purity, ideal length and good transferability make it easy to be transferred to the quartz substrate for further linear and nonlinear optical measurements. Functionalized by plasmonic Au nanoparticles, the as-prepared KNbO3 sub-microwires exhibited enhanced anisotropy of nonlinear absorption that the polarization ratio of individual Au nanoparticles coated KNbO3 sub-microwire (ρ=0.32) is two times more than the uncoated one. It is demonstrated that this ultra-long KNbO3 microwire is an ideal candidate for nanolasers, polarization sensitive photodetector and photo-thermal nanodevices.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

K. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Y. Yuan, Y. T. Tao, J. Chen, P. X. Lu, and Z. L. Wang, “Anisotropic third-order optical nonlinearity of a single ZnOmicro/nanowire,” Nano Lett.12, 833–838 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

G. Z. Shen, J. Xu, X. F. Wang, H. T. Huang, and D. Chen, “Growth of directly transferable In2O3 nanowire mats for transparent thin-film transistor applications,” Adv. Mater.23, 771–775 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xiao, C. Meng, P. Wang, Y. Ye, H. K. Yu, S. S. Wang, F. X. Gu, L. Dai, and L. M. Tong, “Single-nanowire single-mode laser,” Nano Lett.11, 1122–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Lasing: room temperature excitonic whispering gallery mode lasing from high-quality hexagonal ZnO microdisks,” Adv. Mater.23, 2199–2204 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vaneski, A. S. Susha, J. Rodríguez-Fernndez, M. Berr, F. Jäckel, J Feldmann, and A. L. Rogach, “Hybird colloidal heterostructures of anistropic semiconductor nanocrystals decorated with noble metals: synthesis and fuction,” Adv. Func. Mater.21, 1547–1556 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Dutto, C. Raillon, K. Schenk, and A. Radenovic. “Nonlinear optical response in single alkaline niobate nanowires,” Nano Lett.11, 2517–2521 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

S. Savasta, R. Saija, A. Ridolfo, O. D. Stefano, P. Denti, and F. Borghese, “Nanopolaritons: vacuum rabisplitting with a quantum dots in the center of a dimer nanoantenna,” ACS Nano11, 6369–6376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Butet, J. Duboisset, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P. F. Brevet, “Opticalsecond harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium,” Nano Lett.10, 1717–1721 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Garnett and P. D. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett.10, 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Giblin, M. Syed, M. T. Banning, M. Kuno, and G. Hartland, “Experimental determination of single CdSe-nanowire absorption cross section through photothermalimaging,” ACS Nano4, 358–364 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brönstrup, N. Jahr, C. Leiterer, A. Csáki, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “Optical properties of individual silicon nanowires for photonic devices,” ACS Nano4, 7113–7122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

L. Y. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nature Mater.8, 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. X. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics.3, 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Zielinski, D. Oron, D. Chauvat, and J. Zyss, “Second-harmonic generation from a single core/shell quantum dot,” Small5, 2835–2840 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kukura, M. Celebrano, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Imaging a single quantum dot when it is dark,” Nano Lett.9, 926–929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

G. K. Zhang, F. S. He, X. Zou, J. Gong, and H. J. Zhang, “Hydrothermal preparation and photocatalyticproperties of sheet-like nanometer niobate K4Nb6O17,” Phys. Chem. Solids69, 1471–1474 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

J. P. Long, B. S. Simpkins, D. J. Rowenhorst, and P. E. Pehrsson, “Far-field imaging of optical second-harmonic generation in sgingle GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett.7, 831–836 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature447, 1098–1102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics1, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

U. Unal, Y. Matsumoto, N. Tamoto, M. Koinuma, M. Machida, and K. J. Izawa, “Visible light photoelectrochemicalactivity of K4Nb6O17 intercalated with photoactive complexes by electrostatic self-assembly deposition,” Solid State Chem.179, 33–40 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Magrez, E. Vasco, J. W. Seo, C. Dieker, N. Setter, and L. Forró, “Growth of single-crystalline KNbO3 nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B110, 58–61 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. D. Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Direct measurement of the single-metal-cluster optical absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett93, 127401-1–127401-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Saito, H. Takao, T. Tani, T. Nonoyama, K. Takatori, T. Homma, T. Nagaya, and M. Nakamura, “Lead-free piezoceramics,” Nature432, 84–87 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. L. Gardea-Torresdey, J. G. Parsons, E. Gomez, J. Peralta-Videa, H. E. Troiani, P. Santiago, and M. J. Yacaman, “Formation and growth of nanoparticles inside live alfalfa plants,” Nano Lett.2, 397–401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. F. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. F. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, “Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowire,” Science293, 1455–1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

K. C. Grabar, R. G. Freeman, M. B. Hommer, and M. J. Natan, “Preparation and characterization of Au colloid monolayers,” Anal. Chem.67, 735–743 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Arbouet, A.

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. D. Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Direct measurement of the single-metal-cluster optical absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett93, 127401-1–127401-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics1, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bachelier, G.

J. Butet, J. Duboisset, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P. F. Brevet, “Opticalsecond harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium,” Nano Lett.10, 1717–1721 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banning, M. T.

J. Giblin, M. Syed, M. T. Banning, M. Kuno, and G. Hartland, “Experimental determination of single CdSe-nanowire absorption cross section through photothermalimaging,” ACS Nano4, 358–364 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benichou, E.

J. Butet, J. Duboisset, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P. F. Brevet, “Opticalsecond harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium,” Nano Lett.10, 1717–1721 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berr, M.

A. Vaneski, A. S. Susha, J. Rodríguez-Fernndez, M. Berr, F. Jäckel, J Feldmann, and A. L. Rogach, “Hybird colloidal heterostructures of anistropic semiconductor nanocrystals decorated with noble metals: synthesis and fuction,” Adv. Func. Mater.21, 1547–1556 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Borghese, F.

S. Savasta, R. Saija, A. Ridolfo, O. D. Stefano, P. Denti, and F. Borghese, “Nanopolaritons: vacuum rabisplitting with a quantum dots in the center of a dimer nanoantenna,” ACS Nano11, 6369–6376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brevet, P. F.

J. Butet, J. Duboisset, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P. F. Brevet, “Opticalsecond harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium,” Nano Lett.10, 1717–1721 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

L. Y. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nature Mater.8, 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brönstrup, G.

G. Brönstrup, N. Jahr, C. Leiterer, A. Csáki, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “Optical properties of individual silicon nanowires for photonic devices,” ACS Nano4, 7113–7122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butet, J.

J. Butet, J. Duboisset, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P. F. Brevet, “Opticalsecond harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium,” Nano Lett.10, 1717–1721 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, L. Y.

L. Y. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nature Mater.8, 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Celebrano, M.

P. Kukura, M. Celebrano, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Imaging a single quantum dot when it is dark,” Nano Lett.9, 926–929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chauvat, D.

M. Zielinski, D. Oron, D. Chauvat, and J. Zyss, “Second-harmonic generation from a single core/shell quantum dot,” Small5, 2835–2840 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

G. Z. Shen, J. Xu, X. F. Wang, H. T. Huang, and D. Chen, “Growth of directly transferable In2O3 nanowire mats for transparent thin-film transistor applications,” Adv. Mater.23, 771–775 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

K. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Y. Yuan, Y. T. Tao, J. Chen, P. X. Lu, and Z. L. Wang, “Anisotropic third-order optical nonlinearity of a single ZnOmicro/nanowire,” Nano Lett.12, 833–838 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Lasing: room temperature excitonic whispering gallery mode lasing from high-quality hexagonal ZnO microdisks,” Adv. Mater.23, 2199–2204 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christiansen, S.

G. Brönstrup, N. Jahr, C. Leiterer, A. Csáki, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “Optical properties of individual silicon nanowires for photonic devices,” ACS Nano4, 7113–7122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christofilos, D.

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. D. Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Direct measurement of the single-metal-cluster optical absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett93, 127401-1–127401-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clemens, B. M.

L. Y. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nature Mater.8, 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Csáki, A.

G. Brönstrup, N. Jahr, C. Leiterer, A. Csáki, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “Optical properties of individual silicon nanowires for photonic devices,” ACS Nano4, 7113–7122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

J. F. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. F. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, “Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowire,” Science293, 1455–1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, L.

Y. Xiao, C. Meng, P. Wang, Y. Ye, H. K. Yu, S. S. Wang, F. X. Gu, L. Dai, and L. M. Tong, “Single-nanowire single-mode laser,” Nano Lett.11, 1122–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denti, P.

S. Savasta, R. Saija, A. Ridolfo, O. D. Stefano, P. Denti, and F. Borghese, “Nanopolaritons: vacuum rabisplitting with a quantum dots in the center of a dimer nanoantenna,” ACS Nano11, 6369–6376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

DeSalvo, R.

Dieker, C.

A. Magrez, E. Vasco, J. W. Seo, C. Dieker, N. Setter, and L. Forró, “Growth of single-crystalline KNbO3 nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B110, 58–61 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, X. F.

J. F. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. F. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, “Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowire,” Science293, 1455–1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duboisset, J.

J. Butet, J. Duboisset, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P. F. Brevet, “Opticalsecond harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium,” Nano Lett.10, 1717–1721 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dutto, F.

F. Dutto, C. Raillon, K. Schenk, and A. Radenovic. “Nonlinear optical response in single alkaline niobate nanowires,” Nano Lett.11, 2517–2521 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fatti, N. D.

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. D. Fatti, and F. Vallée, “Direct measurement of the single-metal-cluster optical absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett93, 127401-1–127401-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J

A. Vaneski, A. S. Susha, J. Rodríguez-Fernndez, M. Berr, F. Jäckel, J Feldmann, and A. L. Rogach, “Hybird colloidal heterostructures of anistropic semiconductor nanocrystals decorated with noble metals: synthesis and fuction,” Adv. Func. Mater.21, 1547–1556 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Forró, L.

A. Magrez, E. Vasco, J. W. Seo, C. Dieker, N. Setter, and L. Forró, “Growth of single-crystalline KNbO3 nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B110, 58–61 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, R. G.

K. C. Grabar, R. G. Freeman, M. B. Hommer, and M. J. Natan, “Preparation and characterization of Au colloid monolayers,” Anal. Chem.67, 735–743 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fritzsche, W.

G. Brönstrup, N. Jahr, C. Leiterer, A. Csáki, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “Optical properties of individual silicon nanowires for photonic devices,” ACS Nano4, 7113–7122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardea-Torresdey, J. L.

J. L. Gardea-Torresdey, J. G. Parsons, E. Gomez, J. Peralta-Videa, H. E. Troiani, P. Santiago, and M. J. Yacaman, “Formation and growth of nanoparticles inside live alfalfa plants,” Nano Lett.2, 397–401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gargas, D.

R. X. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics.3, 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garnett, E.

E. Garnett and P. D. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett.10, 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giblin, J.

J. Giblin, M. Syed, M. T. Banning, M. Kuno, and G. Hartland, “Experimental determination of single CdSe-nanowire absorption cross section through photothermalimaging,” ACS Nano4, 358–364 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomez, E.

J. L. Gardea-Torresdey, J. G. Parsons, E. Gomez, J. Peralta-Videa, H. E. Troiani, P. Santiago, and M. J. Yacaman, “Formation and growth of nanoparticles inside live alfalfa plants,” Nano Lett.2, 397–401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gong, J.

G. K. Zhang, F. S. He, X. Zou, J. Gong, and H. J. Zhang, “Hydrothermal preparation and photocatalyticproperties of sheet-like nanometer niobate K4Nb6O17,” Phys. Chem. Solids69, 1471–1474 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grabar, K. C.

K. C. Grabar, R. G. Freeman, M. B. Hommer, and M. J. Natan, “Preparation and characterization of Au colloid monolayers,” Anal. Chem.67, 735–743 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gu, F. X.

Y. Xiao, C. Meng, P. Wang, Y. Ye, H. K. Yu, S. S. Wang, F. X. Gu, L. Dai, and L. M. Tong, “Single-nanowire single-mode laser,” Nano Lett.11, 1122–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gudiksen, M. S.

J. F. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. F. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, “Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowire,” Science293, 1455–1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagan, D. J.

Hartland, G.

J. Giblin, M. Syed, M. T. Banning, M. Kuno, and G. Hartland, “Experimental determination of single CdSe-nanowire absorption cross section through photothermalimaging,” ACS Nano4, 358–364 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, F. S.

G. K. Zhang, F. S. He, X. Zou, J. Gong, and H. J. Zhang, “Hydrothermal preparation and photocatalyticproperties of sheet-like nanometer niobate K4Nb6O17,” Phys. Chem. Solids69, 1471–1474 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Homma, T.

Y. Saito, H. Takao, T. Tani, T. Nonoyama, K. Takatori, T. Homma, T. Nagaya, and M. Nakamura, “Lead-free piezoceramics,” Nature432, 84–87 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hommer, M. B.

K. C. Grabar, R. G. Freeman, M. B. Hommer, and M. J. Natan, “Preparation and characterization of Au colloid monolayers,” Anal. Chem.67, 735–743 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. T.

G. Z. Shen, J. Xu, X. F. Wang, H. T. Huang, and D. Chen, “Growth of directly transferable In2O3 nanowire mats for transparent thin-film transistor applications,” Adv. Mater.23, 771–775 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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U. Unal, Y. Matsumoto, N. Tamoto, M. Koinuma, M. Machida, and K. J. Izawa, “Visible light photoelectrochemicalactivity of K4Nb6O17 intercalated with photoactive complexes by electrostatic self-assembly deposition,” Solid State Chem.179, 33–40 (2006).
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A. Vaneski, A. S. Susha, J. Rodríguez-Fernndez, M. Berr, F. Jäckel, J Feldmann, and A. L. Rogach, “Hybird colloidal heterostructures of anistropic semiconductor nanocrystals decorated with noble metals: synthesis and fuction,” Adv. Func. Mater.21, 1547–1556 (2011).
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Jahr, N.

G. Brönstrup, N. Jahr, C. Leiterer, A. Csáki, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “Optical properties of individual silicon nanowires for photonic devices,” ACS Nano4, 7113–7122 (2010).
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J. Butet, J. Duboisset, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P. F. Brevet, “Opticalsecond harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium,” Nano Lett.10, 1717–1721 (2010).
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J. Giblin, M. Syed, M. T. Banning, M. Kuno, and G. Hartland, “Experimental determination of single CdSe-nanowire absorption cross section through photothermalimaging,” ACS Nano4, 358–364 (2010).
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G. Brönstrup, N. Jahr, C. Leiterer, A. Csáki, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “Optical properties of individual silicon nanowires for photonic devices,” ACS Nano4, 7113–7122 (2010).
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D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics1, 402–406 (2007).
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J. F. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. F. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, “Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowire,” Science293, 1455–1457 (2001).
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R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Lasing: room temperature excitonic whispering gallery mode lasing from high-quality hexagonal ZnO microdisks,” Adv. Mater.23, 2199–2204 (2011).
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Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature447, 1098–1102 (2007).
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K. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Y. Yuan, Y. T. Tao, J. Chen, P. X. Lu, and Z. L. Wang, “Anisotropic third-order optical nonlinearity of a single ZnOmicro/nanowire,” Nano Lett.12, 833–838 (2012).
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U. Unal, Y. Matsumoto, N. Tamoto, M. Koinuma, M. Machida, and K. J. Izawa, “Visible light photoelectrochemicalactivity of K4Nb6O17 intercalated with photoactive complexes by electrostatic self-assembly deposition,” Solid State Chem.179, 33–40 (2006).
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A. Magrez, E. Vasco, J. W. Seo, C. Dieker, N. Setter, and L. Forró, “Growth of single-crystalline KNbO3 nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B110, 58–61 (2006).
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U. Unal, Y. Matsumoto, N. Tamoto, M. Koinuma, M. Machida, and K. J. Izawa, “Visible light photoelectrochemicalactivity of K4Nb6O17 intercalated with photoactive complexes by electrostatic self-assembly deposition,” Solid State Chem.179, 33–40 (2006).
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Y. Xiao, C. Meng, P. Wang, Y. Ye, H. K. Yu, S. S. Wang, F. X. Gu, L. Dai, and L. M. Tong, “Single-nanowire single-mode laser,” Nano Lett.11, 1122–1126 (2011).
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Y. Saito, H. Takao, T. Tani, T. Nonoyama, K. Takatori, T. Homma, T. Nagaya, and M. Nakamura, “Lead-free piezoceramics,” Nature432, 84–87 (2004).
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Y. Saito, H. Takao, T. Tani, T. Nonoyama, K. Takatori, T. Homma, T. Nagaya, and M. Nakamura, “Lead-free piezoceramics,” Nature432, 84–87 (2004).
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Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature447, 1098–1102 (2007).
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M. Zielinski, D. Oron, D. Chauvat, and J. Zyss, “Second-harmonic generation from a single core/shell quantum dot,” Small5, 2835–2840 (2009).
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D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics1, 402–406 (2007).
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L. Y. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nature Mater.8, 643–647 (2009).
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J. L. Gardea-Torresdey, J. G. Parsons, E. Gomez, J. Peralta-Videa, H. E. Troiani, P. Santiago, and M. J. Yacaman, “Formation and growth of nanoparticles inside live alfalfa plants,” Nano Lett.2, 397–401 (2002).
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Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature447, 1098–1102 (2007).
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J. P. Long, B. S. Simpkins, D. J. Rowenhorst, and P. E. Pehrsson, “Far-field imaging of optical second-harmonic generation in sgingle GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett.7, 831–836 (2007).
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P. Kukura, M. Celebrano, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Imaging a single quantum dot when it is dark,” Nano Lett.9, 926–929 (2009).
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S. Savasta, R. Saija, A. Ridolfo, O. D. Stefano, P. Denti, and F. Borghese, “Nanopolaritons: vacuum rabisplitting with a quantum dots in the center of a dimer nanoantenna,” ACS Nano11, 6369–6376 (2010).
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A. Vaneski, A. S. Susha, J. Rodríguez-Fernndez, M. Berr, F. Jäckel, J Feldmann, and A. L. Rogach, “Hybird colloidal heterostructures of anistropic semiconductor nanocrystals decorated with noble metals: synthesis and fuction,” Adv. Func. Mater.21, 1547–1556 (2011).
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A. Vaneski, A. S. Susha, J. Rodríguez-Fernndez, M. Berr, F. Jäckel, J Feldmann, and A. L. Rogach, “Hybird colloidal heterostructures of anistropic semiconductor nanocrystals decorated with noble metals: synthesis and fuction,” Adv. Func. Mater.21, 1547–1556 (2011).
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J. P. Long, B. S. Simpkins, D. J. Rowenhorst, and P. E. Pehrsson, “Far-field imaging of optical second-harmonic generation in sgingle GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett.7, 831–836 (2007).
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J. Butet, J. Duboisset, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P. F. Brevet, “Opticalsecond harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium,” Nano Lett.10, 1717–1721 (2010).
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Saija, R.

S. Savasta, R. Saija, A. Ridolfo, O. D. Stefano, P. Denti, and F. Borghese, “Nanopolaritons: vacuum rabisplitting with a quantum dots in the center of a dimer nanoantenna,” ACS Nano11, 6369–6376 (2010).
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Y. Saito, H. Takao, T. Tani, T. Nonoyama, K. Takatori, T. Homma, T. Nagaya, and M. Nakamura, “Lead-free piezoceramics,” Nature432, 84–87 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Kukura, M. Celebrano, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Imaging a single quantum dot when it is dark,” Nano Lett.9, 926–929 (2009).
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J. L. Gardea-Torresdey, J. G. Parsons, E. Gomez, J. Peralta-Videa, H. E. Troiani, P. Santiago, and M. J. Yacaman, “Formation and growth of nanoparticles inside live alfalfa plants,” Nano Lett.2, 397–401 (2002).
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S. Savasta, R. Saija, A. Ridolfo, O. D. Stefano, P. Denti, and F. Borghese, “Nanopolaritons: vacuum rabisplitting with a quantum dots in the center of a dimer nanoantenna,” ACS Nano11, 6369–6376 (2010).
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Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature447, 1098–1102 (2007).
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F. Dutto, C. Raillon, K. Schenk, and A. Radenovic. “Nonlinear optical response in single alkaline niobate nanowires,” Nano Lett.11, 2517–2521 (2011).
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Schuller, J. A.

L. Y. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nature Mater.8, 643–647 (2009).
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A. Magrez, E. Vasco, J. W. Seo, C. Dieker, N. Setter, and L. Forró, “Growth of single-crystalline KNbO3 nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B110, 58–61 (2006).
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A. Magrez, E. Vasco, J. W. Seo, C. Dieker, N. Setter, and L. Forró, “Growth of single-crystalline KNbO3 nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B110, 58–61 (2006).
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Shen, G. Z.

G. Z. Shen, J. Xu, X. F. Wang, H. T. Huang, and D. Chen, “Growth of directly transferable In2O3 nanowire mats for transparent thin-film transistor applications,” Adv. Mater.23, 771–775 (2011).
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J. P. Long, B. S. Simpkins, D. J. Rowenhorst, and P. E. Pehrsson, “Far-field imaging of optical second-harmonic generation in sgingle GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett.7, 831–836 (2007).
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S. Savasta, R. Saija, A. Ridolfo, O. D. Stefano, P. Denti, and F. Borghese, “Nanopolaritons: vacuum rabisplitting with a quantum dots in the center of a dimer nanoantenna,” ACS Nano11, 6369–6376 (2010).
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R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Lasing: room temperature excitonic whispering gallery mode lasing from high-quality hexagonal ZnO microdisks,” Adv. Mater.23, 2199–2204 (2011).
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R. Chen, B. Ling, X. W. Sun, and H. D. Sun, “Lasing: room temperature excitonic whispering gallery mode lasing from high-quality hexagonal ZnO microdisks,” Adv. Mater.23, 2199–2204 (2011).
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A. Vaneski, A. S. Susha, J. Rodríguez-Fernndez, M. Berr, F. Jäckel, J Feldmann, and A. L. Rogach, “Hybird colloidal heterostructures of anistropic semiconductor nanocrystals decorated with noble metals: synthesis and fuction,” Adv. Func. Mater.21, 1547–1556 (2011).
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J. Giblin, M. Syed, M. T. Banning, M. Kuno, and G. Hartland, “Experimental determination of single CdSe-nanowire absorption cross section through photothermalimaging,” ACS Nano4, 358–364 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Saito, H. Takao, T. Tani, T. Nonoyama, K. Takatori, T. Homma, T. Nagaya, and M. Nakamura, “Lead-free piezoceramics,” Nature432, 84–87 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Saito, H. Takao, T. Tani, T. Nonoyama, K. Takatori, T. Homma, T. Nagaya, and M. Nakamura, “Lead-free piezoceramics,” Nature432, 84–87 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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U. Unal, Y. Matsumoto, N. Tamoto, M. Koinuma, M. Machida, and K. J. Izawa, “Visible light photoelectrochemicalactivity of K4Nb6O17 intercalated with photoactive complexes by electrostatic self-assembly deposition,” Solid State Chem.179, 33–40 (2006).
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Y. Saito, H. Takao, T. Tani, T. Nonoyama, K. Takatori, T. Homma, T. Nagaya, and M. Nakamura, “Lead-free piezoceramics,” Nature432, 84–87 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Y. Yuan, Y. T. Tao, J. Chen, P. X. Lu, and Z. L. Wang, “Anisotropic third-order optical nonlinearity of a single ZnOmicro/nanowire,” Nano Lett.12, 833–838 (2012).
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Y. Xiao, C. Meng, P. Wang, Y. Ye, H. K. Yu, S. S. Wang, F. X. Gu, L. Dai, and L. M. Tong, “Single-nanowire single-mode laser,” Nano Lett.11, 1122–1126 (2011).
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J. L. Gardea-Torresdey, J. G. Parsons, E. Gomez, J. Peralta-Videa, H. E. Troiani, P. Santiago, and M. J. Yacaman, “Formation and growth of nanoparticles inside live alfalfa plants,” Nano Lett.2, 397–401 (2002).
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U. Unal, Y. Matsumoto, N. Tamoto, M. Koinuma, M. Machida, and K. J. Izawa, “Visible light photoelectrochemicalactivity of K4Nb6O17 intercalated with photoactive complexes by electrostatic self-assembly deposition,” Solid State Chem.179, 33–40 (2006).
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A. Magrez, E. Vasco, J. W. Seo, C. Dieker, N. Setter, and L. Forró, “Growth of single-crystalline KNbO3 nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B110, 58–61 (2006).
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J. F. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. F. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, “Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowire,” Science293, 1455–1457 (2001).
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K. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Y. Yuan, Y. T. Tao, J. Chen, P. X. Lu, and Z. L. Wang, “Anisotropic third-order optical nonlinearity of a single ZnOmicro/nanowire,” Nano Lett.12, 833–838 (2012).
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Y. Xiao, C. Meng, P. Wang, Y. Ye, H. K. Yu, S. S. Wang, F. X. Gu, L. Dai, and L. M. Tong, “Single-nanowire single-mode laser,” Nano Lett.11, 1122–1126 (2011).
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G. Z. Shen, J. Xu, X. F. Wang, H. T. Huang, and D. Chen, “Growth of directly transferable In2O3 nanowire mats for transparent thin-film transistor applications,” Adv. Mater.23, 771–775 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. L.

K. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Y. Yuan, Y. T. Tao, J. Chen, P. X. Lu, and Z. L. Wang, “Anisotropic third-order optical nonlinearity of a single ZnOmicro/nanowire,” Nano Lett.12, 833–838 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. Y. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nature Mater.8, 643–647 (2009).
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Y. Xiao, C. Meng, P. Wang, Y. Ye, H. K. Yu, S. S. Wang, F. X. Gu, L. Dai, and L. M. Tong, “Single-nanowire single-mode laser,” Nano Lett.11, 1122–1126 (2011).
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G. Z. Shen, J. Xu, X. F. Wang, H. T. Huang, and D. Chen, “Growth of directly transferable In2O3 nanowire mats for transparent thin-film transistor applications,” Adv. Mater.23, 771–775 (2011).
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J. L. Gardea-Torresdey, J. G. Parsons, E. Gomez, J. Peralta-Videa, H. E. Troiani, P. Santiago, and M. J. Yacaman, “Formation and growth of nanoparticles inside live alfalfa plants,” Nano Lett.2, 397–401 (2002).
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Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphardt, and P. D. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature447, 1098–1102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, Y.

Y. Xiao, C. Meng, P. Wang, Y. Ye, H. K. Yu, S. S. Wang, F. X. Gu, L. Dai, and L. M. Tong, “Single-nanowire single-mode laser,” Nano Lett.11, 1122–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Xiao, C. Meng, P. Wang, Y. Ye, H. K. Yu, S. S. Wang, F. X. Gu, L. Dai, and L. M. Tong, “Single-nanowire single-mode laser,” Nano Lett.11, 1122–1126 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Y. Yuan, Y. T. Tao, J. Chen, P. X. Lu, and Z. L. Wang, “Anisotropic third-order optical nonlinearity of a single ZnOmicro/nanowire,” Nano Lett.12, 833–838 (2012).
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G. K. Zhang, F. S. He, X. Zou, J. Gong, and H. J. Zhang, “Hydrothermal preparation and photocatalyticproperties of sheet-like nanometer niobate K4Nb6O17,” Phys. Chem. Solids69, 1471–1474 (2008).
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G. K. Zhang, F. S. He, X. Zou, J. Gong, and H. J. Zhang, “Hydrothermal preparation and photocatalyticproperties of sheet-like nanometer niobate K4Nb6O17,” Phys. Chem. Solids69, 1471–1474 (2008).
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K. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Y. Yuan, Y. T. Tao, J. Chen, P. X. Lu, and Z. L. Wang, “Anisotropic third-order optical nonlinearity of a single ZnOmicro/nanowire,” Nano Lett.12, 833–838 (2012).
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M. Zielinski, D. Oron, D. Chauvat, and J. Zyss, “Second-harmonic generation from a single core/shell quantum dot,” Small5, 2835–2840 (2009).
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Zou, X.

G. K. Zhang, F. S. He, X. Zou, J. Gong, and H. J. Zhang, “Hydrothermal preparation and photocatalyticproperties of sheet-like nanometer niobate K4Nb6O17,” Phys. Chem. Solids69, 1471–1474 (2008).
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M. Zielinski, D. Oron, D. Chauvat, and J. Zyss, “Second-harmonic generation from a single core/shell quantum dot,” Small5, 2835–2840 (2009).
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ACS Nano (3)

J. Giblin, M. Syed, M. T. Banning, M. Kuno, and G. Hartland, “Experimental determination of single CdSe-nanowire absorption cross section through photothermalimaging,” ACS Nano4, 358–364 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brönstrup, N. Jahr, C. Leiterer, A. Csáki, W. Fritzsche, and S. Christiansen, “Optical properties of individual silicon nanowires for photonic devices,” ACS Nano4, 7113–7122 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Savasta, R. Saija, A. Ridolfo, O. D. Stefano, P. Denti, and F. Borghese, “Nanopolaritons: vacuum rabisplitting with a quantum dots in the center of a dimer nanoantenna,” ACS Nano11, 6369–6376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Func. Mater. (1)

A. Vaneski, A. S. Susha, J. Rodríguez-Fernndez, M. Berr, F. Jäckel, J Feldmann, and A. L. Rogach, “Hybird colloidal heterostructures of anistropic semiconductor nanocrystals decorated with noble metals: synthesis and fuction,” Adv. Func. Mater.21, 1547–1556 (2011).
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Adv. Mater. (2)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Crystal structures of KNbO3 wires. (b) XRD patterns of KNbO3 wires. (c, d) Photographs of ultra-long KNbO3 fibers. (e, f) SEM images of ultra-long KNbO3 fibers with different magnification.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) TEM images of Au nanoparticles coated KNbO3 wires. Inset in (a) is the digital photograph of Au colloid containing KNbO3 wires. (b) HRTEM image of an Au nanoparticle on the surface of KNbO3 wires.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental schema of the anisotropy nonlinearity measurement. (b) Optical image of the KNbO3 wire, polarized angle is defined. The scale bar is 10 μm. (c) The XY-scan pattern of the normalized change of the transmittance, −ΔT/T, in a small area of the focal plane (50 × 100 μm2). The single KNbO3 sub-microwire on the substrate is scanned in the focal plane under an excitation intensity of 3 GW/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The linear absorption curves of the KNbO3 sub-microwire (dot) and Au coated KNbO3 sub-microwire at the polarization angle of θ = 0° (red), θ = 45° (blue) and θ = 90° (cyan).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The normalized change in transmittance,−ΔT/T, as function of polarization angle, θ of the individual pure (blue) and Au coated KNbO3 sub-microwire (red), respectively. An enhancement of the anisotropic nonlinear absorption of the Au coated KNbO3 sub-microwire is observed with respect to KNbO3 sub-microwire.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a, c) The 3D color filled images of −ΔT/T as a function of the sample position around the focal spot in the same scale of 50 μm×100 μm of the uncoated and Au coated KNbO3 sub-microwire, respectively. (b, d) It shows the scan results of −ΔT/T as a function of the position of Y-axis at z=0, the uncoated and Au coated KNbO3 sub-microwire, respectively. Red curves show the theoretical fits.

Equations (3)

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Δ T T = Δ P P = ( P t P i ) P i ,
χ eff ( 3 ) = χ x x x x ( 3 ) cos 4 θ + χ y y y y ( 3 ) sin 4 θ + B sin 2 2 θ / 4 ,
Δ T T = Δ P P = 2 q 0 π ω 0 2 exp [ 4 y 2 ω 0 2 ] Δ y exp [ 4 x 2 ω 0 2 ] d x = β I 0 L eff π ( ω 0 Δ y ) exp [ 4 y 2 ω 0 2 ] ,

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