Abstract

We report an experimental demonstration of optimal storage and retrieval of heralded single-photon wave packets using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in cold atoms at a high optical depth. We obtain an optimal storage efficiency of (49±3)% for single-photon waveforms with a temporal likeness of 96%. Our result brings the EIT quantum light-matter interface closer to practical quantum information applications.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, “Optical quantum memory,” Nat. Photonics3, 706–714 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Simon, H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, N. Sangouard, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum repeaters with photon pair sources and multimode memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 190503 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature414, 413–418 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today50, 36–42 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys.77, 633–673 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature409, 490–493 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. F. Reim, P. Michelberger, K. C. Lee, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, and I. A. Walmsley, “Single-photon-level quantum memory at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 053603 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. L. Alexander, J. J. Longdell, M. J. Sellars, and N. B. Manson, “Photon echoes produced by switching electric fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 043602 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Hosseini, B. M. Sparkes, G. Campbell, P. K. Lam, and B. C. Buchler, “High efficiency coherent optical memory with warm rubidium vapour,” Nat. Commun.2, 174 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. P. Hedges, J. J. Longdell, Y. Li, and M. J. Sellars, “Efficient quantum memory for light,” Nature465, 1052–1056 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, M. U. Staudt, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “A solid-state light-matter interface at the single-photon level,” Nature456, 773–778 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. Clausen, I Usmani, F. Bussières, N. Sangouard, M. Afzelius, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Quantum storage of photonic entanglement in a crystal,” Nature469, 508–512 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. Saglamyurek, N. Sinclair, J. Jin, J. A. Slater, D. Oblak, F. Bussières, M. George, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and W. Tittel, “Broadband waveguide quantum memory for entangled photons,” Nature469, 512–515 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. Saglamyurek, N. Sinclair, J. Jin, J. A. Slater, D. Oblak, F. Bussières, M. George, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and W. Tittel, “Conditional detection of pure quantum states of light after storage in a Tm-Doped waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 083602 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Wen and M. H. Rubin, “Theory of two-photon interference in an electromagnetically induced transparency system,” Phys. Rev. A70, 063806 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S. -Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, “Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories,” Nature438, 833–836 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses,” Nature438, 837–841 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, “Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory,” Nature452, 67–71 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 093601 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 093602 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, J. Yang, H.-N. Dai, S.-J. Yang, T.-M. Zhao, J. Rui, Y. He, X. Jiang, F. Yang, G.-S. Pan, Z.-S. Yuan, Y. Deng, Z.-B. Chen, X.-H. Bao, S. Chen, B. Zhao, and J.-W. Pan, “Preparation and storage of frequency-uncorrelated entangled photons from cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric downconversion,” Nat. Photonics5, 628–632 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. Zhao, Y.-A. Chen, X.-H. Bao, T. Strassel, C.-S. Chuu, X.-M. Jin, J. Schmiedmayer, Z.-S. Yuan, S. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “A millisecond quantum memory for scalable quantum networks,” Nat. Phys.5, 95–99 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Lettner, M. Mücke, S. Riedl, C. Vo, C. Hahn, S. Baur, J. Bochmann, S. Ritter, S. Dürr, and G. Rempe, “Remote entanglement between a single atom and a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 210503 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. Varnava, D. E. Browne, and T. Rudolph, “Loss tolerance in one-way quantum computation via counterfactual error correction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 120501 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. Zhang, J. F. Chen, C. Liu, S. Zhou, M. M. T. Loy, G. K. L. Wong, and S. Du, “A dark-line two-dimensional magneto-optical trap of 85Rb atoms with high optical depth,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 073102 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. S. Zhang, J. F. Chen, C. Liu, M. M. T. Loy, G. K. L. Wong, and S. Du, “Optical precursor of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 243602 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. S. Du, P. Kolchin, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Subnatural linewidth biphotons with controllable temporal length,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 183603 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. P. Kolchin, C. Belthangady, S. Du, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Electro-optic modulation of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 103601 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. P. Grangier, G. Roger, and A. Aspect, “Experimental evidence for a photon anticorrelation effect on a beam splitter: a new light on single-photon interferences,” Europhys. Lett.1, 173–179 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Du, J. Wen, and M. H. Rubin, “Narrowband biphoton generation near atomic resonance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, C98–C108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. F. Clauser, “Experimental distinction between the quantum and classical field-theoretic predictions for the photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. D9, 853–860 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  32. I. Novikova, A. V. Gorshkov, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Sørensen, M. D. Lukin, and R. L. Walsworth, “Optimal control of light pulse storage and retrieval,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 243602 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. S. Zhang, S. Zhou, M. M. T. Loy, G. K. L. Wong, and S. Du, “Optical storage with electromagnetically induced transparency in a dense cold atomic ensemble,” Opt. Lett.36, 4530–4532 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. S. Du, C. Belthangady, P. Kolchin, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of optical precursors at the biphoton level,” Opt. Lett.33, 2149–2151 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. A. V. Gorshkov, A. André, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Sørensen, and M. D. Lukin, “Universal approach to optimal photon storage in atomic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 123601 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. S. E. Harris, “Chirp and compress: toward single-cycle biphotons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 063602 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. S. Sensarn, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and compression of chirped biphotons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 253602 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

E. Saglamyurek, N. Sinclair, J. Jin, J. A. Slater, D. Oblak, F. Bussières, M. George, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and W. Tittel, “Conditional detection of pure quantum states of light after storage in a Tm-Doped waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 083602 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, J. F. Chen, C. Liu, S. Zhou, M. M. T. Loy, G. K. L. Wong, and S. Du, “A dark-line two-dimensional magneto-optical trap of 85Rb atoms with high optical depth,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 073102 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

S. Zhang, J. F. Chen, C. Liu, M. M. T. Loy, G. K. L. Wong, and S. Du, “Optical precursor of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 243602 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, J. Yang, H.-N. Dai, S.-J. Yang, T.-M. Zhao, J. Rui, Y. He, X. Jiang, F. Yang, G.-S. Pan, Z.-S. Yuan, Y. Deng, Z.-B. Chen, X.-H. Bao, S. Chen, B. Zhao, and J.-W. Pan, “Preparation and storage of frequency-uncorrelated entangled photons from cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric downconversion,” Nat. Photonics5, 628–632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Lettner, M. Mücke, S. Riedl, C. Vo, C. Hahn, S. Baur, J. Bochmann, S. Ritter, S. Dürr, and G. Rempe, “Remote entanglement between a single atom and a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 210503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, S. Zhou, M. M. T. Loy, G. K. L. Wong, and S. Du, “Optical storage with electromagnetically induced transparency in a dense cold atomic ensemble,” Opt. Lett.36, 4530–4532 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hosseini, B. M. Sparkes, G. Campbell, P. K. Lam, and B. C. Buchler, “High efficiency coherent optical memory with warm rubidium vapour,” Nat. Commun.2, 174 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Clausen, I Usmani, F. Bussières, N. Sangouard, M. Afzelius, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Quantum storage of photonic entanglement in a crystal,” Nature469, 508–512 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Saglamyurek, N. Sinclair, J. Jin, J. A. Slater, D. Oblak, F. Bussières, M. George, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and W. Tittel, “Broadband waveguide quantum memory for entangled photons,” Nature469, 512–515 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Reim, P. Michelberger, K. C. Lee, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, and I. A. Walmsley, “Single-photon-level quantum memory at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 053603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. P. Hedges, J. J. Longdell, Y. Li, and M. J. Sellars, “Efficient quantum memory for light,” Nature465, 1052–1056 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sensarn, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation and compression of chirped biphotons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 253602 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

B. Zhao, Y.-A. Chen, X.-H. Bao, T. Strassel, C.-S. Chuu, X.-M. Jin, J. Schmiedmayer, Z.-S. Yuan, S. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “A millisecond quantum memory for scalable quantum networks,” Nat. Phys.5, 95–99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, “Optical quantum memory,” Nat. Photonics3, 706–714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, M. U. Staudt, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “A solid-state light-matter interface at the single-photon level,” Nature456, 773–778 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, “Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory,” Nature452, 67–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Du, P. Kolchin, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Subnatural linewidth biphotons with controllable temporal length,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 183603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kolchin, C. Belthangady, S. Du, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Electro-optic modulation of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 103601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Du, C. Belthangady, P. Kolchin, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of optical precursors at the biphoton level,” Opt. Lett.33, 2149–2151 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Du, J. Wen, and M. H. Rubin, “Narrowband biphoton generation near atomic resonance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, C98–C108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

I. Novikova, A. V. Gorshkov, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Sørensen, M. D. Lukin, and R. L. Walsworth, “Optimal control of light pulse storage and retrieval,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 243602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Gorshkov, A. André, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Sørensen, and M. D. Lukin, “Universal approach to optimal photon storage in atomic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 123601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris, “Chirp and compress: toward single-cycle biphotons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 063602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Simon, H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, N. Sangouard, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum repeaters with photon pair sources and multimode memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 190503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. L. Alexander, J. J. Longdell, M. J. Sellars, and N. B. Manson, “Photon echoes produced by switching electric fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 043602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Varnava, D. E. Browne, and T. Rudolph, “Loss tolerance in one-way quantum computation via counterfactual error correction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 120501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys.77, 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S. -Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, “Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories,” Nature438, 833–836 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses,” Nature438, 837–841 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J. Wen and M. H. Rubin, “Theory of two-photon interference in an electromagnetically induced transparency system,” Phys. Rev. A70, 063806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature409, 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature414, 413–418 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today50, 36–42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1986

P. Grangier, G. Roger, and A. Aspect, “Experimental evidence for a photon anticorrelation effect on a beam splitter: a new light on single-photon interferences,” Europhys. Lett.1, 173–179 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1974

J. F. Clauser, “Experimental distinction between the quantum and classical field-theoretic predictions for the photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. D9, 853–860 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Afzelius, M.

C. Clausen, I Usmani, F. Bussières, N. Sangouard, M. Afzelius, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Quantum storage of photonic entanglement in a crystal,” Nature469, 508–512 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, M. U. Staudt, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “A solid-state light-matter interface at the single-photon level,” Nature456, 773–778 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Simon, H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, N. Sangouard, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum repeaters with photon pair sources and multimode memories,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 190503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akamatsu, D.

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiba, K.

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexander, A. L.

A. L. Alexander, J. J. Longdell, M. J. Sellars, and N. B. Manson, “Photon echoes produced by switching electric fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 043602 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

André, A.

A. V. Gorshkov, A. André, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Sørensen, and M. D. Lukin, “Universal approach to optimal photon storage in atomic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 123601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses,” Nature438, 837–841 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appel, J.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arikawa, M.

K. Honda, D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aspect, A.

P. Grangier, G. Roger, and A. Aspect, “Experimental evidence for a photon anticorrelation effect on a beam splitter: a new light on single-photon interferences,” Europhys. Lett.1, 173–179 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X.-H.

H. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, J. Yang, H.-N. Dai, S.-J. Yang, T.-M. Zhao, J. Rui, Y. He, X. Jiang, F. Yang, G.-S. Pan, Z.-S. Yuan, Y. Deng, Z.-B. Chen, X.-H. Bao, S. Chen, B. Zhao, and J.-W. Pan, “Preparation and storage of frequency-uncorrelated entangled photons from cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric downconversion,” Nat. Photonics5, 628–632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhao, Y.-A. Chen, X.-H. Bao, T. Strassel, C.-S. Chuu, X.-M. Jin, J. Schmiedmayer, Z.-S. Yuan, S. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “A millisecond quantum memory for scalable quantum networks,” Nat. Phys.5, 95–99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baur, S.

M. Lettner, M. Mücke, S. Riedl, C. Vo, C. Hahn, S. Baur, J. Bochmann, S. Ritter, S. Dürr, and G. Rempe, “Remote entanglement between a single atom and a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 210503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behroozi, C. H.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature409, 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belthangady, C.

S. Du, P. Kolchin, C. Belthangady, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Subnatural linewidth biphotons with controllable temporal length,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 183603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kolchin, C. Belthangady, S. Du, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Electro-optic modulation of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 103601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Du, C. Belthangady, P. Kolchin, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of optical precursors at the biphoton level,” Opt. Lett.33, 2149–2151 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bochmann, J.

M. Lettner, M. Mücke, S. Riedl, C. Vo, C. Hahn, S. Baur, J. Bochmann, S. Ritter, S. Dürr, and G. Rempe, “Remote entanglement between a single atom and a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 210503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Browne, D. E.

M. Varnava, D. E. Browne, and T. Rudolph, “Loss tolerance in one-way quantum computation via counterfactual error correction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 120501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchler, B. C.

M. Hosseini, B. M. Sparkes, G. Campbell, P. K. Lam, and B. C. Buchler, “High efficiency coherent optical memory with warm rubidium vapour,” Nat. Commun.2, 174 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bussières, F.

E. Saglamyurek, N. Sinclair, J. Jin, J. A. Slater, D. Oblak, F. Bussières, M. George, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and W. Tittel, “Conditional detection of pure quantum states of light after storage in a Tm-Doped waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 083602 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Saglamyurek, N. Sinclair, J. Jin, J. A. Slater, D. Oblak, F. Bussières, M. George, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and W. Tittel, “Broadband waveguide quantum memory for entangled photons,” Nature469, 512–515 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Clausen, I Usmani, F. Bussières, N. Sangouard, M. Afzelius, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Quantum storage of photonic entanglement in a crystal,” Nature469, 508–512 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, G.

M. Hosseini, B. M. Sparkes, G. Campbell, P. K. Lam, and B. C. Buchler, “High efficiency coherent optical memory with warm rubidium vapour,” Nat. Commun.2, 174 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chanelière, T.

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S. -Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, “Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories,” Nature438, 833–836 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J. F.

S. Zhang, J. F. Chen, C. Liu, S. Zhou, M. M. T. Loy, G. K. L. Wong, and S. Du, “A dark-line two-dimensional magneto-optical trap of 85Rb atoms with high optical depth,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 073102 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, J. F. Chen, C. Liu, M. M. T. Loy, G. K. L. Wong, and S. Du, “Optical precursor of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 243602 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

H. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, J. Yang, H.-N. Dai, S.-J. Yang, T.-M. Zhao, J. Rui, Y. He, X. Jiang, F. Yang, G.-S. Pan, Z.-S. Yuan, Y. Deng, Z.-B. Chen, X.-H. Bao, S. Chen, B. Zhao, and J.-W. Pan, “Preparation and storage of frequency-uncorrelated entangled photons from cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric downconversion,” Nat. Photonics5, 628–632 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhao, Y.-A. Chen, X.-H. Bao, T. Strassel, C.-S. Chuu, X.-M. Jin, J. Schmiedmayer, Z.-S. Yuan, S. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “A millisecond quantum memory for scalable quantum networks,” Nat. Phys.5, 95–99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-A.

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J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 093602 (2008).
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S. Zhang, J. F. Chen, C. Liu, M. M. T. Loy, G. K. L. Wong, and S. Du, “Optical precursor of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 243602 (2011).
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S. Zhang, S. Zhou, M. M. T. Loy, G. K. L. Wong, and S. Du, “Optical storage with electromagnetically induced transparency in a dense cold atomic ensemble,” Opt. Lett.36, 4530–4532 (2011).
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A. V. Gorshkov, A. André, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Sørensen, and M. D. Lukin, “Universal approach to optimal photon storage in atomic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 123601 (2007).
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A. L. Alexander, J. J. Longdell, M. J. Sellars, and N. B. Manson, “Photon echoes produced by switching electric fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 043602 (2006).
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M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys.77, 633–673 (2005).
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M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses,” Nature438, 837–841 (2005).
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K. F. Reim, P. Michelberger, K. C. Lee, J. Nunn, N. K. Langford, and I. A. Walmsley, “Single-photon-level quantum memory at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 053603 (2011).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the experimental setup for storage and retrieval of heralded single photons with controllable waveforms. The 85Rb energy levels are chosen as |1〉 = |5S1/2, F = 2〉, |2〉 = |5S1/2, F = 3〉, |3〉 = |5P1/2, F = 3〉 and |4〉 = |5P3/2, F = 3〉. In MOT1, with the presence of pump (ωp) and coupling (ωc) lasers, we produce counter-propagating Stokes (ωs) and anti-Stokes (ωas) photon pairs. Conditioned on detection of the Stokes photon, its paired anti-Stokes photon passes through an electro-optical modulator (EOM) and is stored in MOT2. F1 and F2 are two narrow-band optical filters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Direct storage and retrieval of single photons without waveform shaping. Single photons with (a) a short waveform and (b) a long waveform are produced from MOT1 at OD1=7 and 35, respectively. The coincidence counts are recorded by D1 and D2. Other parameters are OD2=60, Ωc2 = 11γ13, and γ12 = 0.03γ13.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Storage and retrieval of a single photon with optimal waveform. (a) The optimal input (red curve) and output (retrieval, green curve) heralded single-photon waveforms are measured as coincidence counts between D1 and D2. (b) The inset shows the time-reversed retrieved photon waveform matches the input photon waveform after normalization. The operating parameters at MOT2 are OD2=60, Ωc2 = 11γ13, and γ12 = 0.03γ13. The measured storage efficiency is (36±3)%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optimal storage and retrieval of single photons with reduced ground-state dephasing rate. (a) The optimal input (red curve) and output (retrieval, green curve) heralded single-photon waveforms. (b) The inset shows the time-reversed retrieved photon waveform matches the input photon waveform after normalization. The operating parameters at MOT2 are OD2=60, Ωc2 = 6.88γ13, and γ12 = 0.01γ13. The measured storage efficiency is (49±3)%.

Equations (2)

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η = | ψ out ( τ ) | 2 d τ | ψ in ( τ ) | 2 d τ ,
g c ( 2 ) = N 123 N 1 N 12 N 13 ,

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