Abstract

The temporal dynamics of ultrashort laser pulses undergoing filamentary propagation are investigated with a real-time stereographic above-threshold ionization (ATI) phasemeter. The experimental setup is capable of measuring the pulse duration as well as the carrier-envelope phase distribution of pulses originating from a femtosecond filament, which is either truncated in length or fully propagated. Truncation, by means of a semi-infinite gas cell, allows to elucidate the nonlinear evolution and temporal dynamics of ultrashort laser pulses as a function of the propagation length. We observe the formation of few-cycle pulses as well as temporal pulse splitting dynamics during the propagation of the pulse inside the filament. For the first time, we demonstrate the compression of 35 fs pulses down to a duration of sub-4 fs in a single femtosecond filament. This corresponds to sub-1.5 cycles of the electric field.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Tracking spectral shapes and temporal dynamics along a femtosecond filament,” Opt. Express19, 19495–19507 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, “Kilohertz extreme-ultraviolet light source based on femtosecond high-order harmonic generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. B73, 687–692 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron.4, 35–110 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  30. G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, X. Huale, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72, 2851–2854 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walter, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 253004 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Kolesik and J. V. Moloney, “Self-healing femtosecond light filaments,” Opt. Lett.29, 590–592 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B41, 132001 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  34. C. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Opt. Express13, 7541–7547 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. M. Gaarde and A. Couairon, “Intensity spikes in laser filamentation: Diagnostics and application,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 043901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament,” Appl. Phys. B106(3), 529–532 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

2009 (4)

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, D. Steingrube, S. Rausch, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Intense few-cycle laser pulses from self-compression inaself-guiding filament,” Appl. Phys. B95, 269–272 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Gaarde and A. Couairon, “Intensity spikes in laser filamentation: Diagnostics and application,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 043901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. L. Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward thz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys.10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and U. Keller, “Self-compression of optical laser pulses by filamentation,” New J. Phys.10, 025023 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A77(5), 053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, and U. Keller, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express15, 5394–5405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep.441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt.53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament,” Opt. Lett.31, 274–276 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

C. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Opt. Express13, 7541–7547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Comm.245, 399–405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys.67, 813–855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kolesik and J. V. Moloney, “Self-healing femtosecond light filaments,” Opt. Lett.29, 590–592 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walter, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. Tzortzakis, G. Méchain, G. Patalano, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J.-M. Munier, M. Gheudin, G. Beaudin, and P. Encrenaz, “Coherent subterahertz radiation from femtosecond infrared filaments in air,” Opt. Lett.27, 1944–1946 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, “Kilohertz extreme-ultraviolet light source based on femtosecond high-order harmonic generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. B73, 687–692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, X. Huale, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72, 2851–2854 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron.4, 35–110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys.67, 813–855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aközbek, N.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Comm.245, 399–405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akturk, S.

C. D. Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. L. Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward thz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys.10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Amico, C. D.

C. D. Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. L. Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward thz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys.10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

André, Y.-B.

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Augé, F.

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, “Kilohertz extreme-ultraviolet light source based on femtosecond high-order harmonic generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. B73, 687–692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, P.

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, “Kilohertz extreme-ultraviolet light source based on femtosecond high-order harmonic generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. B73, 687–692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baltuska, A.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walter, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bandrauk, A.

E. Lorin, S. Chelkowski, and A. Bandrauk, “The wasp model: A micro-macro system of wave-schroedinger-plasma equations for filamentation,” Commun. Comput. Phys9, 406–440 (2011).

Beaudin, G.

Becker, A.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, and U. Keller, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express15, 5394–5405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt.53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Opt. Express13, 7541–7547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Binhammer, T.

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Tracking spectral shapes and temporal dynamics along a femtosecond filament,” Opt. Express19, 19495–19507 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, T. Binhammer, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Gradient enhanced third harmonic generation in a femtosecond filament,” Opt. Lett.36(22), 4389–4391 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys.13, 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, D. Steingrube, S. Rausch, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Intense few-cycle laser pulses from self-compression inaself-guiding filament,” Appl. Phys. B95, 269–272 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bloas, J. L.

C. D. Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. L. Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward thz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys.10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, A.

Cavalieri, A. L.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, H. S.

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A77(5), 053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Charalambidis, D.

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, “Kilohertz extreme-ultraviolet light source based on femtosecond high-order harmonic generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. B73, 687–692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chelkowski, S.

E. Lorin, S. Chelkowski, and A. Bandrauk, “The wasp model: A micro-macro system of wave-schroedinger-plasma equations for filamentation,” Commun. Comput. Phys9, 406–440 (2011).

Chin, S.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Comm.245, 399–405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couairon, A.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys.13, 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Tracking spectral shapes and temporal dynamics along a femtosecond filament,” Opt. Express19, 19495–19507 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gaarde and A. Couairon, “Intensity spikes in laser filamentation: Diagnostics and application,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 043901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A77(5), 053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and U. Keller, “Self-compression of optical laser pulses by filamentation,” New J. Phys.10, 025023 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. L. Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward thz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys.10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep.441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, and U. Keller, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express15, 5394–5405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt.53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
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DiMauro, L. F.

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys.67, 813–855 (2004).
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Du, D.

Eckle, P.

Encrenaz, P.

Franco, M.

Gaarde, M.

M. Gaarde and A. Couairon, “Intensity spikes in laser filamentation: Diagnostics and application,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 043901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaarde, M. B.

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys.13, 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Tracking spectral shapes and temporal dynamics along a femtosecond filament,” Opt. Express19, 19495–19507 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A77(5), 053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallmann, L.

Gheudin, M.

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walter, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, “Kilohertz extreme-ultraviolet light source based on femtosecond high-order harmonic generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. B73, 687–692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grasbon, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gravel, J.-F.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Comm.245, 399–405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guandalini, A.

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauri, C.

Hauri, C. P.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt.53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helbing, F. W.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt.53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helml, W.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holler, M.

Horvath, B.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Houard, A.

C. D. Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. L. Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward thz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys.10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huale, X.

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, X. Huale, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72, 2851–2854 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, A.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalpouzos, C.

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, “Kilohertz extreme-ultraviolet light source based on femtosecond high-order harmonic generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. B73, 687–692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and U. Keller, “Self-compression of optical laser pulses by filamentation,” New J. Phys.10, 025023 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, and U. Keller, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express15, 5394–5405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt.53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Opt. Express13, 7541–7547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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Kolesik, M.

M. Kolesik and J. V. Moloney, “Self-healing femtosecond light filaments,” Opt. Lett.29, 590–592 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

Kornelis, W.

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt.53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hauri, A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Opt. Express13, 7541–7547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kovacev, M.

T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament,” Appl. Phys. B106(3), 529–532 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, T. Binhammer, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Gradient enhanced third harmonic generation in a femtosecond filament,” Opt. Lett.36(22), 4389–4391 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys.13, 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Tracking spectral shapes and temporal dynamics along a femtosecond filament,” Opt. Express19, 19495–19507 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, D. Steingrube, S. Rausch, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Intense few-cycle laser pulses from self-compression inaself-guiding filament,” Appl. Phys. B95, 269–272 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walter, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmar, M.

T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament,” Appl. Phys. B106(3), 529–532 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kürbis, C.

Lambropoulos, P.

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, X. Huale, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72, 2851–2854 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezius, M.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walter, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walter, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Comm.245, 399–405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Liu, Y.

C. D. Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. L. Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward thz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys.10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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E. Lorin, S. Chelkowski, and A. Bandrauk, “The wasp model: A micro-macro system of wave-schroedinger-plasma equations for filamentation,” Commun. Comput. Phys9, 406–440 (2011).

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J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron.4, 35–110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Méchain, G.

Mlejnek, M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett.23, 382–384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

Morgner, U.

T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament,” Appl. Phys. B106(3), 529–532 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, T. Binhammer, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Gradient enhanced third harmonic generation in a femtosecond filament,” Opt. Lett.36(22), 4389–4391 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys.13, 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Tracking spectral shapes and temporal dynamics along a femtosecond filament,” Opt. Express19, 19495–19507 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, D. Steingrube, S. Rausch, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Intense few-cycle laser pulses from self-compression inaself-guiding filament,” Appl. Phys. B95, 269–272 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Müller, W.

Munier, J.-M.

Mysyrowicz, A.

C. D. Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. L. Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward thz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys.10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and U. Keller, “Self-compression of optical laser pulses by filamentation,” New J. Phys.10, 025023 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep.441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, and U. Keller, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express15, 5394–5405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt.53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, G. Méchain, G. Patalano, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J.-M. Munier, M. Gheudin, G. Beaudin, and P. Encrenaz, “Coherent subterahertz radiation from femtosecond infrared filaments in air,” Opt. Lett.27, 1944–1946 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nersisyan, G.

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, “Kilohertz extreme-ultraviolet light source based on femtosecond high-order harmonic generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. B73, 687–692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nicklich, W.

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, X. Huale, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72, 2851–2854 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuter, R.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Papadogiannis, N.

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, “Kilohertz extreme-ultraviolet light source based on femtosecond high-order harmonic generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. B73, 687–692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Patalano, G.

Paulus, G. G.

A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, W. Müller, C. Kürbis, K. Rühle, G. Stibenz, and G. G. Paulus, “Real-time pulse length measurement of few-cycle laser pulses using above-threshold ionization,” Opt. Express19, 4464–4471 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walter, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, X. Huale, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72, 2851–2854 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prade, B.

C. D. Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. L. Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward thz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys.10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, G. Méchain, G. Patalano, Y.-B. André, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J.-M. Munier, M. Gheudin, G. Beaudin, and P. Encrenaz, “Coherent subterahertz radiation from femtosecond infrared filaments in air,” Opt. Lett.27, 1944–1946 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Priori, E.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rathje, T.

Rausch, S.

E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, D. Steingrube, S. Rausch, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Intense few-cycle laser pulses from self-compression inaself-guiding filament,” Appl. Phys. B95, 269–272 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rühle, K.

Sayler, A. M.

Scalora, M.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schapper, F.

Schatzel, M. G.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, E.

T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament,” Appl. Phys. B106(3), 529–532 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys.13, 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Tracking spectral shapes and temporal dynamics along a femtosecond filament,” Opt. Express19, 19495–19507 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, T. Binhammer, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Gradient enhanced third harmonic generation in a femtosecond filament,” Opt. Lett.36(22), 4389–4391 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, D. Steingrube, S. Rausch, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Intense few-cycle laser pulses from self-compression inaself-guiding filament,” Appl. Phys. B95, 269–272 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Stagira, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steingrube, D.

E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, D. Steingrube, S. Rausch, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Intense few-cycle laser pulses from self-compression inaself-guiding filament,” Appl. Phys. B95, 269–272 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steingrube, D. S.

T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament,” Appl. Phys. B106(3), 529–532 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys.13, 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Tracking spectral shapes and temporal dynamics along a femtosecond filament,” Opt. Express19, 19495–19507 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, T. Binhammer, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Gradient enhanced third harmonic generation in a femtosecond filament,” Opt. Lett.36(22), 4389–4391 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

Stibenz, G.

Tate, J. L.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Théberge, F.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Comm.245, 399–405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

C. D. Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. L. Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward thz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys.10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vockerodt, T.

T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament,” Appl. Phys. B106(3), 529–532 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Schulz, D. S. Steingrube, T. Vockerodt, T. Binhammer, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Gradient enhanced third harmonic generation in a femtosecond filament,” Opt. Lett.36(22), 4389–4391 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walter, H.

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walter, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, X. Huale, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72, 2851–2854 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weihe, F.

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, “Kilohertz extreme-ultraviolet light source based on femtosecond high-order harmonic generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. B73, 687–692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, T.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett.23, 382–384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaïr, A.

Zhavoronkov, N.

Appl. Phys. B (4)

T. Vockerodt, D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, M. Kretschmar, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “Low- and high-order harmonic generation inside an air filament,” Appl. Phys. B106(3), 529–532 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, D. Steingrube, S. Rausch, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Intense few-cycle laser pulses from self-compression inaself-guiding filament,” Appl. Phys. B95, 269–272 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Papadogiannis, C. Kalpouzos, E. Goulielmakis, G. Nersisyan, D. Charalambidis, F. Augé, F. Weihe, and P. Balcou, “Kilohertz extreme-ultraviolet light source based on femtosecond high-order harmonic generation from noble gases,” Appl. Phys. B73, 687–692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Commun. Comput. Phys (1)

E. Lorin, S. Chelkowski, and A. Bandrauk, “The wasp model: A micro-macro system of wave-schroedinger-plasma equations for filamentation,” Commun. Comput. Phys9, 406–440 (2011).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. Couairon, J. Biegert, C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, U. Keller, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-compression of ultra-short laser pulses down to one optical cycle by filamentation,” J. Mod. Opt.53, 75–85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, “Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation,” J. Phys. B41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys.5, 357–362 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (3)

A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and U. Keller, “Self-compression of optical laser pulses by filamentation,” New J. Phys.10, 025023 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Steingrube, E. Schulz, T. Binhammer, M. B. Gaarde, A. Couairon, U. Morgner, and M. Kovačev, “High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament,” New J. Phys.13, 043022 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Amico, A. Houard, S. Akturk, Y. Liu, J. L. Bloas, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Forward thz radiation emission by femtosecond filamentation in gases: theory and experiment,” New J. Phys.10, 013015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Comm. (1)

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Comm.245, 399–405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep.441, 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A77(5), 053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

M. Gaarde and A. Couairon, “Intensity spikes in laser filamentation: Diagnostics and application,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 043901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, W. Nicklich, X. Huale, P. Lambropoulos, and H. Walther, “Plateau in above threshold ionization spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72, 2851–2854 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walter, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, “Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, “Optically turbulent femtosecond light guide in air,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83, 2938–2941 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron.4, 35–110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (2)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys.70, 1633–1713 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys.67, 813–855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. Pulses from a chirped pulse amplifier are focused into a semi-infinite gas cell filled with argon. The filament, generated in argon, is either truncated by a laser-drilled pinhole with further propagation in vacuum or fully propagated. The generated white-light is coupled out and analyzed in a stereo-ATI-phasemeter. (see text for further details)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pulses from a truncated filament of different propagation lengths in 780 mbar argon. The propagation length denotes the distance between the curved mirror CM1 and the pinhole P1. The black boxes illustrate the Fourier-limited pulse duration evaluated from spectral measurements, the red circles depict the measured pulse duration. The dashed lines denote a moving average of the measured values over an intervall of 4 cm. The blue triangles are measurements of a second sub-pulse appearing at another post-compression setting i.e another fused silica wedge setting.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The red dots show distinct short sub-pulses contained after filamentation in 780 mbar of argon at a position of the filament of 254.5 cm. The different pulses are distinguished by their different chirp-characteristics. The black lines display the calculated effects of additional dispersion upon the various sub-pulses. This excludes the possible assumption of a measurement of the same stretched pulse at different dispersion settings.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fully propagated filament in 810 mbar argon. (a) Spectrum after the fully propagated filament. (b) Temporal pulse envelope, calculated from the shown spectrum. The calculated Fourier-limited pulse duration at FWHM is 4.18 fs. (c) Parametric asymmetry plot (PAP) of sub-1.5-cycle pulses from the fully propagated filament. The radius is 0.865 and corresponds to a pulse duration of 3.8 fs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pulse duration after the undisturbed filament in dependence of the relative dispersion of the entrance pulses. The dashed curve shows a quadratic fit to the measurement.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Investigation of the undisturbed filament versus argon pressure. (a) Normalized spectra after filamentation versus argon pressure in the SIGC. (b) Fourier-limited pulse duration (boxes) from the spectra and measured pulse duration (circles) determined by stereo-ATI measurements versus pressure.

Equations (1)

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τ [ fs ] = 1.6063 + 9.7371 ln ( 1 r )

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