Abstract

A scanning coherent diffraction imaging method was used to reconstruct the X-ray wavefronts produced by a Fresnel zone plate (FZP) and by Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) focusing mirrors. The ptychographical measurement was conducted repeatedly by placing a lithographed test sample at different defocused planes. The wavefronts, recovered by phase-retrieval at well-separated planes, show good consistency with numerical propagation results, which provides a self-verification. The validity of the obtained FZP wavefront was further confirmed with theoretical predictions.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

2011 (8)

T. Chen, Y. Chen, C. Wang, I. Kempson, W. Lee, Y. Chu, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field microimaging with 8 keV X-rays achieves a spatial resolutions better than 20 nm,” Opt. Express 19(21), 19919–19924 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. Sandy, J. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard x-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Mastropietro, D. Carbone, A. Diaz, J. Eymery, A. Sentenac, T. H. Metzger, V. Chamard, and V. Favre-Nicolin, “Coherent x-ray wavefront reconstruction of a partially illuminated Fresnel zone plate,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19223–19232 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morgan, A. Martin, A. D’Alfonso, C. Putkunz, and L. Allen, “Direct exit-wave reconstruction from a single defocused image,” Ultramicroscopy 111, 1455–1460 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent x-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1037–1050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Coherent x-ray wavefront reconstruction of a partially illuminated Fresnel zone plate,” Phys. Rev. B 83(21), 214109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Godard, G. Carbone, M. Allain, F. Mastropietro, G. Chen, L. Capello, A. Diaz, T. Metzger, J. Stangl, and V. Chamard, “Three-dimensional high-resolution quantitative microscopy of extended crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 568 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (8)

K. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the x-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys. 59, 1–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojcik, V. Joshi, A. Sumant, R. Divan, L. Ocola, M. Lu, and D. Mancini, “Nanofabrication of x-ray zone plates using ultrananocrystalline diamond molds and electroforming,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), C6P30–C6P35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. Fienup, A. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, “Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard X-ray beam and alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data,” Opt. Express 18, 23420–23427 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. Warren, A. Sandy, S. Narayanan, and J. Fienup, “One-dimensional hard X-ray field retrieval using a moveable structure,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18374–18382 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Maiden and J. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. Fienup, “Measurement of coherent x-ray focused beams by phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2670–2685 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abbey, K. Nugent, G. Williams, J. Clark, A. Peele, M. Pfeifer, M. D. Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Butler and A. Sumant, “The CVD of Nanodiamond Materials,” J. Chem. Vap. Deposition 14, 145–160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an x-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, and D. Tennant, “Using Compound Kinoform Hard-X-Ray Lenses to Exceed the Critical Angle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-Ray Lensless Imaging of Extended Objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

H. Quiney, A. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, and Y. Sano, “At-wavelength figure metrology of hard x-ray focusing mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, and B. Lengeler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Kupp, B. Blank, A. Deyhim, C. Benson, I. Robinson, and P. Fuoss, “Development of a double crystal monochromator,” AIP Conf. Proc. CP705, 651–654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. Eng, M. Newvile, M. Rivers, and S. Sutton, “Dynamicaly figured Kirkpatrick Baez X-ray micro-focusing optic,” Proc. SPIE 3449, 145–156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Abbey, B.

B. Abbey, K. Nugent, G. Williams, J. Clark, A. Peele, M. Pfeifer, M. D. Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ablett, J.

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, and D. Tennant, “Using Compound Kinoform Hard-X-Ray Lenses to Exceed the Critical Angle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allain, M.

P. Godard, G. Carbone, M. Allain, F. Mastropietro, G. Chen, L. Capello, A. Diaz, T. Metzger, J. Stangl, and V. Chamard, “Three-dimensional high-resolution quantitative microscopy of extended crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 568 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

A. Morgan, A. Martin, A. D’Alfonso, C. Putkunz, and L. Allen, “Direct exit-wave reconstruction from a single defocused image,” Ultramicroscopy 111, 1455–1460 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, E.

Assoufid, L.

Beckers, M.

Benson, C.

Blank, B.

T. Kupp, B. Blank, A. Deyhim, C. Benson, I. Robinson, and P. Fuoss, “Development of a double crystal monochromator,” AIP Conf. Proc. CP705, 651–654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boye, P.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, and B. Lengeler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bozovic, N.

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, and D. Tennant, “Using Compound Kinoform Hard-X-Ray Lenses to Exceed the Critical Angle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bunk, O.

C. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. Fienup, A. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, “Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard X-ray beam and alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data,” Opt. Express 18, 23420–23427 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-Ray Lensless Imaging of Extended Objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burghammer, M.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J.

J. Butler and A. Sumant, “The CVD of Nanodiamond Materials,” J. Chem. Vap. Deposition 14, 145–160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z.

H. Quiney, A. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Capello, L.

P. Godard, G. Carbone, M. Allain, F. Mastropietro, G. Chen, L. Capello, A. Diaz, T. Metzger, J. Stangl, and V. Chamard, “Three-dimensional high-resolution quantitative microscopy of extended crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 568 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carbone, D.

Carbone, G.

P. Godard, G. Carbone, M. Allain, F. Mastropietro, G. Chen, L. Capello, A. Diaz, T. Metzger, J. Stangl, and V. Chamard, “Three-dimensional high-resolution quantitative microscopy of extended crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 568 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chamard, V.

P. Godard, G. Carbone, M. Allain, F. Mastropietro, G. Chen, L. Capello, A. Diaz, T. Metzger, J. Stangl, and V. Chamard, “Three-dimensional high-resolution quantitative microscopy of extended crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 568 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Mastropietro, D. Carbone, A. Diaz, J. Eymery, A. Sentenac, T. H. Metzger, V. Chamard, and V. Favre-Nicolin, “Coherent x-ray wavefront reconstruction of a partially illuminated Fresnel zone plate,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19223–19232 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chao, W.

Chen, G.

P. Godard, G. Carbone, M. Allain, F. Mastropietro, G. Chen, L. Capello, A. Diaz, T. Metzger, J. Stangl, and V. Chamard, “Three-dimensional high-resolution quantitative microscopy of extended crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 568 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

Chen, Y.

Chu, Y.

Clark, J.

B. Abbey, K. Nugent, G. Williams, J. Clark, A. Peele, M. Pfeifer, M. D. Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Conley, R.

Cullis, A.

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-Ray Lensless Imaging of Extended Objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Alfonso, A.

A. Morgan, A. Martin, A. D’Alfonso, C. Putkunz, and L. Allen, “Direct exit-wave reconstruction from a single defocused image,” Ultramicroscopy 111, 1455–1460 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

David, C.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an x-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
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H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an x-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
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H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, and Y. Sano, “At-wavelength figure metrology of hard x-ray focusing mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063712 (2006).
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C. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
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P. Godard, G. Carbone, M. Allain, F. Mastropietro, G. Chen, L. Capello, A. Diaz, T. Metzger, J. Stangl, and V. Chamard, “Three-dimensional high-resolution quantitative microscopy of extended crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 568 (2011).
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Metzler, M.

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H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an x-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
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H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, and Y. Sano, “At-wavelength figure metrology of hard x-ray focusing mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063712 (2006).
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A. Morgan, A. Martin, A. D’Alfonso, C. Putkunz, and L. Allen, “Direct exit-wave reconstruction from a single defocused image,” Ultramicroscopy 111, 1455–1460 (2011).
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M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. Sandy, J. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard x-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111108 (2011).
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M. Guizar-Sicairos, K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. Warren, A. Sandy, S. Narayanan, and J. Fienup, “One-dimensional hard X-ray field retrieval using a moveable structure,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18374–18382 (2010).
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Newvile, M.

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H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
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H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an x-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
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M. Wojcik, V. Joshi, A. Sumant, R. Divan, L. Ocola, M. Lu, and D. Mancini, “Nanofabrication of x-ray zone plates using ultrananocrystalline diamond molds and electroforming,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), C6P30–C6P35 (2010).
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Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Coherent x-ray wavefront reconstruction of a partially illuminated Fresnel zone plate,” Phys. Rev. B 83(21), 214109 (2011).
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G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 025506 (2006).
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A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, and B. Lengeler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peele, A.

B. Abbey, K. Nugent, G. Williams, J. Clark, A. Peele, M. Pfeifer, M. D. Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Quiney, A. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peele, A. G.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeifer, M.

B. Abbey, K. Nugent, G. Williams, J. Clark, A. Peele, M. Pfeifer, M. D. Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, F.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-Ray Lensless Imaging of Extended Objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
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Putkunz, C.

A. Morgan, A. Martin, A. D’Alfonso, C. Putkunz, and L. Allen, “Direct exit-wave reconstruction from a single defocused image,” Ultramicroscopy 111, 1455–1460 (2011).
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Qian, J.

Quiney, H.

H. Quiney, A. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quiney, H. M.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rekawa, S.

Rivers, M.

P. Eng, M. Newvile, M. Rivers, and S. Sutton, “Dynamicaly figured Kirkpatrick Baez X-ray micro-focusing optic,” Proc. SPIE 3449, 145–156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, I.

T. Kupp, B. Blank, A. Deyhim, C. Benson, I. Robinson, and P. Fuoss, “Development of a double crystal monochromator,” AIP Conf. Proc. CP705, 651–654 (2004).
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Rodenburg, J.

A. Maiden and J. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
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J. Rodenburg, A. Hurst, A. Cullis, B. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-Ray Lensless Imaging of Extended Objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rose, V.

Rosenhahn, A.

Salditt, T.

K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent x-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1037–1050 (2011).
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A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Samberg, D.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sandy, A.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. Sandy, J. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard x-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. Warren, A. Sandy, S. Narayanan, and J. Fienup, “One-dimensional hard X-ray field retrieval using a moveable structure,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18374–18382 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sano, Y.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an x-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, and Y. Sano, “At-wavelength figure metrology of hard x-ray focusing mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schder, S.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, P.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroer, C.

C. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, and B. Lengeler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schroer, C. G.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schropp, A.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Senba, Y.

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Coherent x-ray wavefront reconstruction of a partially illuminated Fresnel zone plate,” Phys. Rev. B 83(21), 214109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sentenac, A.

Shi, B.

Shu, D.

Stangl, J.

P. Godard, G. Carbone, M. Allain, F. Mastropietro, G. Chen, L. Capello, A. Diaz, T. Metzger, J. Stangl, and V. Chamard, “Three-dimensional high-resolution quantitative microscopy of extended crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 568 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stein, A.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. Sandy, J. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard x-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. Warren, A. Sandy, S. Narayanan, and J. Fienup, “One-dimensional hard X-ray field retrieval using a moveable structure,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18374–18382 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, and D. Tennant, “Using Compound Kinoform Hard-X-Ray Lenses to Exceed the Critical Angle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stephenson, G.

Sumant, A.

M. Wojcik, V. Joshi, A. Sumant, R. Divan, L. Ocola, M. Lu, and D. Mancini, “Nanofabrication of x-ray zone plates using ultrananocrystalline diamond molds and electroforming,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), C6P30–C6P35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Butler and A. Sumant, “The CVD of Nanodiamond Materials,” J. Chem. Vap. Deposition 14, 145–160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, S.

P. Eng, M. Newvile, M. Rivers, and S. Sutton, “Dynamicaly figured Kirkpatrick Baez X-ray micro-focusing optic,” Proc. SPIE 3449, 145–156 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, A.

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Coherent x-ray wavefront reconstruction of a partially illuminated Fresnel zone plate,” Phys. Rev. B 83(21), 214109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, Y.

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Coherent x-ray wavefront reconstruction of a partially illuminated Fresnel zone plate,” Phys. Rev. B 83(21), 214109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tamasaku, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an x-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A.

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, and D. Tennant, “Using Compound Kinoform Hard-X-Ray Lenses to Exceed the Critical Angle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tennant, D.

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, and D. Tennant, “Using Compound Kinoform Hard-X-Ray Lenses to Exceed the Critical Angle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thibault, P.

C. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321, 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tran, C. Q.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyliszczak, T.

Vartanyants, I. A.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vila-Comamala, J.

C. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. Fienup, A. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, “Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard X-ray beam and alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data,” Opt. Express 18, 23420–23427 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

Warren, J.

Weckert, E.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wepf, R.

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilke, R. N.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G.

B. Abbey, K. Nugent, G. Williams, J. Clark, A. Peele, M. Pfeifer, M. D. Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. J.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojcik, M.

M. Wojcik, V. Joshi, A. Sumant, R. Divan, L. Ocola, M. Lu, and D. Mancini, “Nanofabrication of x-ray zone plates using ultrananocrystalline diamond molds and electroforming,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), C6P30–C6P35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yabashi, M.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an x-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamakawa, D.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamamura, K.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, K.

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Coherent x-ray wavefront reconstruction of a partially illuminated Fresnel zone plate,” Phys. Rev. B 83(21), 214109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an x-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

Yokoyama, H.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yumoto, H.

H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an x-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, and Y. Sano, “At-wavelength figure metrology of hard x-ray focusing mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zettsu, N.

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Coherent x-ray wavefront reconstruction of a partially illuminated Fresnel zone plate,” Phys. Rev. B 83(21), 214109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Phys. (1)

K. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the x-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys. 59, 1–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

T. Kupp, B. Blank, A. Deyhim, C. Benson, I. Robinson, and P. Fuoss, “Development of a double crystal monochromator,” AIP Conf. Proc. CP705, 651–654 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, and B. Lengeler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. Sandy, J. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard x-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Vap. Deposition (1)

J. Butler and A. Sumant, “The CVD of Nanodiamond Materials,” J. Chem. Vap. Deposition 14, 145–160 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

M. Wojcik, V. Joshi, A. Sumant, R. Divan, L. Ocola, M. Lu, and D. Mancini, “Nanofabrication of x-ray zone plates using ultrananocrystalline diamond molds and electroforming,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), C6P30–C6P35 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

P. Godard, G. Carbone, M. Allain, F. Mastropietro, G. Chen, L. Capello, A. Diaz, T. Metzger, J. Stangl, and V. Chamard, “Three-dimensional high-resolution quantitative microscopy of extended crystals,” Nat. Commun. 2, 568 (2011).
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Nat. Phys. (3)

B. Abbey, K. Nugent, G. Williams, J. Clark, A. Peele, M. Pfeifer, M. D. Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys. 4, 394–398 (2008).
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H. Quiney, A. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. Nugent, “Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields,” Nat. Phys. 2, 101–104 (2006).
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H. Mimura, S. Handa, T. Kimura, H. Yumoto, D. Yamakawa, H. Yokoyama, S. Matsuyama, K. Inagaki, K. Yamamura, Y. Sano, K. Tamasaku, Y. Nishino, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Breaking the 10 nm barrier in hard-X-ray focusing,” Nat. Phys. 6, 122–125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, P. Thibault, P. Schneider, C. Kewish, R. Wepf, O. Bunk, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale,” Nature 467, 436–440 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

K. Giewekemeyer, M. Beckers, T. Gorniak, M. Grunze, T. Salditt, and A. Rosenhahn, “Ptychographic coherent x-ray diffractive imaging in the water window,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1037–1050 (2011).
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W. Chao, P. Fischer, T. Tyliszczak, S. Rekawa, E. Anderson, and P. Naulleau, “Real space soft x-ray imaging at 10 nm spatial resolution,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9777–9783 (2012).
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T. Chen, Y. Chen, C. Wang, I. Kempson, W. Lee, Y. Chu, Y. Hwu, and G. Margaritondo, “Full-field microimaging with 8 keV X-rays achieves a spatial resolutions better than 20 nm,” Opt. Express 19(21), 19919–19924 (2011).
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H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. Macrander, G. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15069–15076 (2011).
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F. Mastropietro, D. Carbone, A. Diaz, J. Eymery, A. Sentenac, T. H. Metzger, V. Chamard, and V. Favre-Nicolin, “Coherent x-ray wavefront reconstruction of a partially illuminated Fresnel zone plate,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19223–19232 (2011).
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M. Guizar-Sicairos, K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. Warren, A. Sandy, S. Narayanan, and J. Fienup, “One-dimensional hard X-ray field retrieval using a moveable structure,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18374–18382 (2010).
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M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. Fienup, “Measurement of coherent x-ray focused beams by phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2670–2685 (2009).
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C. Kewish, M. Guizar-Sicairos, C. Liu, J. Qian, B. Shi, C. Benson, A. Khounsary, J. Vila-Comamala, O. Bunk, J. Fienup, A. Macrander, and L. Assoufid, “Reconstruction of an astigmatic hard X-ray beam and alignment of K-B mirrors from ptychographic coherent diffraction data,” Opt. Express 18, 23420–23427 (2010).
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Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa, and K. Yamauchi, “Direct determination of the wave field of an x-ray nanobeam,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Y. Takahashi, A. Suzuki, N. Zettsu, Y. Kohmura, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, K. Yamauchi, and T. Ishikawa, “Coherent x-ray wavefront reconstruction of a partially illuminated Fresnel zone plate,” Phys. Rev. B 83(21), 214109 (2011).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

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Proc. SPIE (1)

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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

H. Yumoto, H. Mimura, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, and Y. Sano, “At-wavelength figure metrology of hard x-ray focusing mirrors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063712 (2006).
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Science (1)

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Ultramicroscopy (4)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, and F. Pfeiffer, “Probe retrieval in ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 338–343 (2009).
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C. Kewish, P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, O. Bunk, A. Menzel, J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, and F. Pfeiffer, “Ptychographic characterization of the wavefield in the focus of reflective hard X-ray optics,” Ultramicroscopy 110, 325–329 (2010).
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A. Morgan, A. Martin, A. D’Alfonso, C. Putkunz, and L. Allen, “Direct exit-wave reconstruction from a single defocused image,” Ultramicroscopy 111, 1455–1460 (2011).
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ZonePlates Ltd, 8 South Way, Claverings Industrial Estate, London N9 OAB, UK., URL http://www.zoneplates.com .

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the experimental setup with Fresnel zone plate (a) and KB mirrors (b). (c) SEM image of the test pattern. (d) (e) typical reconstructed magnitude and phase images using data measured with FZP.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)(b)(c) The phase-retrieved probe for FZP with the test sample placed at 0.0 mm, −6.0 mm and −12.32 mm. (e)(f) The simulated probes propagated from (a). (d) The propagation distances were determined by minimizing the standard deviation between propagated and phase-retrieved probes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of phase-retrieved and numerically propagated probes along the central vertical lines: the amplitude (a) and phase (b) plots at z = −5.947 mm, the amplitude (c) and phase (d) plots at z = −12.401 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Propagation of the phase-retrieved probe obtained at z = 0.0 mm: (a) intensity along the vertical direction, horizontally integrated, (b) intensity along the horizontal direction, vertically integrated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Estimation of focal sizes of the phase-retrieved wavefront (a)(b) and the simulated wavefront (c)(d).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison between the recovered wavefront (a) through phase-retrieval and the simulated wavefront of FZP focused beam (b). The central 8 ×8 μm area is shown. (c) The amplitude plotted along the horizontal central line. (d) The amplitude plotted along the vertical central line.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a)(b)(c) The reconstructed probe of the KB mirrors with the sample placed at −10 mm, 0.0 mm and 10.5 mm. (d)(e) The simulated probes propagated from (b). (f)(g) The integrated vertical and horizontal amplitude through focus.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Typical images of the reconstructed magnitude (a) and phase (b) using data measured with KB mirrors.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Horizontal (a) and vertical (b) focal sizes of the Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror system at their corresponding focal planes.

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