Abstract

In this paper, condition for uniform lighting generated by light emitting diode (LED) array was systematically studied. To take human vision effect into consideration, contrast sensitivity function (CSF) was novelly adopted as critical criterion for uniform lighting instead of conventionally used Sparrow’s Criterion (SC). Through CSF method, design parameters including system thickness, LED pitch, LED’s spatial radiation distribution and viewing condition can be analytically combined. In a specific LED array lighting system (LALS) with foursquare LED arrangement, different types of LEDs (Lambertian and Batwing type) and given viewing condition, optimum system thicknesses and LED pitches were calculated and compared with those got through SC method. Results show that CSF method can achieve more appropriate optimum parameters than SC method. Additionally, an abnormal phenomenon that uniformity varies with structural parameters non-monotonically in LALS with non-Lambertian LEDs was found and analyzed. Based on the analysis, a design method of LALS that can bring about better practicability, lower cost and more attractive appearance was summarized.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

A. J. W. Whang, Y. Y. Chen, and Y. T. Teng, “Designing uniform illumination systems by surface-tailored lens and configurations of LED arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.5(3), 94–103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. W. M. Bergmans, T. C. W. Schenk, J.-P. M. G. Linnartz, and R. Rietman, “Uniform illuminance rendering using an array of LEDs: a signal processing perspective,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.57(3), 1044–1057 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

M. G. Craford, “LEDs for solid state lighting and other emerging applications: status, trends, and challenges,” Proc. SPIE5941, 594101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno and L. M. Molinar, “Color uniformity of the light distribution from several cluster configurations of multicolor LEDs,” Proc. SPIE5941, 59411S (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. G. J. Barten, “Formula for the contrast sensitivity of the human eye,” Proc. SPIE5294, 231–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

1977 (1)

C. F. Hall and E. L. Hall, “A nonlinear model for the spatial characteristics of the human visual system,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern.7(3), 161–170 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, “Application of fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” J. Physiol.197(3), 551–566 (1968).
[PubMed]

1962 (1)

1956 (1)

1936 (1)

W. A. Hendricks and K. W. Robey, “The sampling distribution of the coefficient of variation,” Ann. Math. Stat.7(3), 129–132 (1936).
[CrossRef]

1916 (1)

C. M. Sparrow, “On spectroscopic resolving power,” Astrophys. J.44, 76–86 (1916).
[CrossRef]

Avendaño-Alejo, M.

Barten, P. G. J.

P. G. J. Barten, “Formula for the contrast sensitivity of the human eye,” Proc. SPIE5294, 231–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. G. J. Barten, “Evaluation of subjective image quality with the square-root integral method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A7(10), 2024–2031 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bergmans, J. W. M.

H. Yang, J. W. M. Bergmans, T. C. W. Schenk, J.-P. M. G. Linnartz, and R. Rietman, “Uniform illuminance rendering using an array of LEDs: a signal processing perspective,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.57(3), 1044–1057 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, “Application of fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” J. Physiol.197(3), 551–566 (1968).
[PubMed]

Chen, F.

Chen, Y. Y.

A. J. W. Whang, Y. Y. Chen, and Y. T. Teng, “Designing uniform illumination systems by surface-tailored lens and configurations of LED arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.5(3), 94–103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

M. G. Craford, “LEDs for solid state lighting and other emerging applications: status, trends, and challenges,” Proc. SPIE5941, 594101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Depalma, J. J.

Hall, C. F.

C. F. Hall and E. L. Hall, “A nonlinear model for the spatial characteristics of the human visual system,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern.7(3), 161–170 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hall, E. L.

C. F. Hall and E. L. Hall, “A nonlinear model for the spatial characteristics of the human visual system,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern.7(3), 161–170 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hendricks, W. A.

W. A. Hendricks and K. W. Robey, “The sampling distribution of the coefficient of variation,” Ann. Math. Stat.7(3), 129–132 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, A.

Linnartz, J.-P. M. G.

H. Yang, J. W. M. Bergmans, T. C. W. Schenk, J.-P. M. G. Linnartz, and R. Rietman, “Uniform illuminance rendering using an array of LEDs: a signal processing perspective,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.57(3), 1044–1057 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Liu, Z. Y.

Lowry, E. M.

Luo, X. B.

Molinar, L. M.

I. Moreno and L. M. Molinar, “Color uniformity of the light distribution from several cluster configurations of multicolor LEDs,” Proc. SPIE5941, 59411S (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

Owsley, C.

Qin, Z.

Rietman, R.

H. Yang, J. W. M. Bergmans, T. C. W. Schenk, J.-P. M. G. Linnartz, and R. Rietman, “Uniform illuminance rendering using an array of LEDs: a signal processing perspective,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.57(3), 1044–1057 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Robey, K. W.

W. A. Hendricks and K. W. Robey, “The sampling distribution of the coefficient of variation,” Ann. Math. Stat.7(3), 129–132 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Robson, J. G.

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, “Application of fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” J. Physiol.197(3), 551–566 (1968).
[PubMed]

Rohaly, A. M.

Schade, O. H.

Schenk, T. C. W.

H. Yang, J. W. M. Bergmans, T. C. W. Schenk, J.-P. M. G. Linnartz, and R. Rietman, “Uniform illuminance rendering using an array of LEDs: a signal processing perspective,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.57(3), 1044–1057 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sparrow, C. M.

C. M. Sparrow, “On spectroscopic resolving power,” Astrophys. J.44, 76–86 (1916).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.-C.

Teng, Y. T.

A. J. W. Whang, Y. Y. Chen, and Y. T. Teng, “Designing uniform illumination systems by surface-tailored lens and configurations of LED arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.5(3), 94–103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tzonchev, R. I.

Wang, K.

Whang, A. J. W.

A. J. W. Whang, Y. Y. Chen, and Y. T. Teng, “Designing uniform illumination systems by surface-tailored lens and configurations of LED arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.5(3), 94–103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

Yang, H.

H. Yang, J. W. M. Bergmans, T. C. W. Schenk, J.-P. M. G. Linnartz, and R. Rietman, “Uniform illuminance rendering using an array of LEDs: a signal processing perspective,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.57(3), 1044–1057 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Math. Stat. (1)

W. A. Hendricks and K. W. Robey, “The sampling distribution of the coefficient of variation,” Ann. Math. Stat.7(3), 129–132 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. J. (1)

C. M. Sparrow, “On spectroscopic resolving power,” Astrophys. J.44, 76–86 (1916).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (1)

H. Yang, J. W. M. Bergmans, T. C. W. Schenk, J.-P. M. G. Linnartz, and R. Rietman, “Uniform illuminance rendering using an array of LEDs: a signal processing perspective,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process.57(3), 1044–1057 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. (1)

C. F. Hall and E. L. Hall, “A nonlinear model for the spatial characteristics of the human visual system,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern.7(3), 161–170 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

A. J. W. Whang, Y. Y. Chen, and Y. T. Teng, “Designing uniform illumination systems by surface-tailored lens and configurations of LED arrays,” J. Disp. Technol.5(3), 94–103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Physiol. (1)

F. W. Campbell and J. G. Robson, “Application of fourier analysis to the visibility of gratings,” J. Physiol.197(3), 551–566 (1968).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (3)

M. G. Craford, “LEDs for solid state lighting and other emerging applications: status, trends, and challenges,” Proc. SPIE5941, 594101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. G. J. Barten, “Formula for the contrast sensitivity of the human eye,” Proc. SPIE5294, 231–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno and L. M. Molinar, “Color uniformity of the light distribution from several cluster configurations of multicolor LEDs,” Proc. SPIE5941, 59411S (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. G. J. Barten, “The SQRI method: A new method for the evaluation of visible resolution on a display.” Proc. SID 28, 253–262 (1987).

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