Abstract

We demonstrated dissipative soliton obtained from a graphene oxide mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser, which operated in normal dispersion cavity by employing the dispersion compensation fiber. The highly chirped pulses at the repetition rate of 19.5 MHz can be compressed from 11 ps to 542 fs by using single mode fiber. Numerical simulations were in good agreement with the experimental results. The hydrophilic graphene oxide with easier fabrication shows great potential to be a novel low-cost saturable absorber in reliable and compact mode-locked fiber laser system.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 141103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 203106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(12), 121107 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. L. Huang, S. C. Lin, C. Y. Yeh, H. H. Kuo, S. H. Huang, G. R. Lin, L. J. Li, C. Y. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express20(3), 2460–2465 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. V. Cunning, C. L. Brown, and D. Kielpinski, “Low-loss flake-graphene saturable absorber mirror for laser mode-locking at sub-200-fs pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(26), 261109 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051122 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, K. Grodecki, P. Paletko, W. Strupinski, Z. Jankiewicz, and K. M. Abramski, “Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(17), 2770–2775 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode-locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 111112 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(8), 591–596 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Xu, S. Wu, J. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Nanosecond-pulsed erbium-doped fiber lasers with graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun.285(21–22), 326–329 (2012).
  16. J. Xu, J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express20(14), 15474–15480 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Z. B. Liu, X. Y. He, and D. N. Wang, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with few-layered graphene oxide solution,” Opt. Lett.36(16), 3024–3026 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High power passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using graphene oxide as a saturable absorber,” Laser Phys.21(12), 2072–2075 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphite oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.80(6), 1339 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Stankovich, D. Dikin, R. Piner, K. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. Nguyen, and R. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. B. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature448(7152), 457–460 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. Eda and M. Chhowalla, “Chemically derived graphene oxide: towards large-area thin-film electronics and optoelectronics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(22), 2392–2415 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics6(2), 84–92 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. H. Im, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, and D. I. Yeom, “All-fiber Er-doped dissipative soliton laser based on evanescent field interaction with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express18(21), 22141–22146 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. V. I. Kruglov, C. Aguergaray, and J. D. Harvey, “Parabolic and hyper-Gaussian similaritons in fiber amplifiers and lasers with gain saturation,” Opt. Express20(8), 8741–8754 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. E. Ding and J. N. Kutz, “Operating regimes, split-step modeling, and the Haus master mode-locking model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B26(12), 2290–2300 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. T. Schreiber, B. Ortaç, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “On the study of pulse evolution in ultra-short pulse mode-locked fiber lasers by numerical simulations,” Opt. Express15(13), 8252–8262 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (8)

J. Xu, S. Wu, J. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Nanosecond-pulsed erbium-doped fiber lasers with graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun.285(21–22), 326–329 (2012).

J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm: YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Huang, S. C. Lin, C. Y. Yeh, H. H. Kuo, S. H. Huang, G. R. Lin, L. J. Li, C. Y. Su, and W. H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express20(3), 2460–2465 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Kruglov, C. Aguergaray, and J. D. Harvey, “Parabolic and hyper-Gaussian similaritons in fiber amplifiers and lasers with gain saturation,” Opt. Express20(8), 8741–8754 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express20(14), 15474–15480 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, M. Zdrojek, M. Holdynski, P. Paletko, J. Boguslawski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Graphene oxide vs. reduced graphene oxide as saturable absorbers for Er-doped passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express20(17), 19463–19473 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, K. Grodecki, P. Paletko, W. Strupinski, Z. Jankiewicz, and K. M. Abramski, “Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(17), 2770–2775 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

Z. B. Liu, X. Y. He, and D. N. Wang, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with few-layered graphene oxide solution,” Opt. Lett.36(16), 3024–3026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High power passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using graphene oxide as a saturable absorber,” Laser Phys.21(12), 2072–2075 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. V. Cunning, C. L. Brown, and D. Kielpinski, “Low-loss flake-graphene saturable absorber mirror for laser mode-locking at sub-200-fs pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(26), 261109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (9)

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode-locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Eda and M. Chhowalla, “Chemically derived graphene oxide: towards large-area thin-film electronics and optoelectronics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(22), 2392–2415 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Im, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, and D. I. Yeom, “All-fiber Er-doped dissipative soliton laser based on evanescent field interaction with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express18(21), 22141–22146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ding and J. N. Kutz, “Operating regimes, split-step modeling, and the Haus master mode-locking model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B26(12), 2290–2300 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

S. Stankovich, D. Dikin, R. Piner, K. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. Nguyen, and R. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. B. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature448(7152), 457–460 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schreiber, B. Ortaç, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “On the study of pulse evolution in ultra-short pulse mode-locked fiber lasers by numerical simulations,” Opt. Express15(13), 8252–8262 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1958 (1)

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphite oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.80(6), 1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Abramski, K. M.

Aguergaray, C.

Akhmediev, N.

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bae, M.-K.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode-locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q. L.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boguslawski, J.

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. L.

B. V. Cunning, C. L. Brown, and D. Kielpinski, “Low-loss flake-graphene saturable absorber mirror for laser mode-locking at sub-200-fs pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(26), 261109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W. H.

Chhowalla, M.

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Eda and M. Chhowalla, “Chemically derived graphene oxide: towards large-area thin-film electronics and optoelectronics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(22), 2392–2415 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S. Y.

Cunning, B. V.

B. V. Cunning, C. L. Brown, and D. Kielpinski, “Low-loss flake-graphene saturable absorber mirror for laser mode-locking at sub-200-fs pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(26), 261109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dikin, D.

S. Stankovich, D. Dikin, R. Piner, K. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. Nguyen, and R. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dikin, D. A.

D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. B. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature448(7152), 457–460 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, E.

Dommett, G. H. B.

D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. B. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature448(7152), 457–460 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eda, G.

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Eda and M. Chhowalla, “Chemically derived graphene oxide: towards large-area thin-film electronics and optoelectronics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(22), 2392–2415 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evmenenko, G.

D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. B. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature448(7152), 457–460 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuse, K.

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grelu, P.

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grodecki, K.

Gui, L.

L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Han, W.-S.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. D.

Hasan, T.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, X. Y.

Holdynski, M.

Hou, W.

L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High power passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using graphene oxide as a saturable absorber,” Laser Phys.21(12), 2072–2075 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P. L.

Huang, S. H.

Hummers, W. S.

W. S. Hummers and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphite oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.80(6), 1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Im, J. H.

Jagiello, J.

Jang, S.-Y.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jankiewicz, Z.

Jia, Y.

S. Stankovich, D. Dikin, R. Piner, K. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. Nguyen, and R. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kielpinski, D.

B. V. Cunning, C. L. Brown, and D. Kielpinski, “Low-loss flake-graphene saturable absorber mirror for laser mode-locking at sub-200-fs pulse duration,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(26), 261109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kleinhammes, A.

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H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 141103 (2009).
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H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode-locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 111112 (2010).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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S. Stankovich, D. Dikin, R. Piner, K. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. Nguyen, and R. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
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D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. B. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature448(7152), 457–460 (2007).
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J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm: YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.9(1), 15–19 (2012).
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D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 203106 (2010).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 141103 (2009).
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H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(8), 591–596 (2010).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
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X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
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H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(8), 591–596 (2010).
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D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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Wang, D. N.

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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(20), 203106 (2010).
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J. Xu, S. Wu, J. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Nanosecond-pulsed erbium-doped fiber lasers with graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun.285(21–22), 326–329 (2012).

J. Xu, J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express20(14), 15474–15480 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Xu, S. Wu, J. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Nanosecond-pulsed erbium-doped fiber lasers with graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun.285(21–22), 326–329 (2012).

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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm: YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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J. Xu, J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express20(14), 15474–15480 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
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J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm: YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.9(1), 15–19 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express20(14), 15474–15480 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(12), 121107 (2011).
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X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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J. Xu, S. Wu, J. Liu, Q. Wang, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Nanosecond-pulsed erbium-doped fiber lasers with graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun.285(21–22), 326–329 (2012).

J. Xu, J. Liu, S. Wu, Q. H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Graphene oxide mode-locked femtosecond erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express20(14), 15474–15480 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High power passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using graphene oxide as a saturable absorber,” Laser Phys.21(12), 2072–2075 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode-locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High power passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using graphene oxide as a saturable absorber,” Laser Phys.21(12), 2072–2075 (2011).
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L. Zhang, Y. G. Wang, H. J. Yu, S. B. Zhang, W. Hou, X. C. Lin, and J. M. Li, “High power passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser using graphene oxide as a saturable absorber,” Laser Phys.21(12), 2072–2075 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
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H. Zhang, D. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode-locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 111112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(14), 141103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. M.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode-locked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
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X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, W. B. Yan, Y. Wu, X. L. Zhang, Y. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics and saturable absorption of solution-processable few-layered graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(12), 121905 (2011).
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J. Liu, Y. G. Wang, Z. S. Qu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Graphene oxide absorber for 2 µm passive mode-locking Tm: YAlO3 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.9(1), 15–19 (2012).
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L. Gui, W. Zhang, X. Li, X. Xiao, H. Zhu, K. Wang, D. Wu, and C. Yang, “Self-assembled graphene membrane as an ultrafast mode-locker in an erbium fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1790–1792 (2011).
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D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, E. J. Zimney, R. D. Piner, G. H. B. Dommett, G. Evmenenko, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper,” Nature448(7152), 457–460 (2007).
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ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

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Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. WDM: wavelength division multiplexer. GOSAM: graphene oxide saturable absorber mirror. EDF: erbium-doped fiber. DCF: dispersion compensation fiber. PC: polarization controller.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mode-locking performance at 139 mW pump power: (a) The typical pulse train at 19.5 MHz. (b) Optical spectrum on a logarithmic scale: before pulse compression (black curve), after 50 m SMF (blue curve), after 75 m SMF (red curve). (c) Autocorrelation trace of chirped pulses (blue curve) and dechirped pulses (red curve). (d) Frequency spectrum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical evolution from quantum noise to stable dissipative soliton. (a) In the temporal domain. (b) In the spectrum domain.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Compression of dissipative soliton. (a) The optical spectra on a linear scale. Colored curves: the numerical spectra; Black curves: the experimental spectra. (b) The pulse profiles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The pulse width compressed by SMF at different length.

Equations (3)

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A z = g 2 Ai β 2 2 2 A T 2 +iγ | A | 2 A+ g 2 Ω g 2 2 A T 2
g= g 0 1+E/ E sat
R= R unsat + R sat ·( 1- 1 1+P/ P sat )

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