Abstract

The competitive laser-induced local heating and recrystallization effects in ZnO nanocrystals embedded in a MgO/ZnO stack are reported via resonance Raman spectra. The dependence of the intensity, energy, and resonance effects of the longitudinal optical (LO) phonon on laser excitation condition are discussed in the context of Fröhlich interaction. Redistribution of defects, impurity-diffusion, and grain regrowth caused by thermal and photochemical effects lead to significant changes in coupling strength of electron-phonon interaction, and the resonance behaviors are strongly affected by the interplay of local heating, heat trapping, and local structural modification in such nanostructures.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. Kauschke and M. Cardona, “Resonant Raman scattering in semiconductors,” Phys. Scr.T25, 201–205 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. R. Wagner, P. Zimmer, A. Hoffmann, and C. Thomsen, “Resonant Raman scattering at exciton intermediate states in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi1(5), 169–171 (2007) (RRL).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Compaan, M. C. Lee, and G. J. Trott, “Phonon populations by nanosecond-pulsed Raman scattering in Si,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter32(10), 6731–6741 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. K. Arguirova, Tz. Arguirov, D. Wolfframm, and J. Reif, “Influence of local heating on micro-Raman spectroscopy of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.94(8), 4946–4949 (2003).
  5. K. W. Adu, H. R. Gutierrez, U. J. Kim, and P. C. Eklund, “Inhomogeneous laser heating and phonon confinement in silicon nanowires: A micro-Raman scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B73(15), 155333 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Jalilian, G. U. Sumanasekera, H. Chandrasekharan, and M. K. Sunkara, “Phonon confinement and laser heating effects in Germanium nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B74(15), 155421 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, M. Shamsa, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman investigation of optical phonons in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 124313 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Alarcon-Liado, J. Ibanez, R. Cusco, L. Artus, J. D. Prades, S. Estrade, and J. R. Morante, “Ultraviolet Raman scattering in ZnO nanowires: quasimode mixing and temperature effects,” J. Raman Spectrosc.42, 153–159 (2011).
  9. S. Sahoo and A. K. Arora, “Laser-power-induced multiphonon resonant Raman scattering in laser-heated CdS nanocrystal,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(12), 4199–4203 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. S. Kurbanov, K. T. Igamberdiev, and T. W. Kang, “The UV-laser induced heating effect on photoluminescence from ZnO nanocrystals deposited on different substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(11), 115401 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. F. Cerqueira, M. I. Vasilevskiy, F. Oliveira, A. G. Rolo, T. Viseu, J. Ayres de Campos, E. Alves, and R. Correia, “Resonant Raman scattering in ZnO:Mn and ZnO:Mn:Al thin films grown by RF sputtering,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter23(33), 334205 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. Alarcon-Liado, R. Cusco, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. Wang, and M. Callahan, “Raman scattering of quasimodes in ZnO,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20, 445211 (2008).
  13. L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, and A. P. Purdy, “Photoluminescence dynamics in ensembles of wide-band-gap nanocrystallites and powders,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 675–682 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Bäuerle, Laser Processing and Chemistry, Fourth Edition (Springer, 2011).
  15. X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, L. Bergman, and A. P. Purdy, “Ultraviolet Raman scattering of GaN nanocrystallites: Intrinsic versus collective phenomena,” J. Appl. Phys.97(2), 024302 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. Huso, J. L. Morrison, and H. Hoeck, “Raman scattering of polar modes of ZnO crystallites,” J. Appl. Phys.98(9), 093507 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Kaschner, M. Strassburg, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, and D. Schikora, “Temporal evolution of resonant Raman-scattering in ZnCdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(19), 2662–2664 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Martin, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Rodriguez, J. Sangrador, and T. Rodriguez, “Reversible crystallization of a-Si1−xGex alloys under the combined effect of light and temperature,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 155–163 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. D. Ye, K. W. Teoh, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, H. Zhao, S. L. Gu, R. Zhang, Y. D. Zheng, S. A. Oh, X. H. Zhang, and S. Tripathy, “Effects of alloying and localized electronic states on the resonant Raman spectra of Zn1−xMgxO nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091901 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. M. Cheng, K. F. Lin, H. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Size dependence of photoluminescence and resonant Raman scattering from ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 261909 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. P. Wang, G. Xu, and P. Jin, “Size dependence of electron-phonon coupling in ZnO nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B69(11), 113303 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Menéndez and M. Cardona, “Interference effects: A key to understanding forbidden Raman scattering by LO phonons in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter31(6), 3696–3704 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. Cusco, E. A. Llado, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. G. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B75(16), 165202 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. Tsubota, M. Ohtaki, K. Eguchi, and H. Arai, “Transport properties and thermoelectric performance of (Zn1–yMgy)1–xAlxO,” J. Mater. Chem.8(2), 409–412 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. M. Martin and T. C. Damen, “Breakdown of Selection Rules in Resonance Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.26(2), 86–88 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  26. I. Ozerov, M. Arab, V. I. Safarov, W. Marine, S. Giorgio, M. Sentis, and L. Nanai, “Enhancement of exciton emission from ZnO nanocrystalline films by pulsed laser annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.226(1-3), 242–248 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, “The one phonon Raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon,” Solid State Commun.39(5), 625–629 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  28. I. H. Campbell and P. M. Fauchet, “The effects of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors,” Solid State Commun.58(10), 739–741 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Rajalakshmi, A. K. Arora, B. S. Bendre, and S. Mahamuni, “Optical phonon confinement in zinc oxide nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2445–2448 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. Samanta, P. Bhattacharya, and R. S. Katiyar, “Temperature dependent E2 Raman modes in the ZnCoO ternary alloy,” Phys. Rev. B75(3), 035208 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  31. V. A. Coleman, M. Buda, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. R. Phillips, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of blue shifts in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum well structures by ion-implantation induced intermixing,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(3), L25–L28 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  32. C. Bundesmann, A. Rahm, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, and M. Schubert, “Infrared optical properties of MgxZn1−xO thin films (0 < x < 1): Long-wavelength optical phonons and dielectric constants,” J. Appl. Phys.99(11), 113504 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2011

E. Alarcon-Liado, J. Ibanez, R. Cusco, L. Artus, J. D. Prades, S. Estrade, and J. R. Morante, “Ultraviolet Raman scattering in ZnO nanowires: quasimode mixing and temperature effects,” J. Raman Spectrosc.42, 153–159 (2011).

M. F. Cerqueira, M. I. Vasilevskiy, F. Oliveira, A. G. Rolo, T. Viseu, J. Ayres de Campos, E. Alves, and R. Correia, “Resonant Raman scattering in ZnO:Mn and ZnO:Mn:Al thin films grown by RF sputtering,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter23(33), 334205 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

S. Sahoo and A. K. Arora, “Laser-power-induced multiphonon resonant Raman scattering in laser-heated CdS nanocrystal,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(12), 4199–4203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Kurbanov, K. T. Igamberdiev, and T. W. Kang, “The UV-laser induced heating effect on photoluminescence from ZnO nanocrystals deposited on different substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(11), 115401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

E. Alarcon-Liado, R. Cusco, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. Wang, and M. Callahan, “Raman scattering of quasimodes in ZnO,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20, 445211 (2008).

2007

J. D. Ye, K. W. Teoh, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, H. Zhao, S. L. Gu, R. Zhang, Y. D. Zheng, S. A. Oh, X. H. Zhang, and S. Tripathy, “Effects of alloying and localized electronic states on the resonant Raman spectra of Zn1−xMgxO nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Wagner, P. Zimmer, A. Hoffmann, and C. Thomsen, “Resonant Raman scattering at exciton intermediate states in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi1(5), 169–171 (2007) (RRL).
[CrossRef]

R. Cusco, E. A. Llado, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. G. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B75(16), 165202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Samanta, P. Bhattacharya, and R. S. Katiyar, “Temperature dependent E2 Raman modes in the ZnCoO ternary alloy,” Phys. Rev. B75(3), 035208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

V. A. Coleman, M. Buda, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. R. Phillips, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of blue shifts in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum well structures by ion-implantation induced intermixing,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(3), L25–L28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Bundesmann, A. Rahm, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, and M. Schubert, “Infrared optical properties of MgxZn1−xO thin films (0 < x < 1): Long-wavelength optical phonons and dielectric constants,” J. Appl. Phys.99(11), 113504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Adu, H. R. Gutierrez, U. J. Kim, and P. C. Eklund, “Inhomogeneous laser heating and phonon confinement in silicon nanowires: A micro-Raman scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B73(15), 155333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Jalilian, G. U. Sumanasekera, H. Chandrasekharan, and M. K. Sunkara, “Phonon confinement and laser heating effects in Germanium nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B74(15), 155421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Cheng, K. F. Lin, H. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Size dependence of photoluminescence and resonant Raman scattering from ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 261909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, L. Bergman, and A. P. Purdy, “Ultraviolet Raman scattering of GaN nanocrystallites: Intrinsic versus collective phenomena,” J. Appl. Phys.97(2), 024302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. Huso, J. L. Morrison, and H. Hoeck, “Raman scattering of polar modes of ZnO crystallites,” J. Appl. Phys.98(9), 093507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, M. Shamsa, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman investigation of optical phonons in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 124313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, and A. P. Purdy, “Photoluminescence dynamics in ensembles of wide-band-gap nanocrystallites and powders,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 675–682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Wang, G. Xu, and P. Jin, “Size dependence of electron-phonon coupling in ZnO nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B69(11), 113303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Martin, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Rodriguez, J. Sangrador, and T. Rodriguez, “Reversible crystallization of a-Si1−xGex alloys under the combined effect of light and temperature,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 155–163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Ozerov, M. Arab, V. I. Safarov, W. Marine, S. Giorgio, M. Sentis, and L. Nanai, “Enhancement of exciton emission from ZnO nanocrystalline films by pulsed laser annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.226(1-3), 242–248 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. K. Arguirova, Tz. Arguirov, D. Wolfframm, and J. Reif, “Influence of local heating on micro-Raman spectroscopy of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.94(8), 4946–4949 (2003).

2000

A. Kaschner, M. Strassburg, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, and D. Schikora, “Temporal evolution of resonant Raman-scattering in ZnCdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(19), 2662–2664 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajalakshmi, A. K. Arora, B. S. Bendre, and S. Mahamuni, “Optical phonon confinement in zinc oxide nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2445–2448 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. Tsubota, M. Ohtaki, K. Eguchi, and H. Arai, “Transport properties and thermoelectric performance of (Zn1–yMgy)1–xAlxO,” J. Mater. Chem.8(2), 409–412 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1989

W. Kauschke and M. Cardona, “Resonant Raman scattering in semiconductors,” Phys. Scr.T25, 201–205 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

I. H. Campbell and P. M. Fauchet, “The effects of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors,” Solid State Commun.58(10), 739–741 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

A. Compaan, M. C. Lee, and G. J. Trott, “Phonon populations by nanosecond-pulsed Raman scattering in Si,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter32(10), 6731–6741 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Menéndez and M. Cardona, “Interference effects: A key to understanding forbidden Raman scattering by LO phonons in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter31(6), 3696–3704 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, “The one phonon Raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon,” Solid State Commun.39(5), 625–629 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1971

R. M. Martin and T. C. Damen, “Breakdown of Selection Rules in Resonance Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.26(2), 86–88 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Adu, K. W.

K. W. Adu, H. R. Gutierrez, U. J. Kim, and P. C. Eklund, “Inhomogeneous laser heating and phonon confinement in silicon nanowires: A micro-Raman scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B73(15), 155333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alarcon-Liado, E.

E. Alarcon-Liado, J. Ibanez, R. Cusco, L. Artus, J. D. Prades, S. Estrade, and J. R. Morante, “Ultraviolet Raman scattering in ZnO nanowires: quasimode mixing and temperature effects,” J. Raman Spectrosc.42, 153–159 (2011).

E. Alarcon-Liado, R. Cusco, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. Wang, and M. Callahan, “Raman scattering of quasimodes in ZnO,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20, 445211 (2008).

Alim, K. A.

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, M. Shamsa, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman investigation of optical phonons in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 124313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alves, E.

M. F. Cerqueira, M. I. Vasilevskiy, F. Oliveira, A. G. Rolo, T. Viseu, J. Ayres de Campos, E. Alves, and R. Correia, “Resonant Raman scattering in ZnO:Mn and ZnO:Mn:Al thin films grown by RF sputtering,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter23(33), 334205 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arab, M.

I. Ozerov, M. Arab, V. I. Safarov, W. Marine, S. Giorgio, M. Sentis, and L. Nanai, “Enhancement of exciton emission from ZnO nanocrystalline films by pulsed laser annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.226(1-3), 242–248 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arai, H.

T. Tsubota, M. Ohtaki, K. Eguchi, and H. Arai, “Transport properties and thermoelectric performance of (Zn1–yMgy)1–xAlxO,” J. Mater. Chem.8(2), 409–412 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arguirov, Tz.

S. K. Arguirova, Tz. Arguirov, D. Wolfframm, and J. Reif, “Influence of local heating on micro-Raman spectroscopy of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.94(8), 4946–4949 (2003).

Arguirova, S. K.

S. K. Arguirova, Tz. Arguirov, D. Wolfframm, and J. Reif, “Influence of local heating on micro-Raman spectroscopy of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.94(8), 4946–4949 (2003).

Arora, A. K.

S. Sahoo and A. K. Arora, “Laser-power-induced multiphonon resonant Raman scattering in laser-heated CdS nanocrystal,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(12), 4199–4203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajalakshmi, A. K. Arora, B. S. Bendre, and S. Mahamuni, “Optical phonon confinement in zinc oxide nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2445–2448 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Artus, L.

E. Alarcon-Liado, J. Ibanez, R. Cusco, L. Artus, J. D. Prades, S. Estrade, and J. R. Morante, “Ultraviolet Raman scattering in ZnO nanowires: quasimode mixing and temperature effects,” J. Raman Spectrosc.42, 153–159 (2011).

E. Alarcon-Liado, R. Cusco, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. Wang, and M. Callahan, “Raman scattering of quasimodes in ZnO,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20, 445211 (2008).

R. Cusco, E. A. Llado, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. G. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B75(16), 165202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ayres de Campos, J.

M. F. Cerqueira, M. I. Vasilevskiy, F. Oliveira, A. G. Rolo, T. Viseu, J. Ayres de Campos, E. Alves, and R. Correia, “Resonant Raman scattering in ZnO:Mn and ZnO:Mn:Al thin films grown by RF sputtering,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter23(33), 334205 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balandin, A. A.

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, M. Shamsa, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman investigation of optical phonons in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 124313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, M.

A. Kaschner, M. Strassburg, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, and D. Schikora, “Temporal evolution of resonant Raman-scattering in ZnCdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(19), 2662–2664 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bendre, B. S.

M. Rajalakshmi, A. K. Arora, B. S. Bendre, and S. Mahamuni, “Optical phonon confinement in zinc oxide nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2445–2448 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, L.

X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, L. Bergman, and A. P. Purdy, “Ultraviolet Raman scattering of GaN nanocrystallites: Intrinsic versus collective phenomena,” J. Appl. Phys.97(2), 024302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. Huso, J. L. Morrison, and H. Hoeck, “Raman scattering of polar modes of ZnO crystallites,” J. Appl. Phys.98(9), 093507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, and A. P. Purdy, “Photoluminescence dynamics in ensembles of wide-band-gap nanocrystallites and powders,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 675–682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

K. Samanta, P. Bhattacharya, and R. S. Katiyar, “Temperature dependent E2 Raman modes in the ZnCoO ternary alloy,” Phys. Rev. B75(3), 035208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buda, M.

V. A. Coleman, M. Buda, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. R. Phillips, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of blue shifts in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum well structures by ion-implantation induced intermixing,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(3), L25–L28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bundesmann, C.

C. Bundesmann, A. Rahm, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, and M. Schubert, “Infrared optical properties of MgxZn1−xO thin films (0 < x < 1): Long-wavelength optical phonons and dielectric constants,” J. Appl. Phys.99(11), 113504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Callahan, M.

E. Alarcon-Liado, R. Cusco, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. Wang, and M. Callahan, “Raman scattering of quasimodes in ZnO,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20, 445211 (2008).

Callahan, M. J.

R. Cusco, E. A. Llado, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. G. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B75(16), 165202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, I. H.

I. H. Campbell and P. M. Fauchet, “The effects of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors,” Solid State Commun.58(10), 739–741 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

W. Kauschke and M. Cardona, “Resonant Raman scattering in semiconductors,” Phys. Scr.T25, 201–205 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Menéndez and M. Cardona, “Interference effects: A key to understanding forbidden Raman scattering by LO phonons in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter31(6), 3696–3704 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerqueira, M. F.

M. F. Cerqueira, M. I. Vasilevskiy, F. Oliveira, A. G. Rolo, T. Viseu, J. Ayres de Campos, E. Alves, and R. Correia, “Resonant Raman scattering in ZnO:Mn and ZnO:Mn:Al thin films grown by RF sputtering,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter23(33), 334205 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandrasekharan, H.

R. Jalilian, G. U. Sumanasekera, H. Chandrasekharan, and M. K. Sunkara, “Phonon confinement and laser heating effects in Germanium nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B74(15), 155421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. B.

X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, L. Bergman, and A. P. Purdy, “Ultraviolet Raman scattering of GaN nanocrystallites: Intrinsic versus collective phenomena,” J. Appl. Phys.97(2), 024302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. Huso, J. L. Morrison, and H. Hoeck, “Raman scattering of polar modes of ZnO crystallites,” J. Appl. Phys.98(9), 093507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, and A. P. Purdy, “Photoluminescence dynamics in ensembles of wide-band-gap nanocrystallites and powders,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 675–682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H. M.

H. M. Cheng, K. F. Lin, H. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Size dependence of photoluminescence and resonant Raman scattering from ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 261909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, V. A.

V. A. Coleman, M. Buda, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. R. Phillips, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of blue shifts in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum well structures by ion-implantation induced intermixing,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(3), L25–L28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Compaan, A.

A. Compaan, M. C. Lee, and G. J. Trott, “Phonon populations by nanosecond-pulsed Raman scattering in Si,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter32(10), 6731–6741 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Correia, R.

M. F. Cerqueira, M. I. Vasilevskiy, F. Oliveira, A. G. Rolo, T. Viseu, J. Ayres de Campos, E. Alves, and R. Correia, “Resonant Raman scattering in ZnO:Mn and ZnO:Mn:Al thin films grown by RF sputtering,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter23(33), 334205 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cusco, R.

E. Alarcon-Liado, J. Ibanez, R. Cusco, L. Artus, J. D. Prades, S. Estrade, and J. R. Morante, “Ultraviolet Raman scattering in ZnO nanowires: quasimode mixing and temperature effects,” J. Raman Spectrosc.42, 153–159 (2011).

E. Alarcon-Liado, R. Cusco, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. Wang, and M. Callahan, “Raman scattering of quasimodes in ZnO,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20, 445211 (2008).

R. Cusco, E. A. Llado, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. G. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B75(16), 165202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T. C.

R. M. Martin and T. C. Damen, “Breakdown of Selection Rules in Resonance Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.26(2), 86–88 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Eguchi, K.

T. Tsubota, M. Ohtaki, K. Eguchi, and H. Arai, “Transport properties and thermoelectric performance of (Zn1–yMgy)1–xAlxO,” J. Mater. Chem.8(2), 409–412 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eklund, P. C.

K. W. Adu, H. R. Gutierrez, U. J. Kim, and P. C. Eklund, “Inhomogeneous laser heating and phonon confinement in silicon nanowires: A micro-Raman scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B73(15), 155333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Estrade, S.

E. Alarcon-Liado, J. Ibanez, R. Cusco, L. Artus, J. D. Prades, S. Estrade, and J. R. Morante, “Ultraviolet Raman scattering in ZnO nanowires: quasimode mixing and temperature effects,” J. Raman Spectrosc.42, 153–159 (2011).

Fauchet, P. M.

I. H. Campbell and P. M. Fauchet, “The effects of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors,” Solid State Commun.58(10), 739–741 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fonoberov, V. A.

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, M. Shamsa, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman investigation of optical phonons in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 124313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giorgio, S.

I. Ozerov, M. Arab, V. I. Safarov, W. Marine, S. Giorgio, M. Sentis, and L. Nanai, “Enhancement of exciton emission from ZnO nanocrystalline films by pulsed laser annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.226(1-3), 242–248 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grundmann, M.

C. Bundesmann, A. Rahm, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, and M. Schubert, “Infrared optical properties of MgxZn1−xO thin films (0 < x < 1): Long-wavelength optical phonons and dielectric constants,” J. Appl. Phys.99(11), 113504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gu, S. L.

J. D. Ye, K. W. Teoh, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, H. Zhao, S. L. Gu, R. Zhang, Y. D. Zheng, S. A. Oh, X. H. Zhang, and S. Tripathy, “Effects of alloying and localized electronic states on the resonant Raman spectra of Zn1−xMgxO nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gutierrez, H. R.

K. W. Adu, H. R. Gutierrez, U. J. Kim, and P. C. Eklund, “Inhomogeneous laser heating and phonon confinement in silicon nanowires: A micro-Raman scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B73(15), 155333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoeck, H.

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. Huso, J. L. Morrison, and H. Hoeck, “Raman scattering of polar modes of ZnO crystallites,” J. Appl. Phys.98(9), 093507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, A.

M. R. Wagner, P. Zimmer, A. Hoffmann, and C. Thomsen, “Resonant Raman scattering at exciton intermediate states in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi1(5), 169–171 (2007) (RRL).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaschner, M. Strassburg, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, and D. Schikora, “Temporal evolution of resonant Raman-scattering in ZnCdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(19), 2662–2664 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, W. F.

H. M. Cheng, K. F. Lin, H. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Size dependence of photoluminescence and resonant Raman scattering from ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 261909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H. C.

H. M. Cheng, K. F. Lin, H. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Size dependence of photoluminescence and resonant Raman scattering from ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 261909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huso, J.

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. Huso, J. L. Morrison, and H. Hoeck, “Raman scattering of polar modes of ZnO crystallites,” J. Appl. Phys.98(9), 093507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, L. Bergman, and A. P. Purdy, “Ultraviolet Raman scattering of GaN nanocrystallites: Intrinsic versus collective phenomena,” J. Appl. Phys.97(2), 024302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, and A. P. Purdy, “Photoluminescence dynamics in ensembles of wide-band-gap nanocrystallites and powders,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 675–682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ibanez, J.

E. Alarcon-Liado, J. Ibanez, R. Cusco, L. Artus, J. D. Prades, S. Estrade, and J. R. Morante, “Ultraviolet Raman scattering in ZnO nanowires: quasimode mixing and temperature effects,” J. Raman Spectrosc.42, 153–159 (2011).

R. Cusco, E. A. Llado, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. G. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B75(16), 165202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Igamberdiev, K. T.

S. S. Kurbanov, K. T. Igamberdiev, and T. W. Kang, “The UV-laser induced heating effect on photoluminescence from ZnO nanocrystals deposited on different substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(11), 115401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, M.

V. A. Coleman, M. Buda, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. R. Phillips, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of blue shifts in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum well structures by ion-implantation induced intermixing,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(3), L25–L28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jagadish, C.

V. A. Coleman, M. Buda, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. R. Phillips, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of blue shifts in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum well structures by ion-implantation induced intermixing,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(3), L25–L28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jalilian, R.

R. Jalilian, G. U. Sumanasekera, H. Chandrasekharan, and M. K. Sunkara, “Phonon confinement and laser heating effects in Germanium nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B74(15), 155421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, J.

E. Alarcon-Liado, R. Cusco, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. Wang, and M. Callahan, “Raman scattering of quasimodes in ZnO,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20, 445211 (2008).

R. Cusco, E. A. Llado, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. G. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B75(16), 165202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Martin, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Rodriguez, J. Sangrador, and T. Rodriguez, “Reversible crystallization of a-Si1−xGex alloys under the combined effect of light and temperature,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 155–163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jin, P.

R. P. Wang, G. Xu, and P. Jin, “Size dependence of electron-phonon coupling in ZnO nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B69(11), 113303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kang, T. W.

S. S. Kurbanov, K. T. Igamberdiev, and T. W. Kang, “The UV-laser induced heating effect on photoluminescence from ZnO nanocrystals deposited on different substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(11), 115401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaschner, A.

A. Kaschner, M. Strassburg, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, and D. Schikora, “Temporal evolution of resonant Raman-scattering in ZnCdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(19), 2662–2664 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Katiyar, R. S.

K. Samanta, P. Bhattacharya, and R. S. Katiyar, “Temperature dependent E2 Raman modes in the ZnCoO ternary alloy,” Phys. Rev. B75(3), 035208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kauschke, W.

W. Kauschke and M. Cardona, “Resonant Raman scattering in semiconductors,” Phys. Scr.T25, 201–205 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kim, U. J.

K. W. Adu, H. R. Gutierrez, U. J. Kim, and P. C. Eklund, “Inhomogeneous laser heating and phonon confinement in silicon nanowires: A micro-Raman scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B73(15), 155333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koike, K.

V. A. Coleman, M. Buda, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. R. Phillips, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of blue shifts in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum well structures by ion-implantation induced intermixing,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(3), L25–L28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kurbanov, S. S.

S. S. Kurbanov, K. T. Igamberdiev, and T. W. Kang, “The UV-laser induced heating effect on photoluminescence from ZnO nanocrystals deposited on different substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(11), 115401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

J. D. Ye, K. W. Teoh, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, H. Zhao, S. L. Gu, R. Zhang, Y. D. Zheng, S. A. Oh, X. H. Zhang, and S. Tripathy, “Effects of alloying and localized electronic states on the resonant Raman spectra of Zn1−xMgxO nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. C.

A. Compaan, M. C. Lee, and G. J. Trott, “Phonon populations by nanosecond-pulsed Raman scattering in Si,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter32(10), 6731–6741 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ley, L.

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, “The one phonon Raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon,” Solid State Commun.39(5), 625–629 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K. F.

H. M. Cheng, K. F. Lin, H. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Size dependence of photoluminescence and resonant Raman scattering from ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 261909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lischka, K.

A. Kaschner, M. Strassburg, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, and D. Schikora, “Temporal evolution of resonant Raman-scattering in ZnCdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(19), 2662–2664 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Llado, E. A.

R. Cusco, E. A. Llado, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. G. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B75(16), 165202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

J. D. Ye, K. W. Teoh, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, H. Zhao, S. L. Gu, R. Zhang, Y. D. Zheng, S. A. Oh, X. H. Zhang, and S. Tripathy, “Effects of alloying and localized electronic states on the resonant Raman spectra of Zn1−xMgxO nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, M.

C. Bundesmann, A. Rahm, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, and M. Schubert, “Infrared optical properties of MgxZn1−xO thin films (0 < x < 1): Long-wavelength optical phonons and dielectric constants,” J. Appl. Phys.99(11), 113504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mahamuni, S.

M. Rajalakshmi, A. K. Arora, B. S. Bendre, and S. Mahamuni, “Optical phonon confinement in zinc oxide nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2445–2448 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marine, W.

I. Ozerov, M. Arab, V. I. Safarov, W. Marine, S. Giorgio, M. Sentis, and L. Nanai, “Enhancement of exciton emission from ZnO nanocrystalline films by pulsed laser annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.226(1-3), 242–248 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P.

P. Martin, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Rodriguez, J. Sangrador, and T. Rodriguez, “Reversible crystallization of a-Si1−xGex alloys under the combined effect of light and temperature,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 155–163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. M.

R. M. Martin and T. C. Damen, “Breakdown of Selection Rules in Resonance Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.26(2), 86–88 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Menéndez, J.

J. Menéndez and M. Cardona, “Interference effects: A key to understanding forbidden Raman scattering by LO phonons in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter31(6), 3696–3704 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morante, J. R.

E. Alarcon-Liado, J. Ibanez, R. Cusco, L. Artus, J. D. Prades, S. Estrade, and J. R. Morante, “Ultraviolet Raman scattering in ZnO nanowires: quasimode mixing and temperature effects,” J. Raman Spectrosc.42, 153–159 (2011).

Morrison, J. L.

X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, L. Bergman, and A. P. Purdy, “Ultraviolet Raman scattering of GaN nanocrystallites: Intrinsic versus collective phenomena,” J. Appl. Phys.97(2), 024302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. Huso, J. L. Morrison, and H. Hoeck, “Raman scattering of polar modes of ZnO crystallites,” J. Appl. Phys.98(9), 093507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, and A. P. Purdy, “Photoluminescence dynamics in ensembles of wide-band-gap nanocrystallites and powders,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 675–682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nanai, L.

I. Ozerov, M. Arab, V. I. Safarov, W. Marine, S. Giorgio, M. Sentis, and L. Nanai, “Enhancement of exciton emission from ZnO nanocrystalline films by pulsed laser annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.226(1-3), 242–248 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S. A.

J. D. Ye, K. W. Teoh, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, H. Zhao, S. L. Gu, R. Zhang, Y. D. Zheng, S. A. Oh, X. H. Zhang, and S. Tripathy, “Effects of alloying and localized electronic states on the resonant Raman spectra of Zn1−xMgxO nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohtaki, M.

T. Tsubota, M. Ohtaki, K. Eguchi, and H. Arai, “Transport properties and thermoelectric performance of (Zn1–yMgy)1–xAlxO,” J. Mater. Chem.8(2), 409–412 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, F.

M. F. Cerqueira, M. I. Vasilevskiy, F. Oliveira, A. G. Rolo, T. Viseu, J. Ayres de Campos, E. Alves, and R. Correia, “Resonant Raman scattering in ZnO:Mn and ZnO:Mn:Al thin films grown by RF sputtering,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter23(33), 334205 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozerov, I.

I. Ozerov, M. Arab, V. I. Safarov, W. Marine, S. Giorgio, M. Sentis, and L. Nanai, “Enhancement of exciton emission from ZnO nanocrystalline films by pulsed laser annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.226(1-3), 242–248 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, M. R.

V. A. Coleman, M. Buda, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. R. Phillips, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of blue shifts in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum well structures by ion-implantation induced intermixing,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(3), L25–L28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prades, J. D.

E. Alarcon-Liado, J. Ibanez, R. Cusco, L. Artus, J. D. Prades, S. Estrade, and J. R. Morante, “Ultraviolet Raman scattering in ZnO nanowires: quasimode mixing and temperature effects,” J. Raman Spectrosc.42, 153–159 (2011).

Purdy, A. P.

X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, L. Bergman, and A. P. Purdy, “Ultraviolet Raman scattering of GaN nanocrystallites: Intrinsic versus collective phenomena,” J. Appl. Phys.97(2), 024302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, and A. P. Purdy, “Photoluminescence dynamics in ensembles of wide-band-gap nanocrystallites and powders,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 675–682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rahm, A.

C. Bundesmann, A. Rahm, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, and M. Schubert, “Infrared optical properties of MgxZn1−xO thin films (0 < x < 1): Long-wavelength optical phonons and dielectric constants,” J. Appl. Phys.99(11), 113504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rajalakshmi, M.

M. Rajalakshmi, A. K. Arora, B. S. Bendre, and S. Mahamuni, “Optical phonon confinement in zinc oxide nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2445–2448 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reif, J.

S. K. Arguirova, Tz. Arguirov, D. Wolfframm, and J. Reif, “Influence of local heating on micro-Raman spectroscopy of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.94(8), 4946–4949 (2003).

Richter, H.

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, “The one phonon Raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon,” Solid State Commun.39(5), 625–629 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, A.

P. Martin, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Rodriguez, J. Sangrador, and T. Rodriguez, “Reversible crystallization of a-Si1−xGex alloys under the combined effect of light and temperature,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 155–163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, T.

P. Martin, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Rodriguez, J. Sangrador, and T. Rodriguez, “Reversible crystallization of a-Si1−xGex alloys under the combined effect of light and temperature,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 155–163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rolo, A. G.

M. F. Cerqueira, M. I. Vasilevskiy, F. Oliveira, A. G. Rolo, T. Viseu, J. Ayres de Campos, E. Alves, and R. Correia, “Resonant Raman scattering in ZnO:Mn and ZnO:Mn:Al thin films grown by RF sputtering,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter23(33), 334205 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safarov, V. I.

I. Ozerov, M. Arab, V. I. Safarov, W. Marine, S. Giorgio, M. Sentis, and L. Nanai, “Enhancement of exciton emission from ZnO nanocrystalline films by pulsed laser annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.226(1-3), 242–248 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sahoo, S.

S. Sahoo and A. K. Arora, “Laser-power-induced multiphonon resonant Raman scattering in laser-heated CdS nanocrystal,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(12), 4199–4203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samanta, K.

K. Samanta, P. Bhattacharya, and R. S. Katiyar, “Temperature dependent E2 Raman modes in the ZnCoO ternary alloy,” Phys. Rev. B75(3), 035208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sangrador, J.

P. Martin, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Rodriguez, J. Sangrador, and T. Rodriguez, “Reversible crystallization of a-Si1−xGex alloys under the combined effect of light and temperature,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 155–163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sasa, S.

V. A. Coleman, M. Buda, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. R. Phillips, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of blue shifts in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum well structures by ion-implantation induced intermixing,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(3), L25–L28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schikora, D.

A. Kaschner, M. Strassburg, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, and D. Schikora, “Temporal evolution of resonant Raman-scattering in ZnCdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(19), 2662–2664 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M.

C. Bundesmann, A. Rahm, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, and M. Schubert, “Infrared optical properties of MgxZn1−xO thin films (0 < x < 1): Long-wavelength optical phonons and dielectric constants,” J. Appl. Phys.99(11), 113504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sentis, M.

I. Ozerov, M. Arab, V. I. Safarov, W. Marine, S. Giorgio, M. Sentis, and L. Nanai, “Enhancement of exciton emission from ZnO nanocrystalline films by pulsed laser annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.226(1-3), 242–248 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shamsa, M.

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, M. Shamsa, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman investigation of optical phonons in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 124313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Strassburg, M.

A. Kaschner, M. Strassburg, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, and D. Schikora, “Temporal evolution of resonant Raman-scattering in ZnCdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(19), 2662–2664 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sumanasekera, G. U.

R. Jalilian, G. U. Sumanasekera, H. Chandrasekharan, and M. K. Sunkara, “Phonon confinement and laser heating effects in Germanium nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B74(15), 155421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

J. D. Ye, K. W. Teoh, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, H. Zhao, S. L. Gu, R. Zhang, Y. D. Zheng, S. A. Oh, X. H. Zhang, and S. Tripathy, “Effects of alloying and localized electronic states on the resonant Raman spectra of Zn1−xMgxO nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sunkara, M. K.

R. Jalilian, G. U. Sumanasekera, H. Chandrasekharan, and M. K. Sunkara, “Phonon confinement and laser heating effects in Germanium nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B74(15), 155421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H. H.

V. A. Coleman, M. Buda, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. R. Phillips, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of blue shifts in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum well structures by ion-implantation induced intermixing,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(3), L25–L28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Teoh, K. W.

J. D. Ye, K. W. Teoh, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, H. Zhao, S. L. Gu, R. Zhang, Y. D. Zheng, S. A. Oh, X. H. Zhang, and S. Tripathy, “Effects of alloying and localized electronic states on the resonant Raman spectra of Zn1−xMgxO nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, C.

M. R. Wagner, P. Zimmer, A. Hoffmann, and C. Thomsen, “Resonant Raman scattering at exciton intermediate states in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi1(5), 169–171 (2007) (RRL).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaschner, M. Strassburg, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, and D. Schikora, “Temporal evolution of resonant Raman-scattering in ZnCdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(19), 2662–2664 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Torres, A.

P. Martin, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Rodriguez, J. Sangrador, and T. Rodriguez, “Reversible crystallization of a-Si1−xGex alloys under the combined effect of light and temperature,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 155–163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S.

J. D. Ye, K. W. Teoh, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, H. Zhao, S. L. Gu, R. Zhang, Y. D. Zheng, S. A. Oh, X. H. Zhang, and S. Tripathy, “Effects of alloying and localized electronic states on the resonant Raman spectra of Zn1−xMgxO nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trott, G. J.

A. Compaan, M. C. Lee, and G. J. Trott, “Phonon populations by nanosecond-pulsed Raman scattering in Si,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter32(10), 6731–6741 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsubota, T.

T. Tsubota, M. Ohtaki, K. Eguchi, and H. Arai, “Transport properties and thermoelectric performance of (Zn1–yMgy)1–xAlxO,” J. Mater. Chem.8(2), 409–412 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vasilevskiy, M. I.

M. F. Cerqueira, M. I. Vasilevskiy, F. Oliveira, A. G. Rolo, T. Viseu, J. Ayres de Campos, E. Alves, and R. Correia, “Resonant Raman scattering in ZnO:Mn and ZnO:Mn:Al thin films grown by RF sputtering,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter23(33), 334205 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viseu, T.

M. F. Cerqueira, M. I. Vasilevskiy, F. Oliveira, A. G. Rolo, T. Viseu, J. Ayres de Campos, E. Alves, and R. Correia, “Resonant Raman scattering in ZnO:Mn and ZnO:Mn:Al thin films grown by RF sputtering,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter23(33), 334205 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, M. R.

M. R. Wagner, P. Zimmer, A. Hoffmann, and C. Thomsen, “Resonant Raman scattering at exciton intermediate states in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi1(5), 169–171 (2007) (RRL).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

E. Alarcon-Liado, R. Cusco, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. Wang, and M. Callahan, “Raman scattering of quasimodes in ZnO,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20, 445211 (2008).

Wang, B. G.

R. Cusco, E. A. Llado, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. G. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B75(16), 165202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. P.

R. P. Wang, G. Xu, and P. Jin, “Size dependence of electron-phonon coupling in ZnO nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B69(11), 113303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. P.

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, “The one phonon Raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon,” Solid State Commun.39(5), 625–629 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wolfframm, D.

S. K. Arguirova, Tz. Arguirov, D. Wolfframm, and J. Reif, “Influence of local heating on micro-Raman spectroscopy of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.94(8), 4946–4949 (2003).

Xu, G.

R. P. Wang, G. Xu, and P. Jin, “Size dependence of electron-phonon coupling in ZnO nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B69(11), 113303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yano, M.

V. A. Coleman, M. Buda, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. R. Phillips, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of blue shifts in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum well structures by ion-implantation induced intermixing,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(3), L25–L28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J. D.

J. D. Ye, K. W. Teoh, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, H. Zhao, S. L. Gu, R. Zhang, Y. D. Zheng, S. A. Oh, X. H. Zhang, and S. Tripathy, “Effects of alloying and localized electronic states on the resonant Raman spectra of Zn1−xMgxO nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

J. D. Ye, K. W. Teoh, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, H. Zhao, S. L. Gu, R. Zhang, Y. D. Zheng, S. A. Oh, X. H. Zhang, and S. Tripathy, “Effects of alloying and localized electronic states on the resonant Raman spectra of Zn1−xMgxO nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. H.

J. D. Ye, K. W. Teoh, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, H. Zhao, S. L. Gu, R. Zhang, Y. D. Zheng, S. A. Oh, X. H. Zhang, and S. Tripathy, “Effects of alloying and localized electronic states on the resonant Raman spectra of Zn1−xMgxO nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

J. D. Ye, K. W. Teoh, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, H. Zhao, S. L. Gu, R. Zhang, Y. D. Zheng, S. A. Oh, X. H. Zhang, and S. Tripathy, “Effects of alloying and localized electronic states on the resonant Raman spectra of Zn1−xMgxO nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y. D.

J. D. Ye, K. W. Teoh, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, H. Zhao, S. L. Gu, R. Zhang, Y. D. Zheng, S. A. Oh, X. H. Zhang, and S. Tripathy, “Effects of alloying and localized electronic states on the resonant Raman spectra of Zn1−xMgxO nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zimmer, P.

M. R. Wagner, P. Zimmer, A. Hoffmann, and C. Thomsen, “Resonant Raman scattering at exciton intermediate states in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi1(5), 169–171 (2007) (RRL).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Kaschner, M. Strassburg, A. Hoffmann, C. Thomsen, M. Bartels, K. Lischka, and D. Schikora, “Temporal evolution of resonant Raman-scattering in ZnCdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(19), 2662–2664 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ye, K. W. Teoh, X. W. Sun, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, H. Zhao, S. L. Gu, R. Zhang, Y. D. Zheng, S. A. Oh, X. H. Zhang, and S. Tripathy, “Effects of alloying and localized electronic states on the resonant Raman spectra of Zn1−xMgxO nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Cheng, K. F. Lin, H. C. Hsu, and W. F. Hsieh, “Size dependence of photoluminescence and resonant Raman scattering from ZnO quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 261909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

I. Ozerov, M. Arab, V. I. Safarov, W. Marine, S. Giorgio, M. Sentis, and L. Nanai, “Enhancement of exciton emission from ZnO nanocrystalline films by pulsed laser annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci.226(1-3), 242–248 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Rajalakshmi, A. K. Arora, B. S. Bendre, and S. Mahamuni, “Optical phonon confinement in zinc oxide nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2445–2448 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Bundesmann, A. Rahm, M. Lorenz, M. Grundmann, and M. Schubert, “Infrared optical properties of MgxZn1−xO thin films (0 < x < 1): Long-wavelength optical phonons and dielectric constants,” J. Appl. Phys.99(11), 113504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Martin, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Rodriguez, J. Sangrador, and T. Rodriguez, “Reversible crystallization of a-Si1−xGex alloys under the combined effect of light and temperature,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 155–163 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, L. Bergman, and A. P. Purdy, “Ultraviolet Raman scattering of GaN nanocrystallites: Intrinsic versus collective phenomena,” J. Appl. Phys.97(2), 024302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. Huso, J. L. Morrison, and H. Hoeck, “Raman scattering of polar modes of ZnO crystallites,” J. Appl. Phys.98(9), 093507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergman, X. B. Chen, J. L. Morrison, J. Huso, and A. P. Purdy, “Photoluminescence dynamics in ensembles of wide-band-gap nanocrystallites and powders,” J. Appl. Phys.96(1), 675–682 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Arguirova, Tz. Arguirov, D. Wolfframm, and J. Reif, “Influence of local heating on micro-Raman spectroscopy of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys.94(8), 4946–4949 (2003).

K. A. Alim, V. A. Fonoberov, M. Shamsa, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman investigation of optical phonons in ZnO nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys.97(12), 124313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

T. Tsubota, M. Ohtaki, K. Eguchi, and H. Arai, “Transport properties and thermoelectric performance of (Zn1–yMgy)1–xAlxO,” J. Mater. Chem.8(2), 409–412 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

S. Sahoo and A. K. Arora, “Laser-power-induced multiphonon resonant Raman scattering in laser-heated CdS nanocrystal,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(12), 4199–4203 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

M. F. Cerqueira, M. I. Vasilevskiy, F. Oliveira, A. G. Rolo, T. Viseu, J. Ayres de Campos, E. Alves, and R. Correia, “Resonant Raman scattering in ZnO:Mn and ZnO:Mn:Al thin films grown by RF sputtering,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter23(33), 334205 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Alarcon-Liado, R. Cusco, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. Wang, and M. Callahan, “Raman scattering of quasimodes in ZnO,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter20, 445211 (2008).

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

S. S. Kurbanov, K. T. Igamberdiev, and T. W. Kang, “The UV-laser induced heating effect on photoluminescence from ZnO nanocrystals deposited on different substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(11), 115401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc.

E. Alarcon-Liado, J. Ibanez, R. Cusco, L. Artus, J. D. Prades, S. Estrade, and J. R. Morante, “Ultraviolet Raman scattering in ZnO nanowires: quasimode mixing and temperature effects,” J. Raman Spectrosc.42, 153–159 (2011).

Phys. Rev. B

K. W. Adu, H. R. Gutierrez, U. J. Kim, and P. C. Eklund, “Inhomogeneous laser heating and phonon confinement in silicon nanowires: A micro-Raman scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B73(15), 155333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Jalilian, G. U. Sumanasekera, H. Chandrasekharan, and M. K. Sunkara, “Phonon confinement and laser heating effects in Germanium nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B74(15), 155421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Cusco, E. A. Llado, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. G. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B75(16), 165202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Wang, G. Xu, and P. Jin, “Size dependence of electron-phonon coupling in ZnO nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B69(11), 113303 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Samanta, P. Bhattacharya, and R. S. Katiyar, “Temperature dependent E2 Raman modes in the ZnCoO ternary alloy,” Phys. Rev. B75(3), 035208 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter

J. Menéndez and M. Cardona, “Interference effects: A key to understanding forbidden Raman scattering by LO phonons in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter31(6), 3696–3704 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Compaan, M. C. Lee, and G. J. Trott, “Phonon populations by nanosecond-pulsed Raman scattering in Si,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter32(10), 6731–6741 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. M. Martin and T. C. Damen, “Breakdown of Selection Rules in Resonance Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett.26(2), 86–88 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr.

W. Kauschke and M. Cardona, “Resonant Raman scattering in semiconductors,” Phys. Scr.T25, 201–205 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi

M. R. Wagner, P. Zimmer, A. Hoffmann, and C. Thomsen, “Resonant Raman scattering at exciton intermediate states in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi1(5), 169–171 (2007) (RRL).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

V. A. Coleman, M. Buda, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, M. R. Phillips, K. Koike, S. Sasa, M. Inoue, and M. Yano, “Observation of blue shifts in ZnO/ZnMgO multiple quantum well structures by ion-implantation induced intermixing,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.21(3), L25–L28 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun.

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, and L. Ley, “The one phonon Raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon,” Solid State Commun.39(5), 625–629 (1981).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Campbell and P. M. Fauchet, “The effects of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors,” Solid State Commun.58(10), 739–741 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Bäuerle, Laser Processing and Chemistry, Fourth Edition (Springer, 2011).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) 2θ-ω scan X-ray diffraction and (b) cross-sectional TEM image of the ZnO/MgO stack, and the arrows are used to point out the nanocrystals; (c) High-resolution TEM image and (d) selective area electron diffraction (SAED) of the ZnO sub-layer embedded in MgO.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Resonant Raman spectra of ZnO/MgO stack with various irradiation duration recorded under (a) 300 K, 63.7 kW/cm2 and (b) 80K, 0.13 kW/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The ratio of integrated intensity of 2LO to 1LO phonons under different resonant conditions of (i) 80 K, 0.13 kW/cm2, (ii) 150 K, 0.13 kW/cm2, (iii) 300 K, 0.13 kW/cm2, and (iv) 300 K, 63.7 kW/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Temporal photoluminescence of ZnO single-crystal irradiated at temperature of 300 K and power density of 10 kW/cm2 and 0.1 kW/cm2 respectively; (b) temporal photoluminescence of ZnO/MgO stack at 300 K and 63.7 kW/cm2; (c) Optical bandgap and (d) normalized PL intensity as a function of irradiation duration.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) 300 K Raman spectra of 1LO phonon (open circles) at 63.7 kW/cm2. The solid lines represent line shape fitting from the spatial correlation model, (b) The calculated phonon correlation length (squares) as a function of irradiation time and the solid line is the fitting of the exponential decay relationship from Eq. (4).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) 1LO and (b) 2LO phonon frequencies as a function of irradiation duration under different UV laser excitation power density.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(ω)= 0 2π/a exp( q 2 L 2 /16 π 2 )4π q 2 dq [ ωω(q) ] 2 + (Γ/2) 2
ω(q)=ω(0)Δω sin 2 (qa/4)
L= L 0 +Aexp(t/τ)

Metrics