Abstract

Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) fluorescence emitted from Ar clusters irradiated by intense EUV free electron laser (FEL) pulses has been investigated. The EUV fluorescence spectra display rich structure at wavelengths shorter than the incident FEL wavelength of 51 nm. The results suggest that multiply-charged ions are produced following the ion-electron recombination processes which occur in the nanoplasma created by multi-photon excitation during the intense EUV-FEL pulses.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. Iwayama, K. Nagaya, M. Yao, H. Fukuzawa, X. J. Liu, G. Prümper, M. Okunishi, K. Shimada, K. Ueda, T. Harada, M. Toyoda, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, K. Motomura, N. Saito, A. Rudenko, J. Ullrich, L. Foucar, A. Czasch, R. Dörner, M. Nagasono, A. Higashiya, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, H. Ohashi, and H. Kimura, “Frustration of direct photoionization of Ar clusters in intense extreme ultraviolet pulses from a free electron laser,” J. Phys. B42(13), 134019 (2009).
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  26. T. Laarmann, M. Rusek, H. Wabnitz, J. Schulz, A. R. B. de Castro, P. Gürtler, W. Laasch, and T. Möller, “Emission of thermally activated electrons from rare gas cluster irradiated with intense VUV light pulses from a free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 063402 (2005).
  27. C. Jungreuthmayer, L. Ramunno, J. Zanghellini, and T. Brabec, “Intense VUV laser cluster interaction in the strong coupling regime,” J. Phys. B38(16), 3029–3036 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. G. Zwicknagel, C. Toepffer, and P. G. Reinhard, “Molecular dynamic simulations of ions in electron plasmas at strong coupling,” Hyperfine Interact.99(1), 285–291 (1996).
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  29. H. Thomas, A. Helal, K. Hoffmann, N. Kandadai, J. Keto, J. Andreasson, B. Iwan, M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, M. Adolph, T. Gorkhover, D. Rupp, S. Schorb, T. Möller, G. Doumy, L. F. DiMauro, M. Hoener, B. Murphy, N. Berrah, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and T. Ditmire, “Explosions of xenon clusters in ultraintense femtosecond x-ray pulses from the LCLS free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(13), 133401 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

S. Schorb, D. Rupp, M. L. Swiggers, R. N. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, G. Williams, J. D. Bozek, S. Wada, O. Kornilov, T. Moller, and C. Bostedt, “Size-dependent ultrafast ionization dynamics of nanoscale samples in intense femtosecond X-ray free-electron-laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(23), 233401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Bostedt, E. Eremina, D. Rupp, M. Adolph, H. Thomas, M. Hoener, A. R. B. de Castro, J. Tiggesbäumker, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, T. Laarmann, H. Wabnitz, E. Plönjes, R. Treusch, J. R. Schneider, and T. Möller, “Ultrafast x-ray scattering of xenon nanoparticles: imaging transient states of matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(9), 093401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Rohringer, D. Ryan, R. A. London, M. Purvis, F. Albert, J. Dunn, J. D. Bozek, C. Bostedt, A. Graf, R. Hill, S. P. Hau-Riege, and J. J. Rocca, “Atomic inner-shell X-ray laser at 1.46 nanometres pumped by an X-ray free-electron laser,” Nature481(7382), 488–491 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Thomas, A. Helal, K. Hoffmann, N. Kandadai, J. Keto, J. Andreasson, B. Iwan, M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, M. Adolph, T. Gorkhover, D. Rupp, S. Schorb, T. Möller, G. Doumy, L. F. DiMauro, M. Hoener, B. Murphy, N. Berrah, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and T. Ditmire, “Explosions of xenon clusters in ultraintense femtosecond x-ray pulses from the LCLS free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(13), 133401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ullrich, A. Rudenko, and R. Moshammer, “Free-electron lasers: new avenues in molecular physics and photochemistry,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.63(1), 635–660 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

M. S. Hunter and P. Fromme, “Toward structure determination using membrane-protein nanocrystals and microcrystals,” Methods55(4), 387–404 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hishikawa, M. Fushitani, Y. Hikosaka, A. Matsuda, C.-N. Liu, T. Morishita, E. Shigemasa, M. Nagasono, K. Tono, T. Togashi, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, Y. Senba, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Enhanced nonlinear double excitation of He in intense extreme ultraviolet laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(24), 243003 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nagasono, J. R. Harries, H. Iwayama, T. Togashi, K. Tono, M. Yabashi, Y. Senba, H. Ohashi, T. Ishikawa, and E. Shigemasa, “Observation of free-electron-laser-induced collective spontaneous emission (super-fluorescence),” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(19), 193603 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Togashi, E. J. Takahashi, K. Midorikawa, M. Aoyama, K. Yamakawa, T. Sato, A. Iwasaki, S. Owada, T. Okino, K. Yamanouchi, F. Kannari, A. Yagishita, H. Nakano, M. E. Couprie, K. Fukami, T. Hatsui, T. Hara, T. Kameshima, H. Kitamura, N. Kumagai, S. Matsubara, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohshima, Y. Otake, T. Shintake, K. Tamasaku, H. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, K. Togawa, H. Tomizawa, T. Watanabe, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Extreme ultraviolet free electron laser seeded with high-order harmonic of Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express19(1), 317–324 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ohashi, Y. Senba, M. Nagasono, M. Yabashi, K. Tono, T. Togashi, T. Kudo, H. Kishimoto, T. Miura, H. Kimura, and T. Ishikawa, “Performance of focusing mirror device in EUV beamline of SPring-8 Compact SASE Source (SCSS),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A649(1), 163–165 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

H. Chapman, J. Ullrich, and J. M. Rost, “Intense X-ray science: the first 5 years of FLASH,” J. Phys. B43(19), 190201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Saloman, “Energy levels and observed spectral lines of ionized argon, Ar II through Ar XVIII,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data39(3), 033101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hikosaka, M. Fushitani, A. Matsuda, C.-M. Tseng, A. Hishikawa, E. Shigemasa, M. Nagasono, K. Tono, T. Togashi, H. Ohashi, H. Kimura, Y. Senba, M. Yabashi, and T. Ishikawa, “Multiphoton double ionization of Ar in intense extreme ultraviolet laser fields studied by shot-by-shot photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(13), 133001 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

K. Motomura, H. Fukuzawa, L. Foucar, X.-J. Liu, G. Prümper, K. Ueda, N. Saito, H. Iwayama, K. Nagaya, H. Murakami, M. Yao, A. Belkacem, M. Nagasono, A. Higashiya, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, H. Ohashi, and H. Kimura, “Multiple ionization of atomic argon irradiated by EUV free-electron laser pulses at 62 nm: evidence of sequential electron strip,” J. Phys. B42(22), 221003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Iwayama, K. Nagaya, M. Yao, H. Fukuzawa, X. J. Liu, G. Prümper, M. Okunishi, K. Shimada, K. Ueda, T. Harada, M. Toyoda, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, K. Motomura, N. Saito, A. Rudenko, J. Ullrich, L. Foucar, A. Czasch, R. Dörner, M. Nagasono, A. Higashiya, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, H. Ohashi, and H. Kimura, “Frustration of direct photoionization of Ar clusters in intense extreme ultraviolet pulses from a free electron laser,” J. Phys. B42(13), 134019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

C. Bostedt, H. Thomas, M. Hoener, E. Eremina, T. Fennel, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, H. Wabnitz, M. Kuhlmann, E. Plönjes, K. Tiedtke, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, A. R. B. de Castro, and T. Möller, “Multistep ionization of argon clusters in intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(13), 133401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hoener, C. Bostedt, H. Thomas, L. Landt, E. Eremina, H. Wabnitz, T. Laarmann, E. Plönjes, R. Treusch, A. R. B. de Castro, and T. Möller, “Charge recombination in soft x-ray laser produced nanoplasma,” J. Phys. B41(18), 181001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Shintake, H. Tanaka, T. Hara, T. Tanaka, K. Togawa, M. Yabashi, Y. Otake, Y. Asano, T. Bizen, T. Fukui, S. Goto, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, T. Inagaki, S. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Kim, H. Kimura, M. Kitamura, T. Kobayashi, H. Maesaka, T. Masuda, S. Matsui, T. Matsushita, X. Marechal, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, K. Onoe, K. Shirasawa, T. Takagi, S. Takahashi, M. Takeuchi, K. Tamasaku, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanikawa, T. Togashi, S. Wu, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, H. Kitamura, and T. Ishikawa, “A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region,” Nat. Photonics2(9), 555–559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. A. Sorokin, S. V. Bobashev, T. Feigl, K. Tiedtke, H. Wabnitz, and M. Richter, “Photoelectric effect at ultrahigh intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(21), 213002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

T. Laarmann, M. Rusek, H. Wabnitz, J. Schulz, A. R. B. de Castro, P. Gürtler, W. Laasch, and T. Möller, “Emission of thermally activated electrons from rare gas cluster irradiated with intense VUV light pulses from a free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 063402 (2005).

C. Jungreuthmayer, L. Ramunno, J. Zanghellini, and T. Brabec, “Intense VUV laser cluster interaction in the strong coupling regime,” J. Phys. B38(16), 3029–3036 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Protopapas, C. H. Keitel, and P. L. Knight, “Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys.60(4), 389–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. Zwicknagel, C. Toepffer, and P. G. Reinhard, “Molecular dynamic simulations of ions in electron plasmas at strong coupling,” Hyperfine Interact.99(1), 285–291 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. Karnbach, M. Joppien, J. Stapelfeldt, J. Wörmer, and T. Möller, “CLULU: An experimental setup for luminescence measurements on van der Waals clusters with synchrotron radiation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.64(10), 2838–2849 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.63(20), 2212–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

O. Hagena and W. Obert, “Cluster formation in expanding supersonic jets: effect of pressure, temperature, nozzle size, and test gas,” J. Chem. Phys.56(5), 1793–1802 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Adolph, M.

C. Bostedt, E. Eremina, D. Rupp, M. Adolph, H. Thomas, M. Hoener, A. R. B. de Castro, J. Tiggesbäumker, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, T. Laarmann, H. Wabnitz, E. Plönjes, R. Treusch, J. R. Schneider, and T. Möller, “Ultrafast x-ray scattering of xenon nanoparticles: imaging transient states of matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(9), 093401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Thomas, A. Helal, K. Hoffmann, N. Kandadai, J. Keto, J. Andreasson, B. Iwan, M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, M. Adolph, T. Gorkhover, D. Rupp, S. Schorb, T. Möller, G. Doumy, L. F. DiMauro, M. Hoener, B. Murphy, N. Berrah, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and T. Ditmire, “Explosions of xenon clusters in ultraintense femtosecond x-ray pulses from the LCLS free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(13), 133401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albert, F.

N. Rohringer, D. Ryan, R. A. London, M. Purvis, F. Albert, J. Dunn, J. D. Bozek, C. Bostedt, A. Graf, R. Hill, S. P. Hau-Riege, and J. J. Rocca, “Atomic inner-shell X-ray laser at 1.46 nanometres pumped by an X-ray free-electron laser,” Nature481(7382), 488–491 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreasson, J.

H. Thomas, A. Helal, K. Hoffmann, N. Kandadai, J. Keto, J. Andreasson, B. Iwan, M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, M. Adolph, T. Gorkhover, D. Rupp, S. Schorb, T. Möller, G. Doumy, L. F. DiMauro, M. Hoener, B. Murphy, N. Berrah, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and T. Ditmire, “Explosions of xenon clusters in ultraintense femtosecond x-ray pulses from the LCLS free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(13), 133401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoyama, M.

Asano, Y.

T. Shintake, H. Tanaka, T. Hara, T. Tanaka, K. Togawa, M. Yabashi, Y. Otake, Y. Asano, T. Bizen, T. Fukui, S. Goto, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, T. Inagaki, S. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Kim, H. Kimura, M. Kitamura, T. Kobayashi, H. Maesaka, T. Masuda, S. Matsui, T. Matsushita, X. Marechal, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, K. Onoe, K. Shirasawa, T. Takagi, S. Takahashi, M. Takeuchi, K. Tamasaku, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanikawa, T. Togashi, S. Wu, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, H. Kitamura, and T. Ishikawa, “A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region,” Nat. Photonics2(9), 555–559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Augst, S.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.63(20), 2212–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belkacem, A.

K. Motomura, H. Fukuzawa, L. Foucar, X.-J. Liu, G. Prümper, K. Ueda, N. Saito, H. Iwayama, K. Nagaya, H. Murakami, M. Yao, A. Belkacem, M. Nagasono, A. Higashiya, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, H. Ohashi, and H. Kimura, “Multiple ionization of atomic argon irradiated by EUV free-electron laser pulses at 62 nm: evidence of sequential electron strip,” J. Phys. B42(22), 221003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berrah, N.

H. Thomas, A. Helal, K. Hoffmann, N. Kandadai, J. Keto, J. Andreasson, B. Iwan, M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, M. Adolph, T. Gorkhover, D. Rupp, S. Schorb, T. Möller, G. Doumy, L. F. DiMauro, M. Hoener, B. Murphy, N. Berrah, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and T. Ditmire, “Explosions of xenon clusters in ultraintense femtosecond x-ray pulses from the LCLS free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(13), 133401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bizen, T.

T. Shintake, H. Tanaka, T. Hara, T. Tanaka, K. Togawa, M. Yabashi, Y. Otake, Y. Asano, T. Bizen, T. Fukui, S. Goto, A. Higashiya, T. Hirono, N. Hosoda, T. Inagaki, S. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Kim, H. Kimura, M. Kitamura, T. Kobayashi, H. Maesaka, T. Masuda, S. Matsui, T. Matsushita, X. Marechal, M. Nagasono, H. Ohashi, T. Ohata, T. Ohshima, K. Onoe, K. Shirasawa, T. Takagi, S. Takahashi, M. Takeuchi, K. Tamasaku, R. Tanaka, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanikawa, T. Togashi, S. Wu, A. Yamashita, K. Yanagida, C. Zhang, H. Kitamura, and T. Ishikawa, “A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region,” Nat. Photonics2(9), 555–559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bobashev, S. V.

A. A. Sorokin, S. V. Bobashev, T. Feigl, K. Tiedtke, H. Wabnitz, and M. Richter, “Photoelectric effect at ultrahigh intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(21), 213002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bostedt, C.

N. Rohringer, D. Ryan, R. A. London, M. Purvis, F. Albert, J. Dunn, J. D. Bozek, C. Bostedt, A. Graf, R. Hill, S. P. Hau-Riege, and J. J. Rocca, “Atomic inner-shell X-ray laser at 1.46 nanometres pumped by an X-ray free-electron laser,” Nature481(7382), 488–491 (2012).
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S. Schorb, D. Rupp, M. L. Swiggers, R. N. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, G. Williams, J. D. Bozek, S. Wada, O. Kornilov, T. Moller, and C. Bostedt, “Size-dependent ultrafast ionization dynamics of nanoscale samples in intense femtosecond X-ray free-electron-laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(23), 233401 (2012).
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C. Bostedt, E. Eremina, D. Rupp, M. Adolph, H. Thomas, M. Hoener, A. R. B. de Castro, J. Tiggesbäumker, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, T. Laarmann, H. Wabnitz, E. Plönjes, R. Treusch, J. R. Schneider, and T. Möller, “Ultrafast x-ray scattering of xenon nanoparticles: imaging transient states of matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(9), 093401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Thomas, A. Helal, K. Hoffmann, N. Kandadai, J. Keto, J. Andreasson, B. Iwan, M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, M. Adolph, T. Gorkhover, D. Rupp, S. Schorb, T. Möller, G. Doumy, L. F. DiMauro, M. Hoener, B. Murphy, N. Berrah, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and T. Ditmire, “Explosions of xenon clusters in ultraintense femtosecond x-ray pulses from the LCLS free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(13), 133401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hoener, C. Bostedt, H. Thomas, L. Landt, E. Eremina, H. Wabnitz, T. Laarmann, E. Plönjes, R. Treusch, A. R. B. de Castro, and T. Möller, “Charge recombination in soft x-ray laser produced nanoplasma,” J. Phys. B41(18), 181001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Bostedt, H. Thomas, M. Hoener, E. Eremina, T. Fennel, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, H. Wabnitz, M. Kuhlmann, E. Plönjes, K. Tiedtke, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, A. R. B. de Castro, and T. Möller, “Multistep ionization of argon clusters in intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(13), 133401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Thomas, A. Helal, K. Hoffmann, N. Kandadai, J. Keto, J. Andreasson, B. Iwan, M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, M. Adolph, T. Gorkhover, D. Rupp, S. Schorb, T. Möller, G. Doumy, L. F. DiMauro, M. Hoener, B. Murphy, N. Berrah, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and T. Ditmire, “Explosions of xenon clusters in ultraintense femtosecond x-ray pulses from the LCLS free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(13), 133401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Schorb, D. Rupp, M. L. Swiggers, R. N. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, G. Williams, J. D. Bozek, S. Wada, O. Kornilov, T. Moller, and C. Bostedt, “Size-dependent ultrafast ionization dynamics of nanoscale samples in intense femtosecond X-ray free-electron-laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(23), 233401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Rohringer, D. Ryan, R. A. London, M. Purvis, F. Albert, J. Dunn, J. D. Bozek, C. Bostedt, A. Graf, R. Hill, S. P. Hau-Riege, and J. J. Rocca, “Atomic inner-shell X-ray laser at 1.46 nanometres pumped by an X-ray free-electron laser,” Nature481(7382), 488–491 (2012).
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S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.63(20), 2212–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Schorb, D. Rupp, M. L. Swiggers, R. N. Coffee, M. Messerschmidt, G. Williams, J. D. Bozek, S. Wada, O. Kornilov, T. Moller, and C. Bostedt, “Size-dependent ultrafast ionization dynamics of nanoscale samples in intense femtosecond X-ray free-electron-laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(23), 233401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Czasch, A.

H. Iwayama, K. Nagaya, M. Yao, H. Fukuzawa, X. J. Liu, G. Prümper, M. Okunishi, K. Shimada, K. Ueda, T. Harada, M. Toyoda, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, K. Motomura, N. Saito, A. Rudenko, J. Ullrich, L. Foucar, A. Czasch, R. Dörner, M. Nagasono, A. Higashiya, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, H. Ohashi, and H. Kimura, “Frustration of direct photoionization of Ar clusters in intense extreme ultraviolet pulses from a free electron laser,” J. Phys. B42(13), 134019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Castro, A. R. B.

C. Bostedt, E. Eremina, D. Rupp, M. Adolph, H. Thomas, M. Hoener, A. R. B. de Castro, J. Tiggesbäumker, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, T. Laarmann, H. Wabnitz, E. Plönjes, R. Treusch, J. R. Schneider, and T. Möller, “Ultrafast x-ray scattering of xenon nanoparticles: imaging transient states of matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(9), 093401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hoener, C. Bostedt, H. Thomas, L. Landt, E. Eremina, H. Wabnitz, T. Laarmann, E. Plönjes, R. Treusch, A. R. B. de Castro, and T. Möller, “Charge recombination in soft x-ray laser produced nanoplasma,” J. Phys. B41(18), 181001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Bostedt, H. Thomas, M. Hoener, E. Eremina, T. Fennel, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, H. Wabnitz, M. Kuhlmann, E. Plönjes, K. Tiedtke, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, A. R. B. de Castro, and T. Möller, “Multistep ionization of argon clusters in intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(13), 133401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Laarmann, M. Rusek, H. Wabnitz, J. Schulz, A. R. B. de Castro, P. Gürtler, W. Laasch, and T. Möller, “Emission of thermally activated electrons from rare gas cluster irradiated with intense VUV light pulses from a free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 063402 (2005).

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H. Thomas, A. Helal, K. Hoffmann, N. Kandadai, J. Keto, J. Andreasson, B. Iwan, M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, M. Adolph, T. Gorkhover, D. Rupp, S. Schorb, T. Möller, G. Doumy, L. F. DiMauro, M. Hoener, B. Murphy, N. Berrah, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and T. Ditmire, “Explosions of xenon clusters in ultraintense femtosecond x-ray pulses from the LCLS free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(13), 133401 (2012).
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H. Thomas, A. Helal, K. Hoffmann, N. Kandadai, J. Keto, J. Andreasson, B. Iwan, M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, M. Adolph, T. Gorkhover, D. Rupp, S. Schorb, T. Möller, G. Doumy, L. F. DiMauro, M. Hoener, B. Murphy, N. Berrah, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and T. Ditmire, “Explosions of xenon clusters in ultraintense femtosecond x-ray pulses from the LCLS free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(13), 133401 (2012).
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H. Iwayama, K. Nagaya, M. Yao, H. Fukuzawa, X. J. Liu, G. Prümper, M. Okunishi, K. Shimada, K. Ueda, T. Harada, M. Toyoda, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, K. Motomura, N. Saito, A. Rudenko, J. Ullrich, L. Foucar, A. Czasch, R. Dörner, M. Nagasono, A. Higashiya, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, H. Ohashi, and H. Kimura, “Frustration of direct photoionization of Ar clusters in intense extreme ultraviolet pulses from a free electron laser,” J. Phys. B42(13), 134019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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H. Thomas, A. Helal, K. Hoffmann, N. Kandadai, J. Keto, J. Andreasson, B. Iwan, M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, M. Adolph, T. Gorkhover, D. Rupp, S. Schorb, T. Möller, G. Doumy, L. F. DiMauro, M. Hoener, B. Murphy, N. Berrah, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and T. Ditmire, “Explosions of xenon clusters in ultraintense femtosecond x-ray pulses from the LCLS free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(13), 133401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.63(20), 2212–2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Bostedt, E. Eremina, D. Rupp, M. Adolph, H. Thomas, M. Hoener, A. R. B. de Castro, J. Tiggesbäumker, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, T. Laarmann, H. Wabnitz, E. Plönjes, R. Treusch, J. R. Schneider, and T. Möller, “Ultrafast x-ray scattering of xenon nanoparticles: imaging transient states of matter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(9), 093401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hoener, C. Bostedt, H. Thomas, L. Landt, E. Eremina, H. Wabnitz, T. Laarmann, E. Plönjes, R. Treusch, A. R. B. de Castro, and T. Möller, “Charge recombination in soft x-ray laser produced nanoplasma,” J. Phys. B41(18), 181001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Bostedt, H. Thomas, M. Hoener, E. Eremina, T. Fennel, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, H. Wabnitz, M. Kuhlmann, E. Plönjes, K. Tiedtke, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, A. R. B. de Castro, and T. Möller, “Multistep ionization of argon clusters in intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(13), 133401 (2008).
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C. Bostedt, H. Thomas, M. Hoener, E. Eremina, T. Fennel, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, H. Wabnitz, M. Kuhlmann, E. Plönjes, K. Tiedtke, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, A. R. B. de Castro, and T. Möller, “Multistep ionization of argon clusters in intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(13), 133401 (2008).
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K. Motomura, H. Fukuzawa, L. Foucar, X.-J. Liu, G. Prümper, K. Ueda, N. Saito, H. Iwayama, K. Nagaya, H. Murakami, M. Yao, A. Belkacem, M. Nagasono, A. Higashiya, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, H. Ohashi, and H. Kimura, “Multiple ionization of atomic argon irradiated by EUV free-electron laser pulses at 62 nm: evidence of sequential electron strip,” J. Phys. B42(22), 221003 (2009).
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H. Iwayama, K. Nagaya, M. Yao, H. Fukuzawa, X. J. Liu, G. Prümper, M. Okunishi, K. Shimada, K. Ueda, T. Harada, M. Toyoda, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, K. Motomura, N. Saito, A. Rudenko, J. Ullrich, L. Foucar, A. Czasch, R. Dörner, M. Nagasono, A. Higashiya, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, H. Ohashi, and H. Kimura, “Frustration of direct photoionization of Ar clusters in intense extreme ultraviolet pulses from a free electron laser,” J. Phys. B42(13), 134019 (2009).
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H. Iwayama, K. Nagaya, M. Yao, H. Fukuzawa, X. J. Liu, G. Prümper, M. Okunishi, K. Shimada, K. Ueda, T. Harada, M. Toyoda, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, K. Motomura, N. Saito, A. Rudenko, J. Ullrich, L. Foucar, A. Czasch, R. Dörner, M. Nagasono, A. Higashiya, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, H. Ohashi, and H. Kimura, “Frustration of direct photoionization of Ar clusters in intense extreme ultraviolet pulses from a free electron laser,” J. Phys. B42(13), 134019 (2009).
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K. Motomura, H. Fukuzawa, L. Foucar, X.-J. Liu, G. Prümper, K. Ueda, N. Saito, H. Iwayama, K. Nagaya, H. Murakami, M. Yao, A. Belkacem, M. Nagasono, A. Higashiya, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, H. Ohashi, and H. Kimura, “Multiple ionization of atomic argon irradiated by EUV free-electron laser pulses at 62 nm: evidence of sequential electron strip,” J. Phys. B42(22), 221003 (2009).
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N. Rohringer, D. Ryan, R. A. London, M. Purvis, F. Albert, J. Dunn, J. D. Bozek, C. Bostedt, A. Graf, R. Hill, S. P. Hau-Riege, and J. J. Rocca, “Atomic inner-shell X-ray laser at 1.46 nanometres pumped by an X-ray free-electron laser,” Nature481(7382), 488–491 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gürtler, P.

T. Laarmann, M. Rusek, H. Wabnitz, J. Schulz, A. R. B. de Castro, P. Gürtler, W. Laasch, and T. Möller, “Emission of thermally activated electrons from rare gas cluster irradiated with intense VUV light pulses from a free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 063402 (2005).

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[CrossRef]

Harada, T.

H. Iwayama, K. Nagaya, M. Yao, H. Fukuzawa, X. J. Liu, G. Prümper, M. Okunishi, K. Shimada, K. Ueda, T. Harada, M. Toyoda, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, K. Motomura, N. Saito, A. Rudenko, J. Ullrich, L. Foucar, A. Czasch, R. Dörner, M. Nagasono, A. Higashiya, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, H. Ohashi, and H. Kimura, “Frustration of direct photoionization of Ar clusters in intense extreme ultraviolet pulses from a free electron laser,” J. Phys. B42(13), 134019 (2009).
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N. Rohringer, D. Ryan, R. A. London, M. Purvis, F. Albert, J. Dunn, J. D. Bozek, C. Bostedt, A. Graf, R. Hill, S. P. Hau-Riege, and J. J. Rocca, “Atomic inner-shell X-ray laser at 1.46 nanometres pumped by an X-ray free-electron laser,” Nature481(7382), 488–491 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Thomas, A. Helal, K. Hoffmann, N. Kandadai, J. Keto, J. Andreasson, B. Iwan, M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, J. Hajdu, M. Adolph, T. Gorkhover, D. Rupp, S. Schorb, T. Möller, G. Doumy, L. F. DiMauro, M. Hoener, B. Murphy, N. Berrah, M. Messerschmidt, J. Bozek, C. Bostedt, and T. Ditmire, “Explosions of xenon clusters in ultraintense femtosecond x-ray pulses from the LCLS free electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(13), 133401 (2012).
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Higashiya, A.

H. Iwayama, K. Nagaya, M. Yao, H. Fukuzawa, X. J. Liu, G. Prümper, M. Okunishi, K. Shimada, K. Ueda, T. Harada, M. Toyoda, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, K. Motomura, N. Saito, A. Rudenko, J. Ullrich, L. Foucar, A. Czasch, R. Dörner, M. Nagasono, A. Higashiya, M. Yabashi, T. Ishikawa, H. Ohashi, and H. Kimura, “Frustration of direct photoionization of Ar clusters in intense extreme ultraviolet pulses from a free electron laser,” J. Phys. B42(13), 134019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic layout of the EUV beamline at SCSS, and the experimental setup for EUV fluorescence measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

EUV fluorescence spectra following irradiation with 51 nm wavelength FEL pulses, recorded at different nozzle positions. D denotes the distance between the outlet section of the nozzle and the interaction region.

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