Abstract

We demonstrate a concurrent polarization-retrieval algorithm based on a multi-heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscopy (MH-SNOM) measurement system. This method relies on calibration of the polarization properties of the MH-SNOM using an isotropic region of the sample in the vicinity of the nanostructures of interest. We experimentally show the effectiveness of the method on a silicon form-birefringent grating (FBG) with significant polarization diversity. Three spatial dimensional near-field measurements are in agreement with theoretical predictions obtained with rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA). Pseudo-far-field measurements are performed to obtain the effective refractive index of the FBG, emphasizing the validity of the proposed method. This reconstruction algorithm makes the MH-SNOM a powerful tool to analyze concurrently the polarization-dependent near-field optical response of nanostructures with sub wavelength resolution as long as a calibration area is available in close proximity.

© 2012 OSA

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution ?/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(7), 651–653 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through ?/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Super?resolution fluorescence near?field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 674–676 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Collection mode near?field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(25), 2088–2090 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Courjon, J.-M. Vigoureux, M. Spajer, K. Sarayeddine, and S. Leblanc, “External and internal reflection near field microscopy: experiments and results,” Appl. Opt. 29(26), 3734–3740 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, and B. Bölger, “High resolution imaging of dielectric surfaces with an evanescent field optical microscope,” Opt. Commun. 87(5-6), 212–218 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Bielefeldt, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, “Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 59, 103–108 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, and L. Novotny, “‘Tunnel’ near-field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1-4), 99–104 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. L. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 294–297 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Nesci, R. Dändliker, and H. P. Herzig, “Quantitative amplitude and phase measurement by use of a heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Lett. 26(4), 208–210 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, “Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5553–5564 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Deutsch, R. Hillenbrand, and L. Novotny, “Near-field amplitude and phase recovery using phase-shifting interferometry,” Opt. Express 16(2), 494–501 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Tip-substrate interaction in optical near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195410 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Lévêque, G. C. Francs, C. Girard, J. C. Weeber, C. Meier, C. Robilliard, R. Mathevet, and J. Weiner, “Polarization state of the optical near field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(33 Pt 2B), 036701 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. Dändliker, P. Tortora, L. Vaccaro, and A. Nesci, “Measuring three-dimensional polarization with scanning optical probes,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(3), S18–S23 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, D. Brunazzo, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, O. J. F. Martin, and H. P. Herzig, “Bloch surface waves in ultrathin waveguides: near-field investigation of mode polarization and propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1617–1625 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, A. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved near-field mapping of infrared antenna modes by transmission-mode scattering-type near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7341–7345 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. W. Kihm, Q. H. Kihm, D. S. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and J. H. Kang, “Phase-sensitive imaging of diffracted light by single nanoslits: measurements from near to far field,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15725–15731 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. T. Grosjean, I. A. Ibrahim, M. A. Suarez, G. W. Burr, M. Mivelle, and D. Charraut, “Full vectorial imaging of electromagneticlight at subwavelength scale,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5809–5824 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. L. S. Goldner, M. J. Fasolka, S. Nougier, H.-P. Nguyen, G. W. Bryant, J. Hwang, K. D. Weston, K. L. Beers, A. Urbas, and E. L. Thomas, “Fourier analysis near-field polarimetry for measurement of local optical properties of thin films,” Appl. Opt. 42(19), 3864–3881 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. P. Tortora, R. Dändliker, W. Nakagawa, and L. Vaccaro, “Detection of non-paraxial optical fields by optical fiber tip probes,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 876–882 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field imaging of Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5453–5464 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the band gap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035407 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  30. E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, M. Quaglio, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultrathin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2087–2091 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  33. Q. Tan, A. Cosentino, M. Roussey, and H. P. Herzig, “Theoretical and experimental study of a 30nm metallic slot array,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(7), 1711–1715 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. Spasenovi?, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  35. Z. H. Kim and S. R. Leone, “Polarization-selective mapping of near-field intensity and phase around gold nanoparticles using apertureless near-field microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1733–1741 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. S. Takahashi, A. Potts, D. Bagnall, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field polarization conversion in planar chiral nanostructures,” Opt. Commun. 255(1-3), 91–96 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  38. R. Mohammadi, A. Unger, H. J. Elmers, G. Schönhense, M. Z. Shushtari, and M. Kreiter, “Manipulating near field polarization beyond the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 65–71 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  39. A. Ndao, Q. Vagne, J. Salvi, and F. I. Baida, “Polarization sensitive sub-wavelength metallic structures: toward near-field light confinement control,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 857–862 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  40. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).
  41. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 7th ed., 1999).
  42. W. Nakagawa, R.-C. Tyan, P.-C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Near-field localization of ultrashort optical pulses in transverse 1-D periodic nanostructures,” Opt. Express 7(3), 123–128 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. W. Nakagawa, R.-C. Tyan, P.-C. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Ultrashort pulse propagation in near-field periodic diffractive structures by use of rigorous coupled-wave analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(5), 1072–1081 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. E. Descrovi, L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, W. Nakagawa, U. Staufer, and H.-P. Herzig, “Optical properties of microfabricated fully-metal-coated near-field probes in collection mode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(7), 1432–1441 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. T. C. Choy, Effective Medium Theory: Principles and Applications (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1999).
  46. M. P. Nezhad, C. Tsai, L. Pang, W. Nakagawa, G. Klemens, and Y. Fainman, “Form birefringent retardation plates in GaAs substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5225, 69–77 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  47. F. Xu, R.-C. Tyan, P.-C. Sun, Y. Fainman, C.-C. Cheng, and A. Scherer, “Form-birefringent computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett. 21(18), 1513–1515 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

A. Ndao, Q. Vagne, J. Salvi, and F. I. Baida, “Polarization sensitive sub-wavelength metallic structures: toward near-field light confinement control,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 857–862 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

R. Mohammadi, A. Unger, H. J. Elmers, G. Schönhense, M. Z. Shushtari, and M. Kreiter, “Manipulating near field polarization beyond the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 65–71 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Tan, A. Cosentino, M. Roussey, and H. P. Herzig, “Theoretical and experimental study of a 30nm metallic slot array,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(7), 1711–1715 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (8)

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, M. Quaglio, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultrathin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, D. Brunazzo, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, O. J. F. Martin, and H. P. Herzig, “Bloch surface waves in ultrathin waveguides: near-field investigation of mode polarization and propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1617–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, A. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved near-field mapping of infrared antenna modes by transmission-mode scattering-type near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7341–7345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Kihm, Q. H. Kihm, D. S. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and J. H. Kang, “Phase-sensitive imaging of diffracted light by single nanoslits: measurements from near to far field,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15725–15731 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Grosjean, I. A. Ibrahim, M. A. Suarez, G. W. Burr, M. Mivelle, and D. Charraut, “Full vectorial imaging of electromagneticlight at subwavelength scale,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5809–5824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Spasenovi?, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

2007 (2)

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Tip-substrate interaction in optical near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

P. Tortora, R. Dändliker, W. Nakagawa, and L. Vaccaro, “Detection of non-paraxial optical fields by optical fiber tip probes,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 876–882 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

S. Takahashi, A. Potts, D. Bagnall, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field polarization conversion in planar chiral nanostructures,” Opt. Commun. 255(1-3), 91–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, “Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5553–5564 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, W. Nakagawa, U. Staufer, and H.-P. Herzig, “Optical properties of microfabricated fully-metal-coated near-field probes in collection mode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(7), 1432–1441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

R. Dändliker, P. Tortora, L. Vaccaro, and A. Nesci, “Measuring three-dimensional polarization with scanning optical probes,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(3), S18–S23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L. S. Goldner, M. J. Fasolka, S. Nougier, H.-P. Nguyen, G. W. Bryant, J. Hwang, K. D. Weston, K. L. Beers, A. Urbas, and E. L. Thomas, “Fourier analysis near-field polarimetry for measurement of local optical properties of thin films,” Appl. Opt. 42(19), 3864–3881 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, C. Tsai, L. Pang, W. Nakagawa, G. Klemens, and Y. Fainman, “Form birefringent retardation plates in GaAs substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5225, 69–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Lévêque, G. C. Francs, C. Girard, J. C. Weeber, C. Meier, C. Robilliard, R. Mathevet, and J. Weiner, “Polarization state of the optical near field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(33 Pt 2B), 036701 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

W. Nakagawa, R.-C. Tyan, P.-C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Near-field localization of ultrashort optical pulses in transverse 1-D periodic nanostructures,” Opt. Express 7(3), 123–128 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, and L. Novotny, “‘Tunnel’ near-field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1-4), 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. Bielefeldt, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, “Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, and B. Bölger, “High resolution imaging of dielectric surfaces with an evanescent field optical microscope,” Opt. Commun. 87(5-6), 212–218 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Collection mode near?field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(25), 2088–2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Super?resolution fluorescence near?field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 674–676 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution ?/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(7), 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through ?/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aeschimann, L.

Ahn, K. J.

Ahn, S.-H.

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, A. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved near-field mapping of infrared antenna modes by transmission-mode scattering-type near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7341–7345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alkorta, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aubert, S.

Baba, T.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachelot, R.

Bagnall, D.

S. Takahashi, A. Potts, D. Bagnall, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field polarization conversion in planar chiral nanostructures,” Opt. Commun. 255(1-3), 91–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bai, B.

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F. I.

A. Ndao, Q. Vagne, J. Salvi, and F. I. Baida, “Polarization sensitive sub-wavelength metallic structures: toward near-field light confinement control,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 857–862 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Balet, L.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Balistreri, M. L.

M. L. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beers, K. L.

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Collection mode near?field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(25), 2088–2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Super?resolution fluorescence near?field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 674–676 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

H. Bielefeldt, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, “Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blaize, S.

Bölger, B.

N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, and B. Bölger, “High resolution imaging of dielectric surfaces with an evanescent field optical microscope,” Opt. Commun. 87(5-6), 212–218 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G. D.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borisov, A.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, A. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved near-field mapping of infrared antenna modes by transmission-mode scattering-type near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7341–7345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brunazzo, D.

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, M. Quaglio, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultrathin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, D. Brunazzo, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, O. J. F. Martin, and H. P. Herzig, “Bloch surface waves in ultrathin waveguides: near-field investigation of mode polarization and propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1617–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bruyant, A.

Bryant, G. W.

Burr, G. W.

Burresi, M.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charraut, D.

Cheng, C.-C.

Choi, S. B.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. J.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cosentino, A.

Courjon, D.

Crozier, K. B.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, A. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved near-field mapping of infrared antenna modes by transmission-mode scattering-type near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7341–7345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dändliker, R.

P. Tortora, R. Dändliker, W. Nakagawa, and L. Vaccaro, “Detection of non-paraxial optical fields by optical fiber tip probes,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 876–882 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Dändliker, P. Tortora, L. Vaccaro, and A. Nesci, “Measuring three-dimensional polarization with scanning optical probes,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(3), S18–S23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Nesci, R. Dändliker, and H. P. Herzig, “Quantitative amplitude and phase measurement by use of a heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Lett. 26(4), 208–210 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution ?/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(7), 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Descrovi, E.

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, M. Quaglio, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultrathin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, D. Brunazzo, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, O. J. F. Martin, and H. P. Herzig, “Bloch surface waves in ultrathin waveguides: near-field investigation of mode polarization and propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1617–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field imaging of Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5453–5464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the band gap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, W. Nakagawa, U. Staufer, and H.-P. Herzig, “Optical properties of microfabricated fully-metal-coated near-field probes in collection mode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(7), 1432–1441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deutsch, B.

Dominici, L.

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, D. Brunazzo, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, O. J. F. Martin, and H. P. Herzig, “Bloch surface waves in ultrathin waveguides: near-field investigation of mode polarization and propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1617–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, M. Quaglio, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultrathin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field imaging of Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5453–5464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the band gap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Elmers, H. J.

R. Mohammadi, A. Unger, H. J. Elmers, G. Schönhense, M. Z. Shushtari, and M. Kreiter, “Manipulating near field polarization beyond the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 65–71 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Engelen, R. J. P.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esteban, R.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Tip-substrate interaction in optical near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Fasolka, M. J.

Fiore, A.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Francardi, M.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Francs, G. C.

G. Lévêque, G. C. Francs, C. Girard, J. C. Weeber, C. Meier, C. Robilliard, R. Mathevet, and J. Weiner, “Polarization state of the optical near field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(33 Pt 2B), 036701 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Etxarri, A.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, A. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved near-field mapping of infrared antenna modes by transmission-mode scattering-type near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7341–7345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerardino, A.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giorgis, F.

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, D. Brunazzo, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, O. J. F. Martin, and H. P. Herzig, “Bloch surface waves in ultrathin waveguides: near-field investigation of mode polarization and propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1617–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, M. Quaglio, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultrathin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the band gap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field imaging of Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5453–5464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girard, C.

G. Lévêque, G. C. Francs, C. Girard, J. C. Weeber, C. Meier, C. Robilliard, R. Mathevet, and J. Weiner, “Polarization state of the optical near field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(33 Pt 2B), 036701 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldner, L. S.

Grosjean, T.

Gurioli, M.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. W.

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harootunian, A.

A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Super?resolution fluorescence near?field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 674–676 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through ?/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, and L. Novotny, “‘Tunnel’ near-field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1-4), 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heinzelmann, H.

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, and L. Novotny, “‘Tunnel’ near-field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1-4), 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heo, J.

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herzig, H.

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

Herzig, H.-P.

Hillenbrand, R.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, A. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved near-field mapping of infrared antenna modes by transmission-mode scattering-type near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7341–7345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Deutsch, R. Hillenbrand, and L. Novotny, “Near-field amplitude and phase recovery using phase-shifting interferometry,” Opt. Express 16(2), 494–501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hörsch, I.

H. Bielefeldt, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, “Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huber, A.

A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huber, A. J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, A. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved near-field mapping of infrared antenna modes by transmission-mode scattering-type near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7341–7345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.

Ibrahim, I. A.

Intonti, F.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Isaacson, M.

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Collection mode near?field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(25), 2088–2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Super?resolution fluorescence near?field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 674–676 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through ?/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. H.

Kazantsev, D.

A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kern, K.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Tip-substrate interaction in optical near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kihm, H. W.

H. W. Kihm, Q. H. Kihm, D. S. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and J. H. Kang, “Phase-sensitive imaging of diffracted light by single nanoslits: measurements from near to far field,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15725–15731 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kihm, J. E.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kihm, Q. H.

Kim, D. S.

H. W. Kihm, Q. H. Kihm, D. S. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and J. H. Kang, “Phase-sensitive imaging of diffracted light by single nanoslits: measurements from near to far field,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15725–15731 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-S.

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Z. H.

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. H. Kim and S. R. Leone, “Polarization-selective mapping of near-field intensity and phase around gold nanoparticles using apertureless near-field microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1733–1741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klemens, G.

M. P. Nezhad, C. Tsai, L. Pang, W. Nakagawa, G. Klemens, and Y. Fainman, “Form birefringent retardation plates in GaAs substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5225, 69–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Korterik, J. P.

M. L. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausch, G.

H. Bielefeldt, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, “Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kreiter, M.

R. Mohammadi, A. Unger, H. J. Elmers, G. Schönhense, M. Z. Shushtari, and M. Kreiter, “Manipulating near field polarization beyond the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 65–71 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krenz, P. M.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Spasenovi?, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lail, B. A.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanz, M.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution ?/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(7), 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Laukkanen, J.

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leblanc, S.

Lee, B.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. G.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leone, S. R.

Lerondel, G.

Lévêque, G.

G. Lévêque, G. C. Francs, C. Girard, J. C. Weeber, C. Meier, C. Robilliard, R. Mathevet, and J. Weiner, “Polarization state of the optical near field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(33 Pt 2B), 036701 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, A.

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Collection mode near?field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(25), 2088–2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Super?resolution fluorescence near?field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 674–676 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through ?/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, L. H.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lienau, C.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lux-Steiner, M.

H. Bielefeldt, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, “Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marti, O.

H. Bielefeldt, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, “Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, M. Quaglio, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultrathin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, D. Brunazzo, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, O. J. F. Martin, and H. P. Herzig, “Bloch surface waves in ultrathin waveguides: near-field investigation of mode polarization and propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1617–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mathevet, R.

G. Lévêque, G. C. Francs, C. Girard, J. C. Weeber, C. Meier, C. Robilliard, R. Mathevet, and J. Weiner, “Polarization state of the optical near field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(33 Pt 2B), 036701 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meier, C.

G. Lévêque, G. C. Francs, C. Girard, J. C. Weeber, C. Meier, C. Robilliard, R. Mathevet, and J. Weiner, “Polarization state of the optical near field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(33 Pt 2B), 036701 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meng, X.

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michelotti, F.

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, D. Brunazzo, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, O. J. F. Martin, and H. P. Herzig, “Bloch surface waves in ultrathin waveguides: near-field investigation of mode polarization and propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1617–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, M. Quaglio, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultrathin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the band gap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field imaging of Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5453–5464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mivelle, M.

Mlynek, J.

H. Bielefeldt, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, “Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mohammadi, R.

R. Mohammadi, A. Unger, H. J. Elmers, G. Schönhense, M. Z. Shushtari, and M. Kreiter, “Manipulating near field polarization beyond the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 65–71 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mori, D.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muray, A.

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through ?/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, W.

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, D. Brunazzo, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, O. J. F. Martin, and H. P. Herzig, “Bloch surface waves in ultrathin waveguides: near-field investigation of mode polarization and propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1617–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field imaging of Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5453–5464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the band gap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Tortora, R. Dändliker, W. Nakagawa, and L. Vaccaro, “Detection of non-paraxial optical fields by optical fiber tip probes,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 876–882 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, W. Nakagawa, U. Staufer, and H.-P. Herzig, “Optical properties of microfabricated fully-metal-coated near-field probes in collection mode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(7), 1432–1441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, C. Tsai, L. Pang, W. Nakagawa, G. Klemens, and Y. Fainman, “Form birefringent retardation plates in GaAs substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5225, 69–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Nakagawa, R.-C. Tyan, P.-C. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Ultrashort pulse propagation in near-field periodic diffractive structures by use of rigorous coupled-wave analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(5), 1072–1081 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Nakagawa, R.-C. Tyan, P.-C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Near-field localization of ultrashort optical pulses in transverse 1-D periodic nanostructures,” Opt. Express 7(3), 123–128 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ndao, A.

A. Ndao, Q. Vagne, J. Salvi, and F. I. Baida, “Polarization sensitive sub-wavelength metallic structures: toward near-field light confinement control,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 857–862 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nesci, A.

R. Dändliker, P. Tortora, L. Vaccaro, and A. Nesci, “Measuring three-dimensional polarization with scanning optical probes,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(3), S18–S23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Nesci, R. Dändliker, and H. P. Herzig, “Quantitative amplitude and phase measurement by use of a heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Lett. 26(4), 208–210 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nezhad, M. P.

M. P. Nezhad, C. Tsai, L. Pang, W. Nakagawa, G. Klemens, and Y. Fainman, “Form birefringent retardation plates in GaAs substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5225, 69–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.-P.

Nougier, S.

Novotny, L.

B. Deutsch, R. Hillenbrand, and L. Novotny, “Near-field amplitude and phase recovery using phase-shifting interferometry,” Opt. Express 16(2), 494–501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, and L. Novotny, “‘Tunnel’ near-field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1-4), 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ocelic, N.

A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Olmon, R. L.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opheij, A.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, L.

M. P. Nezhad, C. Tsai, L. Pang, W. Nakagawa, G. Klemens, and Y. Fainman, “Form birefringent retardation plates in GaAs substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5225, 69–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, D. J.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q. H.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, and L. Novotny, “‘Tunnel’ near-field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1-4), 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution ?/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(7), 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Potts, A.

S. Takahashi, A. Potts, D. Bagnall, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field polarization conversion in planar chiral nanostructures,” Opt. Commun. 255(1-3), 91–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quaglio, M.

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, M. Quaglio, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultrathin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, D. Brunazzo, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, O. J. F. Martin, and H. P. Herzig, “Bloch surface waves in ultrathin waveguides: near-field investigation of mode polarization and propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1617–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rang, M.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raschke, M. B.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riboli, F.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Robilliard, C.

G. Lévêque, G. C. Francs, C. Girard, J. C. Weeber, C. Meier, C. Robilliard, R. Mathevet, and J. Weiner, “Polarization state of the optical near field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(33 Pt 2B), 036701 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ropers, C.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roussey, M.

Royer, P.

Salvi, J.

A. Ndao, Q. Vagne, J. Salvi, and F. I. Baida, “Polarization sensitive sub-wavelength metallic structures: toward near-field light confinement control,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 857–862 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Saraf, L. V.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarayeddine, K.

Scherer, A.

Schnell, M.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, A. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved near-field mapping of infrared antenna modes by transmission-mode scattering-type near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7341–7345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schönhense, G.

R. Mohammadi, A. Unger, H. J. Elmers, G. Schönhense, M. Z. Shushtari, and M. Kreiter, “Manipulating near field polarization beyond the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 65–71 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Segerink, F. B.

N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, and B. Bölger, “High resolution imaging of dielectric surfaces with an evanescent field optical microscope,” Opt. Commun. 87(5-6), 212–218 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sfez, T.

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, D. Brunazzo, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, O. J. F. Martin, and H. P. Herzig, “Bloch surface waves in ultrathin waveguides: near-field investigation of mode polarization and propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1617–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, M. Quaglio, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultrathin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field imaging of Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5453–5464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the band gap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shushtari, M. Z.

R. Mohammadi, A. Unger, H. J. Elmers, G. Schönhense, M. Z. Shushtari, and M. Kreiter, “Manipulating near field polarization beyond the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 65–71 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spajer, M.

Spasenovic, M.

M. Spasenovi?, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Staufer, U.

Stefanon, I.

Suarez, M. A.

Sun, P.-C.

Takahashi, S.

S. Takahashi, A. Potts, D. Bagnall, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field polarization conversion in planar chiral nanostructures,” Opt. Commun. 255(1-3), 91–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tan, Q.

Thomas, E. L.

Tortora, P.

P. Tortora, R. Dändliker, W. Nakagawa, and L. Vaccaro, “Detection of non-paraxial optical fields by optical fiber tip probes,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 876–882 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Dändliker, P. Tortora, L. Vaccaro, and A. Nesci, “Measuring three-dimensional polarization with scanning optical probes,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(3), S18–S23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C.

M. P. Nezhad, C. Tsai, L. Pang, W. Nakagawa, G. Klemens, and Y. Fainman, “Form birefringent retardation plates in GaAs substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5225, 69–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tyan, R.-C.

Unger, A.

R. Mohammadi, A. Unger, H. J. Elmers, G. Schönhense, M. Z. Shushtari, and M. Kreiter, “Manipulating near field polarization beyond the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 65–71 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Urbas, A.

Vaccaro, L.

P. Tortora, R. Dändliker, W. Nakagawa, and L. Vaccaro, “Detection of non-paraxial optical fields by optical fiber tip probes,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 876–882 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, W. Nakagawa, U. Staufer, and H.-P. Herzig, “Optical properties of microfabricated fully-metal-coated near-field probes in collection mode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(7), 1432–1441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dändliker, P. Tortora, L. Vaccaro, and A. Nesci, “Measuring three-dimensional polarization with scanning optical probes,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(3), S18–S23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vagne, Q.

A. Ndao, Q. Vagne, J. Salvi, and F. I. Baida, “Polarization sensitive sub-wavelength metallic structures: toward near-field light confinement control,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 857–862 (2012).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N.

M. L. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. F.

N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, and B. Bölger, “High resolution imaging of dielectric surfaces with an evanescent field optical microscope,” Opt. Commun. 87(5-6), 212–218 (1992).
[CrossRef]

van Oosten, D.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Spasenovi?, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

M. Spasenovi?, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vignolini, S.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vigoureux, J.-M.

Vogelgesang, R.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Tip-substrate interaction in optical near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J. C.

G. Lévêque, G. C. Francs, C. Girard, J. C. Weeber, C. Meier, C. Robilliard, R. Mathevet, and J. Weiner, “Polarization state of the optical near field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(33 Pt 2B), 036701 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, J.

G. Lévêque, G. C. Francs, C. Girard, J. C. Weeber, C. Meier, C. Robilliard, R. Mathevet, and J. Weiner, “Polarization state of the optical near field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(33 Pt 2B), 036701 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weston, K. D.

Wiersma, D. S.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Woo, D. H.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

Yoon, Y. C.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, D. Brunazzo, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, O. J. F. Martin, and H. P. Herzig, “Bloch surface waves in ultrathin waveguides: near-field investigation of mode polarization and propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1617–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yun, W. S.

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

S. Takahashi, A. Potts, D. Bagnall, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field polarization conversion in planar chiral nanostructures,” Opt. Commun. 255(1-3), 91–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

S. Takahashi, A. Potts, D. Bagnall, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field polarization conversion in planar chiral nanostructures,” Opt. Commun. 255(1-3), 91–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

R. Mohammadi, A. Unger, H. J. Elmers, G. Schönhense, M. Z. Shushtari, and M. Kreiter, “Manipulating near field polarization beyond the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 65–71 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ndao, Q. Vagne, J. Salvi, and F. I. Baida, “Polarization sensitive sub-wavelength metallic structures: toward near-field light confinement control,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 857–862 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the band gap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Spasenovi?, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution ?/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(7), 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Super?resolution fluorescence near?field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 674–676 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Collection mode near?field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(25), 2088–2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

H. Bielefeldt, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, “Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

R. Dändliker, P. Tortora, L. Vaccaro, and A. Nesci, “Measuring three-dimensional polarization with scanning optical probes,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(3), S18–S23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, A. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved near-field mapping of infrared antenna modes by transmission-mode scattering-type near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7341–7345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, M. Quaglio, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultrathin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, and B. Bölger, “High resolution imaging of dielectric surfaces with an evanescent field optical microscope,” Opt. Commun. 87(5-6), 212–218 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Tortora, R. Dändliker, W. Nakagawa, and L. Vaccaro, “Detection of non-paraxial optical fields by optical fiber tip probes,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 876–882 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Takahashi, A. Potts, D. Bagnall, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field polarization conversion in planar chiral nanostructures,” Opt. Commun. 255(1-3), 91–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

W. Nakagawa, R.-C. Tyan, P.-C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Near-field localization of ultrashort optical pulses in transverse 1-D periodic nanostructures,” Opt. Express 7(3), 123–128 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field imaging of Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5453–5464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. H. Kim and S. R. Leone, “Polarization-selective mapping of near-field intensity and phase around gold nanoparticles using apertureless near-field microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1733–1741 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, “Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5553–5564 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Grosjean, I. A. Ibrahim, M. A. Suarez, G. W. Burr, M. Mivelle, and D. Charraut, “Full vectorial imaging of electromagneticlight at subwavelength scale,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5809–5824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Kihm, Q. H. Kihm, D. S. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and J. H. Kang, “Phase-sensitive imaging of diffracted light by single nanoslits: measurements from near to far field,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15725–15731 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Deutsch, R. Hillenbrand, and L. Novotny, “Near-field amplitude and phase recovery using phase-shifting interferometry,” Opt. Express 16(2), 494–501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Tip-substrate interaction in optical near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

G. Lévêque, G. C. Francs, C. Girard, J. C. Weeber, C. Meier, C. Robilliard, R. Mathevet, and J. Weiner, “Polarization state of the optical near field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(33 Pt 2B), 036701 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. L. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. P. Nezhad, C. Tsai, L. Pang, W. Nakagawa, G. Klemens, and Y. Fainman, “Form birefringent retardation plates in GaAs substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5225, 69–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (2)

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, and L. Novotny, “‘Tunnel’ near-field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1-4), 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through ?/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

T. C. Choy, Effective Medium Theory: Principles and Applications (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1999).

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 7th ed., 1999).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics