Abstract

We demonstrate a concurrent polarization-retrieval algorithm based on a multi-heterodyne scanning near-field optical microscopy (MH-SNOM) measurement system. This method relies on calibration of the polarization properties of the MH-SNOM using an isotropic region of the sample in the vicinity of the nanostructures of interest. We experimentally show the effectiveness of the method on a silicon form-birefringent grating (FBG) with significant polarization diversity. Three spatial dimensional near-field measurements are in agreement with theoretical predictions obtained with rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA). Pseudo-far-field measurements are performed to obtain the effective refractive index of the FBG, emphasizing the validity of the proposed method. This reconstruction algorithm makes the MH-SNOM a powerful tool to analyze concurrently the polarization-dependent near-field optical response of nanostructures with sub wavelength resolution as long as a calibration area is available in close proximity.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

A. Ndao, Q. Vagne, J. Salvi, and F. I. Baida, “Polarization sensitive sub-wavelength metallic structures: toward near-field light confinement control,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 857–862 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

R. Mohammadi, A. Unger, H. J. Elmers, G. Schönhense, M. Z. Shushtari, and M. Kreiter, “Manipulating near field polarization beyond the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 65–71 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Tan, A. Cosentino, M. Roussey, and H. P. Herzig, “Theoretical and experimental study of a 30nm metallic slot array,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(7), 1711–1715 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (8)

T. Grosjean, I. A. Ibrahim, M. A. Suarez, G. W. Burr, M. Mivelle, and D. Charraut, “Full vectorial imaging of electromagneticlight at subwavelength scale,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5809–5824 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Kihm, Q. H. Kihm, D. S. Kim, K. J. Ahn, and J. H. Kang, “Phase-sensitive imaging of diffracted light by single nanoslits: measurements from near to far field,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15725–15731 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, D. Brunazzo, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, O. J. F. Martin, and H. P. Herzig, “Bloch surface waves in ultrathin waveguides: near-field investigation of mode polarization and propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1617–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, M. Quaglio, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultrathin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, A. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved near-field mapping of infrared antenna modes by transmission-mode scattering-type near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7341–7345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Spasenovi?, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

2007 (2)

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Tip-substrate interaction in optical near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

P. Tortora, R. Dändliker, W. Nakagawa, and L. Vaccaro, “Detection of non-paraxial optical fields by optical fiber tip probes,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 876–882 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Takahashi, A. Potts, D. Bagnall, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field polarization conversion in planar chiral nanostructures,” Opt. Commun. 255(1-3), 91–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, W. Nakagawa, U. Staufer, and H.-P. Herzig, “Optical properties of microfabricated fully-metal-coated near-field probes in collection mode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(7), 1432–1441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, “Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5553–5564 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

R. Dändliker, P. Tortora, L. Vaccaro, and A. Nesci, “Measuring three-dimensional polarization with scanning optical probes,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(3), S18–S23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. P. Nezhad, C. Tsai, L. Pang, W. Nakagawa, G. Klemens, and Y. Fainman, “Form birefringent retardation plates in GaAs substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5225, 69–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Goldner, M. J. Fasolka, S. Nougier, H.-P. Nguyen, G. W. Bryant, J. Hwang, K. D. Weston, K. L. Beers, A. Urbas, and E. L. Thomas, “Fourier analysis near-field polarimetry for measurement of local optical properties of thin films,” Appl. Opt. 42(19), 3864–3881 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

G. Lévêque, G. C. Francs, C. Girard, J. C. Weeber, C. Meier, C. Robilliard, R. Mathevet, and J. Weiner, “Polarization state of the optical near field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(33 Pt 2B), 036701 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

W. Nakagawa, R.-C. Tyan, P.-C. Sun, and Y. Fainman, “Near-field localization of ultrashort optical pulses in transverse 1-D periodic nanostructures,” Opt. Express 7(3), 123–128 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, and L. Novotny, “‘Tunnel’ near-field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1-4), 99–104 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. Bielefeldt, I. Hörsch, G. Krausch, M. Lux-Steiner, J. Mlynek, and O. Marti, “Reflection-scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of opaque samples,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 59, 103–108 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, and B. Bölger, “High resolution imaging of dielectric surfaces with an evanescent field optical microscope,” Opt. Commun. 87(5-6), 212–218 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Collection mode near?field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(25), 2088–2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Super?resolution fluorescence near?field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 674–676 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, “Optical stethoscopy: image recording with resolution ?/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(7), 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through ?/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aeschimann, L.

Ahn, K. J.

Ahn, S.-H.

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, A. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved near-field mapping of infrared antenna modes by transmission-mode scattering-type near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7341–7345 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alkorta, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aubert, S.

Baba, T.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachelot, R.

Bagnall, D.

S. Takahashi, A. Potts, D. Bagnall, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field polarization conversion in planar chiral nanostructures,” Opt. Commun. 255(1-3), 91–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bai, B.

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baida, F. I.

A. Ndao, Q. Vagne, J. Salvi, and F. I. Baida, “Polarization sensitive sub-wavelength metallic structures: toward near-field light confinement control,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 857–862 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Balet, L.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Balistreri, M. L.

M. L. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beers, K. L.

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Collection mode near?field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(25), 2088–2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Harootunian, E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, “Super?resolution fluorescence near?field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 674–676 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

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B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035407 (2009).
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S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163102 (2009).
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E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, M. Quaglio, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultrathin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2087–2091 (2010).
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T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, D. Brunazzo, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, O. J. F. Martin, and H. P. Herzig, “Bloch surface waves in ultrathin waveguides: near-field investigation of mode polarization and propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1617–1625 (2010).
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T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, D. Brunazzo, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, O. J. F. Martin, and H. P. Herzig, “Bloch surface waves in ultrathin waveguides: near-field investigation of mode polarization and propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1617–1625 (2010).
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E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, M. Quaglio, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultrathin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2087–2091 (2010).
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T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the band gap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061108 (2008).
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E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field imaging of Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5453–5464 (2008).
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Mlynek, J.

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R. Mohammadi, A. Unger, H. J. Elmers, G. Schönhense, M. Z. Shushtari, and M. Kreiter, “Manipulating near field polarization beyond the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 65–71 (2011).
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M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
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A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, A. Harootunian, and A. Muray, “Development of a 500 Å spatial resolution light microscope: I. light is efficiently transmitted through ?/16 diameter apertures,” Ultramicroscopy 13(3), 227–231 (1984).
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T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, D. Brunazzo, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, O. J. F. Martin, and H. P. Herzig, “Bloch surface waves in ultrathin waveguides: near-field investigation of mode polarization and propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1617–1625 (2010).
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T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151101 (2010).
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B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035407 (2009).
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E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field imaging of Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5453–5464 (2008).
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T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the band gap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061108 (2008).
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P. Tortora, R. Dändliker, W. Nakagawa, and L. Vaccaro, “Detection of non-paraxial optical fields by optical fiber tip probes,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 876–882 (2006).
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E. Descrovi, L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, W. Nakagawa, U. Staufer, and H.-P. Herzig, “Optical properties of microfabricated fully-metal-coated near-field probes in collection mode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(7), 1432–1441 (2005).
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M. P. Nezhad, C. Tsai, L. Pang, W. Nakagawa, G. Klemens, and Y. Fainman, “Form birefringent retardation plates in GaAs substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5225, 69–77 (2003).
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W. Nakagawa, R.-C. Tyan, P.-C. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Ultrashort pulse propagation in near-field periodic diffractive structures by use of rigorous coupled-wave analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(5), 1072–1081 (2001).
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A. Ndao, Q. Vagne, J. Salvi, and F. I. Baida, “Polarization sensitive sub-wavelength metallic structures: toward near-field light confinement control,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 857–862 (2012).
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R. Dändliker, P. Tortora, L. Vaccaro, and A. Nesci, “Measuring three-dimensional polarization with scanning optical probes,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(3), S18–S23 (2004).
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M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
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M. P. Nezhad, C. Tsai, L. Pang, W. Nakagawa, G. Klemens, and Y. Fainman, “Form birefringent retardation plates in GaAs substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5225, 69–77 (2003).
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K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
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K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
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B. Hecht, D. W. Pohl, H. Heinzelmann, and L. Novotny, “‘Tunnel’ near-field optical microscopy: TNOM-2,” Ultramicroscopy 61(1-4), 99–104 (1995).
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S. Takahashi, A. Potts, D. Bagnall, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field polarization conversion in planar chiral nanostructures,” Opt. Commun. 255(1-3), 91–96 (2005).
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E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, M. Quaglio, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultrathin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2087–2091 (2010).
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T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, D. Brunazzo, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, O. J. F. Martin, and H. P. Herzig, “Bloch surface waves in ultrathin waveguides: near-field investigation of mode polarization and propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1617–1625 (2010).
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T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151101 (2010).
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R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
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R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
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G. Lévêque, G. C. Francs, C. Girard, J. C. Weeber, C. Meier, C. Robilliard, R. Mathevet, and J. Weiner, “Polarization state of the optical near field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(33 Pt 2B), 036701 (2002).
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K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
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Royer, P.

Salvi, J.

A. Ndao, Q. Vagne, J. Salvi, and F. I. Baida, “Polarization sensitive sub-wavelength metallic structures: toward near-field light confinement control,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 857–862 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Saraf, L. V.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of electric-field, magnetic-field, and electric-current distributions of infrared optical antennas: a near-field optical vector network analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
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Scherer, A.

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M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. B. Crozier, A. Borisov, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved near-field mapping of infrared antenna modes by transmission-mode scattering-type near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7341–7345 (2010).
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M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
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R. Mohammadi, A. Unger, H. J. Elmers, G. Schönhense, M. Z. Shushtari, and M. Kreiter, “Manipulating near field polarization beyond the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 65–71 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Segerink, F. B.

N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, and B. Bölger, “High resolution imaging of dielectric surfaces with an evanescent field optical microscope,” Opt. Commun. 87(5-6), 212–218 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sfez, T.

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H. P. Herzig, “Two-dimensional optics on silicon nitride multilayer: refraction of Bloch surface waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Yu, D. Brunazzo, M. Quaglio, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, O. J. F. Martin, and H. P. Herzig, “Bloch surface waves in ultrathin waveguides: near-field investigation of mode polarization and propagation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1617–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, M. Quaglio, D. Brunazzo, L. Dominici, F. Michelotti, H. P. Herzig, O. J. F. Martin, and F. Giorgis, “Guided Bloch surface waves on ultrathin polymeric ridges,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2087–2091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, T. Sfez, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field imaging of Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5453–5464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sfez, E. Descrovi, L. Dominici, W. Nakagawa, F. Michelotti, F. Giorgis, and H.-P. Herzig, “Near-field analysis of surface electromagnetic waves in the band gap region of a polymeric grating written on a one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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R. Mohammadi, A. Unger, H. J. Elmers, G. Schönhense, M. Z. Shushtari, and M. Kreiter, “Manipulating near field polarization beyond the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 65–71 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Spasenovic, M.

M. Spasenovi?, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Stefanon, I.

Suarez, M. A.

Sun, P.-C.

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S. Takahashi, A. Potts, D. Bagnall, N. I. Zheludev, and A. V. Zayats, “Near-field polarization conversion in planar chiral nanostructures,” Opt. Commun. 255(1-3), 91–96 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Thomas, E. L.

Tortora, P.

P. Tortora, R. Dändliker, W. Nakagawa, and L. Vaccaro, “Detection of non-paraxial optical fields by optical fiber tip probes,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 876–882 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Dändliker, P. Tortora, L. Vaccaro, and A. Nesci, “Measuring three-dimensional polarization with scanning optical probes,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(3), S18–S23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C.

M. P. Nezhad, C. Tsai, L. Pang, W. Nakagawa, G. Klemens, and Y. Fainman, “Form birefringent retardation plates in GaAs substrates: design, fabrication, and characterization,” Proc. SPIE 5225, 69–77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

B. Bai, X. Meng, J. Laukkanen, T. Sfez, L. Yu, W. Nakagawa, H. Herzig, L. Li, and J. Turunen, “Asymmetrical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on blazed gratings at normal incidence,” Phys. Rev. B 80(3), 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tyan, R.-C.

Unger, A.

R. Mohammadi, A. Unger, H. J. Elmers, G. Schönhense, M. Z. Shushtari, and M. Kreiter, “Manipulating near field polarization beyond the diffraction limit,” Appl. Phys. B 104(1), 65–71 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Urbas, A.

Vaccaro, L.

P. Tortora, R. Dändliker, W. Nakagawa, and L. Vaccaro, “Detection of non-paraxial optical fields by optical fiber tip probes,” Opt. Commun. 259(2), 876–882 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Descrovi, L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, W. Nakagawa, U. Staufer, and H.-P. Herzig, “Optical properties of microfabricated fully-metal-coated near-field probes in collection mode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(7), 1432–1441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dändliker, P. Tortora, L. Vaccaro, and A. Nesci, “Measuring three-dimensional polarization with scanning optical probes,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(3), S18–S23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vagne, Q.

A. Ndao, Q. Vagne, J. Salvi, and F. I. Baida, “Polarization sensitive sub-wavelength metallic structures: toward near-field light confinement control,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 857–862 (2012).
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M. L. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 294–297 (2000).
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N. F. van Hulst, F. B. Segerink, and B. Bölger, “High resolution imaging of dielectric surfaces with an evanescent field optical microscope,” Opt. Commun. 87(5-6), 212–218 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Spasenovi?, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

M. Spasenovi?, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
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S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(16), 163102 (2009).
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Vogelgesang, R.

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G. Lévêque, G. C. Francs, C. Girard, J. C. Weeber, C. Meier, C. Robilliard, R. Mathevet, and J. Weiner, “Polarization state of the optical near field,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(33 Pt 2B), 036701 (2002).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental MH-SNOM set-up (AOM: Acoustic Optic Modulator, SMF: Single Mode Fiber, PMF: Polarization Maintaining Fiber, BS: Beam Splitter, PBS: Polarizing Beam Splitter). Inset: object beam o1 is projected on the reference basis {r1, r2}; the two resulting components are called z1 and z2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of the polarization-retrieval algorithm. Both the nanostructure of interest (e.g. gratings) and a flat calibration region are illuminated. (a) A collimated linearly polarized object beam Eobj, propagating in z, is aligned at θ = 45° with respect to the x-y axis. The fact that the reference basis {r1, r2} has an arbitrary orientation with respect to the object field at the detector can be equivalently represented by an arbitrary angle γ with respect to y axis. (b) Transformation of the detected field above the flat region to reconstruct the linearity of the incident beam. (c) The arbitrary location of the reference basis {r1, r2} is specified by aligning r2 with the object beam. (d) The reference basis {r1, r2} is turned θ = 45° to the orientation of interest.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM micrograph of the fabricated 1-D binary grating.(b) Close-up view of the grating parameters: period Λ = 1 µm, ridge width w = 70nm, and depth d = 300 ± 20 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

MH-SNOM measurement results for the device shown in Fig. 3: the x-y maps (8 µm × 1 µm) of the retrieved near-field amplitude for (a) TE polarized and (b) TM polarized light at a wavelength of 1535.4 nm (insets show RCWA simulations of the field amplitude); (c) topography of the measured area of the sample; and (d) cross-section profiles along x of the TE and TM field amplitudes and topography, showing the polarization-dependent spatial localization of the near fields.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

MH-SNOM results for an x-z (3 µm × 300 nm) scan measuring the optical fields above the grating at 1535.4 nm wavelength: retrieved near-field amplitude and phase measurement in TE (a,c) and in TM (b,d). The RCWA simulated amplitude and phase response in TE (e,g) and in TM (f,h).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a). (b). x-z (100 μm × 2.3 µm) retrieved phase-response (TM/TE) from 15 μm above the sample at 1535.4 nm wavelength. The measured area covers both the grating and the flat region. The10 μm of the topography shown in (c) is taken from the x position indicated by the square inset in (b). (d) At a constant height of 15 µm, one line scans along x are executed while sweeping the wavelength. The wavelength is swept over 1530 nm-1540 nm with a step of 0.09 nm. For each wavelength, the obtained phases are retrieved, and the difference between the average phases on the flat area and the grating region are converted to an effective refractive index (TE/TM), shown in solid lines. For comparison, equivalent values are computed using 2nd order effective medium theory, and plotted in dashed lines.

Equations (4)

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( E s,x E s,y )= M 1 ( E d, r 1 E d, r 2 )
M=R( α 1 ) J 2 R( α 1 )R( α 2 ) J 4 R( α 2 )
Λ f = 1 k x = λ n si sin θ 1 =Λ
E(x,z)= a 0 e i( k 0 z+ ϕ 0 ) + n0 a n e i( k xn x+ ϕ n ) e | k zn |z

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