Abstract

In this work, we demonstrate the direct observation of non-equilibrium intersubband dynamics in a modulation-doped multiple quantum well sample induced by intense terahertz pulses. The transmission spectra show a clear dependence on the incident THz field strength, which gives rise to a multitude of nonlinear optical effects that go beyond the standard textbook two-level description of light-matter interaction. Of special interest is thereby the multiple octave spanning bandwidth of the used single-cycle THz pulses, which allows the phase-locked coupling of adjacent intersubband transitions. Examples of this interaction include the efficient, coherent population transfer, the THz induced undressing of collective excitations, and the THz Stark effect.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. I. I. Rabi, “Space quantization in a gyrating magnetic field,” Phys. Rev.51, 652–654 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Tittel, M. Afzelius, T. Chanelière, R. L. Cone, S. Kröll, S. A. Moiseev, and M. Sellars, “Photon-echo quantum memory in solid state systems,” Laser & Photon. Rev.4, 244–267 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. C. Liu and F c (Eds.), Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells: Physics and Device Applications I, vol. 62 of Semiconductors and Semimetals (Academic Press, 2000).
  4. P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser & Photon. Rev.5, 124–166 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. N. Heyman, R. Kersting, and K. Unterrainer, “Time-domain measurement of intersubband oscillations in a quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72, 644–646 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature449, 698–701 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. S. Sherwin, K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. Heyman, A. Markelz, K. Campman, S. Fafard, P. F. Hopkins, and A. Gossard, “Nonlinear quantum dynamics in semiconductor quantum wells,” Physica D83, 229–242 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. N. Heyman, A. G. Markelz, J. B. Williams, M. S. Sherwin, K. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Undressing a collective intersubband excitation in a quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett.76, 2382–2385 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. G. Carter, V. Birkedal, C. S. Wang, L. A. Coldren, A. V. Maslov, D. S. Citrin, and M. S. Sherwin, “Quantum coherence in an optical modulator,” Science310, 651–653 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. R. Danielson, Y.-S. Lee, J. P. Prineas, J. T. Steiner, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Interaction of strong single-cycle terahertz pulses with semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 237401 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. M. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, and M. Helm, “Observation of the intraexcitonic Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 167401 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Zaks, D. Stehr, T.-A. Truong, P. M. Petroff, S. Hughes, and M. S. Sherwin, “THz-driven quantum wells: Coulomb interactions and Stark shifts in the ultrastrong coupling regime,” New J. Phys.13, 083009 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Kersting, R. Bratschitsch, G. Strasser, K. Unterrainer, and J. N. Heyman, “Sampling a terahertz dipole transition with subcycle time resolution,” Opt. Lett.25, 272–274 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Wagner, M. Helm, M. S. Sherwin, and D. Stehr, “Coherent control of THz intersubband polarization in a voltage controlled single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 131109 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. B. Serapiglia, E. Paspalakis, C. Sirtori, K. L. Vodopyanov, and C. C. Phillips, “Laser-induced quantum coherence in a semiconductor quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 1019–1022 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. W. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Phase-resolved nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas under femtosecond intersubband excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 047402 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. F. Dynes, M. D. Frogley, M. Beck, J. Faist, and C. C. Phillips, “A Stark splitting and quantum interference with intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 157403 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. D. Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle switch-on of ultrastrong light-matter interaction,” Nature458, 178–181 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Ciuti, G. Bastard, and I. Carusotto, “Quantum vacuum properties of the intersubband cavity polariton field,” Phys. Rev. B72, 115303 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Sell, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Phase-locked generation and field-resolved detection of widely tunable terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 100MV/cm,” Opt. Lett.33, 2767–2769 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. Dietze, K. Unterrainer, and J. Darmo, “Dynamically phase-matched terahertz generation,” Opt. Lett.37, 1047–1049 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. H. Schmidt, D. E. Nikonov, K. L. Campman, K. D. Maranowski, A. C. Gossard, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum interference in semiconductor quantum wells,” Laser Phys.9, 797–812 (1999).
  23. H. Harde, S. Keiding, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz commensurate echoes: Periodic rephasing of molecular transitions in free-induction decay,” Phys. Rev. Lett.66, 1834–1837 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. Golde, M. Wagner, D. Stehr, H. Schneider, M. Helm, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, G. Strasser, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Fano signatures in the intersubband terahertz response of optically excited semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 127403 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. Dietze, “Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor heterostructures,” Ph.D. thesis, Vienna University of Technology (2012).
  26. M. Helm, The Basic Physics of Intersubband Transitions, vol. 62 of Semiconductors and Semimetals (Academic Press, 2000).
  27. M. Zalużny, “Influence of the depolarization effect on the nonlinear intersubband absorption spectra of quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B47, 3995–3998 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Matsuura and T. Kamizato, “Subbands and excitons in a quantum well in an electric field,” Phys. Rev. B33, 8385–8389 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser & Photon. Rev.5, 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zaks, D. Stehr, T.-A. Truong, P. M. Petroff, S. Hughes, and M. S. Sherwin, “THz-driven quantum wells: Coulomb interactions and Stark shifts in the ultrastrong coupling regime,” New J. Phys.13, 083009 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Wagner, M. Helm, M. S. Sherwin, and D. Stehr, “Coherent control of THz intersubband polarization in a voltage controlled single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 131109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. M. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, and M. Helm, “Observation of the intraexcitonic Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 167401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, M. Afzelius, T. Chanelière, R. L. Cone, S. Kröll, S. A. Moiseev, and M. Sellars, “Photon-echo quantum memory in solid state systems,” Laser & Photon. Rev.4, 244–267 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. D. Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle switch-on of ultrastrong light-matter interaction,” Nature458, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Golde, M. Wagner, D. Stehr, H. Schneider, M. Helm, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, G. Strasser, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Fano signatures in the intersubband terahertz response of optically excited semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 127403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

J. R. Danielson, Y.-S. Lee, J. P. Prineas, J. T. Steiner, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Interaction of strong single-cycle terahertz pulses with semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 237401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature449, 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

S. G. Carter, V. Birkedal, C. S. Wang, L. A. Coldren, A. V. Maslov, D. S. Citrin, and M. S. Sherwin, “Quantum coherence in an optical modulator,” Science310, 651–653 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ciuti, G. Bastard, and I. Carusotto, “Quantum vacuum properties of the intersubband cavity polariton field,” Phys. Rev. B72, 115303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Dynes, M. D. Frogley, M. Beck, J. Faist, and C. C. Phillips, “A Stark splitting and quantum interference with intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 157403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. W. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Phase-resolved nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas under femtosecond intersubband excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 047402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

R. Kersting, R. Bratschitsch, G. Strasser, K. Unterrainer, and J. N. Heyman, “Sampling a terahertz dipole transition with subcycle time resolution,” Opt. Lett.25, 272–274 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Serapiglia, E. Paspalakis, C. Sirtori, K. L. Vodopyanov, and C. C. Phillips, “Laser-induced quantum coherence in a semiconductor quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. Schmidt, D. E. Nikonov, K. L. Campman, K. D. Maranowski, A. C. Gossard, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum interference in semiconductor quantum wells,” Laser Phys.9, 797–812 (1999).

1998 (1)

J. N. Heyman, R. Kersting, and K. Unterrainer, “Time-domain measurement of intersubband oscillations in a quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72, 644–646 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. N. Heyman, A. G. Markelz, J. B. Williams, M. S. Sherwin, K. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Undressing a collective intersubband excitation in a quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett.76, 2382–2385 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. S. Sherwin, K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. Heyman, A. Markelz, K. Campman, S. Fafard, P. F. Hopkins, and A. Gossard, “Nonlinear quantum dynamics in semiconductor quantum wells,” Physica D83, 229–242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Zalużny, “Influence of the depolarization effect on the nonlinear intersubband absorption spectra of quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B47, 3995–3998 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. Harde, S. Keiding, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz commensurate echoes: Periodic rephasing of molecular transitions in free-induction decay,” Phys. Rev. Lett.66, 1834–1837 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. Matsuura and T. Kamizato, “Subbands and excitons in a quantum well in an electric field,” Phys. Rev. B33, 8385–8389 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1937 (1)

I. I. Rabi, “Space quantization in a gyrating magnetic field,” Phys. Rev.51, 652–654 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Afzelius, M.

W. Tittel, M. Afzelius, T. Chanelière, R. L. Cone, S. Kröll, S. A. Moiseev, and M. Sellars, “Photon-echo quantum memory in solid state systems,” Laser & Photon. Rev.4, 244–267 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anappara, A. A.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. D. Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle switch-on of ultrastrong light-matter interaction,” Nature458, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, A. M.

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. M. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, and M. Helm, “Observation of the intraexcitonic Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 167401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Golde, M. Wagner, D. Stehr, H. Schneider, M. Helm, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, G. Strasser, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Fano signatures in the intersubband terahertz response of optically excited semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 127403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bastard, G.

C. Ciuti, G. Bastard, and I. Carusotto, “Quantum vacuum properties of the intersubband cavity polariton field,” Phys. Rev. B72, 115303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

J. F. Dynes, M. D. Frogley, M. Beck, J. Faist, and C. C. Phillips, “A Stark splitting and quantum interference with intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 157403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biasiol, G.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. D. Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle switch-on of ultrastrong light-matter interaction,” Nature458, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birkedal, V.

S. G. Carter, V. Birkedal, C. S. Wang, L. A. Coldren, A. V. Maslov, D. S. Citrin, and M. S. Sherwin, “Quantum coherence in an optical modulator,” Science310, 651–653 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bratschitsch, R.

Calligaro, M.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature449, 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campman, K.

K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. N. Heyman, A. G. Markelz, J. B. Williams, M. S. Sherwin, K. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Undressing a collective intersubband excitation in a quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett.76, 2382–2385 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Sherwin, K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. Heyman, A. Markelz, K. Campman, S. Fafard, P. F. Hopkins, and A. Gossard, “Nonlinear quantum dynamics in semiconductor quantum wells,” Physica D83, 229–242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Campman, K. L.

H. Schmidt, D. E. Nikonov, K. L. Campman, K. D. Maranowski, A. C. Gossard, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum interference in semiconductor quantum wells,” Laser Phys.9, 797–812 (1999).

Carter, S. G.

S. G. Carter, V. Birkedal, C. S. Wang, L. A. Coldren, A. V. Maslov, D. S. Citrin, and M. S. Sherwin, “Quantum coherence in an optical modulator,” Science310, 651–653 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carusotto, I.

C. Ciuti, G. Bastard, and I. Carusotto, “Quantum vacuum properties of the intersubband cavity polariton field,” Phys. Rev. B72, 115303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chanelière, T.

W. Tittel, M. Afzelius, T. Chanelière, R. L. Cone, S. Kröll, S. A. Moiseev, and M. Sellars, “Photon-echo quantum memory in solid state systems,” Laser & Photon. Rev.4, 244–267 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Citrin, D. S.

S. G. Carter, V. Birkedal, C. S. Wang, L. A. Coldren, A. V. Maslov, D. S. Citrin, and M. S. Sherwin, “Quantum coherence in an optical modulator,” Science310, 651–653 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciuti, C.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. D. Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle switch-on of ultrastrong light-matter interaction,” Nature458, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ciuti, G. Bastard, and I. Carusotto, “Quantum vacuum properties of the intersubband cavity polariton field,” Phys. Rev. B72, 115303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

S. G. Carter, V. Birkedal, C. S. Wang, L. A. Coldren, A. V. Maslov, D. S. Citrin, and M. S. Sherwin, “Quantum coherence in an optical modulator,” Science310, 651–653 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cone, R. L.

W. Tittel, M. Afzelius, T. Chanelière, R. L. Cone, S. Kröll, S. A. Moiseev, and M. Sellars, “Photon-echo quantum memory in solid state systems,” Laser & Photon. Rev.4, 244–267 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooke, D. G.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser & Photon. Rev.5, 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Craig, K.

K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. N. Heyman, A. G. Markelz, J. B. Williams, M. S. Sherwin, K. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Undressing a collective intersubband excitation in a quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett.76, 2382–2385 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Sherwin, K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. Heyman, A. Markelz, K. Campman, S. Fafard, P. F. Hopkins, and A. Gossard, “Nonlinear quantum dynamics in semiconductor quantum wells,” Physica D83, 229–242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Danielson, J. R.

J. R. Danielson, Y.-S. Lee, J. P. Prineas, J. T. Steiner, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Interaction of strong single-cycle terahertz pulses with semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 237401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Darmo, J.

D. Dietze, K. Unterrainer, and J. Darmo, “Dynamically phase-matched terahertz generation,” Opt. Lett.37, 1047–1049 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature449, 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhillon, S.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature449, 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietze, D.

D. Dietze, K. Unterrainer, and J. Darmo, “Dynamically phase-matched terahertz generation,” Opt. Lett.37, 1047–1049 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dietze, “Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor heterostructures,” Ph.D. thesis, Vienna University of Technology (2012).

Dynes, J. F.

J. F. Dynes, M. D. Frogley, M. Beck, J. Faist, and C. C. Phillips, “A Stark splitting and quantum interference with intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 157403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsaesser, T.

C. W. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Phase-resolved nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas under femtosecond intersubband excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 047402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fafard, S.

M. S. Sherwin, K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. Heyman, A. Markelz, K. Campman, S. Fafard, P. F. Hopkins, and A. Gossard, “Nonlinear quantum dynamics in semiconductor quantum wells,” Physica D83, 229–242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

J. F. Dynes, M. D. Frogley, M. Beck, J. Faist, and C. C. Phillips, “A Stark splitting and quantum interference with intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 157403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frogley, M. D.

J. F. Dynes, M. D. Frogley, M. Beck, J. Faist, and C. C. Phillips, “A Stark splitting and quantum interference with intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 157403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galdrikian, B.

K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. N. Heyman, A. G. Markelz, J. B. Williams, M. S. Sherwin, K. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Undressing a collective intersubband excitation in a quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett.76, 2382–2385 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Sherwin, K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. Heyman, A. Markelz, K. Campman, S. Fafard, P. F. Hopkins, and A. Gossard, “Nonlinear quantum dynamics in semiconductor quantum wells,” Physica D83, 229–242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Golde, D.

D. Golde, M. Wagner, D. Stehr, H. Schneider, M. Helm, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, G. Strasser, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Fano signatures in the intersubband terahertz response of optically excited semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 127403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossard, A.

M. S. Sherwin, K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. Heyman, A. Markelz, K. Campman, S. Fafard, P. F. Hopkins, and A. Gossard, “Nonlinear quantum dynamics in semiconductor quantum wells,” Physica D83, 229–242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

H. Schmidt, D. E. Nikonov, K. L. Campman, K. D. Maranowski, A. C. Gossard, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum interference in semiconductor quantum wells,” Laser Phys.9, 797–812 (1999).

K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. N. Heyman, A. G. Markelz, J. B. Williams, M. S. Sherwin, K. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Undressing a collective intersubband excitation in a quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett.76, 2382–2385 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grischkowsky, D.

H. Harde, S. Keiding, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz commensurate echoes: Periodic rephasing of molecular transitions in free-induction decay,” Phys. Rev. Lett.66, 1834–1837 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Günter, G.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. D. Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle switch-on of ultrastrong light-matter interaction,” Nature458, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harde, H.

H. Harde, S. Keiding, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz commensurate echoes: Periodic rephasing of molecular transitions in free-induction decay,” Phys. Rev. Lett.66, 1834–1837 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hees, J.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. D. Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle switch-on of ultrastrong light-matter interaction,” Nature458, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helm, M.

M. Wagner, M. Helm, M. S. Sherwin, and D. Stehr, “Coherent control of THz intersubband polarization in a voltage controlled single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 131109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. M. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, and M. Helm, “Observation of the intraexcitonic Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 167401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Golde, M. Wagner, D. Stehr, H. Schneider, M. Helm, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, G. Strasser, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Fano signatures in the intersubband terahertz response of optically excited semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 127403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Helm, The Basic Physics of Intersubband Transitions, vol. 62 of Semiconductors and Semimetals (Academic Press, 2000).

Hey, R.

C. W. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Phase-resolved nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas under femtosecond intersubband excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 047402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heyman, J.

M. S. Sherwin, K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. Heyman, A. Markelz, K. Campman, S. Fafard, P. F. Hopkins, and A. Gossard, “Nonlinear quantum dynamics in semiconductor quantum wells,” Physica D83, 229–242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heyman, J. N.

R. Kersting, R. Bratschitsch, G. Strasser, K. Unterrainer, and J. N. Heyman, “Sampling a terahertz dipole transition with subcycle time resolution,” Opt. Lett.25, 272–274 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Heyman, R. Kersting, and K. Unterrainer, “Time-domain measurement of intersubband oscillations in a quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72, 644–646 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. N. Heyman, A. G. Markelz, J. B. Williams, M. S. Sherwin, K. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Undressing a collective intersubband excitation in a quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett.76, 2382–2385 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hopkins, P. F.

K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. N. Heyman, A. G. Markelz, J. B. Williams, M. S. Sherwin, K. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Undressing a collective intersubband excitation in a quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett.76, 2382–2385 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Sherwin, K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. Heyman, A. Markelz, K. Campman, S. Fafard, P. F. Hopkins, and A. Gossard, “Nonlinear quantum dynamics in semiconductor quantum wells,” Physica D83, 229–242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. D. Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle switch-on of ultrastrong light-matter interaction,” Nature458, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sell, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Phase-locked generation and field-resolved detection of widely tunable terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 100MV/cm,” Opt. Lett.33, 2767–2769 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, S.

B. Zaks, D. Stehr, T.-A. Truong, P. M. Petroff, S. Hughes, and M. S. Sherwin, “THz-driven quantum wells: Coulomb interactions and Stark shifts in the ultrastrong coupling regime,” New J. Phys.13, 083009 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

H. Schmidt, D. E. Nikonov, K. L. Campman, K. D. Maranowski, A. C. Gossard, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum interference in semiconductor quantum wells,” Laser Phys.9, 797–812 (1999).

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser & Photon. Rev.5, 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamizato, T.

M. Matsuura and T. Kamizato, “Subbands and excitons in a quantum well in an electric field,” Phys. Rev. B33, 8385–8389 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

H. Harde, S. Keiding, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz commensurate echoes: Periodic rephasing of molecular transitions in free-induction decay,” Phys. Rev. Lett.66, 1834–1837 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kersting, R.

R. Kersting, R. Bratschitsch, G. Strasser, K. Unterrainer, and J. N. Heyman, “Sampling a terahertz dipole transition with subcycle time resolution,” Opt. Lett.25, 272–274 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Heyman, R. Kersting, and K. Unterrainer, “Time-domain measurement of intersubband oscillations in a quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72, 644–646 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kira, M.

D. Golde, M. Wagner, D. Stehr, H. Schneider, M. Helm, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, G. Strasser, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Fano signatures in the intersubband terahertz response of optically excited semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 127403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Danielson, Y.-S. Lee, J. P. Prineas, J. T. Steiner, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Interaction of strong single-cycle terahertz pulses with semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 237401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser & Photon. Rev.5, 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, S. W.

D. Golde, M. Wagner, D. Stehr, H. Schneider, M. Helm, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, G. Strasser, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Fano signatures in the intersubband terahertz response of optically excited semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 127403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Danielson, Y.-S. Lee, J. P. Prineas, J. T. Steiner, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Interaction of strong single-cycle terahertz pulses with semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 237401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kröll, J.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature449, 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kröll, S.

W. Tittel, M. Afzelius, T. Chanelière, R. L. Cone, S. Kröll, S. A. Moiseev, and M. Sellars, “Photon-echo quantum memory in solid state systems,” Laser & Photon. Rev.4, 244–267 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-S.

J. R. Danielson, Y.-S. Lee, J. P. Prineas, J. T. Steiner, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Interaction of strong single-cycle terahertz pulses with semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 237401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. D. Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle switch-on of ultrastrong light-matter interaction,” Nature458, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sell, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Phase-locked generation and field-resolved detection of widely tunable terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 100MV/cm,” Opt. Lett.33, 2767–2769 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liberato, S. D.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. D. Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle switch-on of ultrastrong light-matter interaction,” Nature458, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, C. W.

C. W. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Phase-resolved nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas under femtosecond intersubband excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 047402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maranowski, K. D.

H. Schmidt, D. E. Nikonov, K. L. Campman, K. D. Maranowski, A. C. Gossard, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum interference in semiconductor quantum wells,” Laser Phys.9, 797–812 (1999).

Marcadet, X.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature449, 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markelz, A.

M. S. Sherwin, K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. Heyman, A. Markelz, K. Campman, S. Fafard, P. F. Hopkins, and A. Gossard, “Nonlinear quantum dynamics in semiconductor quantum wells,” Physica D83, 229–242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Markelz, A. G.

K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. N. Heyman, A. G. Markelz, J. B. Williams, M. S. Sherwin, K. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Undressing a collective intersubband excitation in a quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett.76, 2382–2385 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, A. V.

S. G. Carter, V. Birkedal, C. S. Wang, L. A. Coldren, A. V. Maslov, D. S. Citrin, and M. S. Sherwin, “Quantum coherence in an optical modulator,” Science310, 651–653 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuura, M.

M. Matsuura and T. Kamizato, “Subbands and excitons in a quantum well in an electric field,” Phys. Rev. B33, 8385–8389 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Moiseev, S. A.

W. Tittel, M. Afzelius, T. Chanelière, R. L. Cone, S. Kröll, S. A. Moiseev, and M. Sellars, “Photon-echo quantum memory in solid state systems,” Laser & Photon. Rev.4, 244–267 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikonov, D. E.

H. Schmidt, D. E. Nikonov, K. L. Campman, K. D. Maranowski, A. C. Gossard, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum interference in semiconductor quantum wells,” Laser Phys.9, 797–812 (1999).

Paspalakis, E.

G. B. Serapiglia, E. Paspalakis, C. Sirtori, K. L. Vodopyanov, and C. C. Phillips, “Laser-induced quantum coherence in a semiconductor quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petroff, P. M.

B. Zaks, D. Stehr, T.-A. Truong, P. M. Petroff, S. Hughes, and M. S. Sherwin, “THz-driven quantum wells: Coulomb interactions and Stark shifts in the ultrastrong coupling regime,” New J. Phys.13, 083009 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, C. C.

J. F. Dynes, M. D. Frogley, M. Beck, J. Faist, and C. C. Phillips, “A Stark splitting and quantum interference with intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 157403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. B. Serapiglia, E. Paspalakis, C. Sirtori, K. L. Vodopyanov, and C. C. Phillips, “Laser-induced quantum coherence in a semiconductor quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ploog, K. H.

C. W. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Phase-resolved nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas under femtosecond intersubband excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 047402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prineas, J. P.

J. R. Danielson, Y.-S. Lee, J. P. Prineas, J. T. Steiner, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Interaction of strong single-cycle terahertz pulses with semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 237401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rabi, I. I.

I. I. Rabi, “Space quantization in a gyrating magnetic field,” Phys. Rev.51, 652–654 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Reimann, K.

C. W. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Phase-resolved nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas under femtosecond intersubband excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 047402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roch, T.

D. Golde, M. Wagner, D. Stehr, H. Schneider, M. Helm, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, G. Strasser, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Fano signatures in the intersubband terahertz response of optically excited semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 127403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schartner, S.

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. M. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, and M. Helm, “Observation of the intraexcitonic Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 167401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

H. Schmidt, D. E. Nikonov, K. L. Campman, K. D. Maranowski, A. C. Gossard, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum interference in semiconductor quantum wells,” Laser Phys.9, 797–812 (1999).

Schneider, H.

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. M. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, and M. Helm, “Observation of the intraexcitonic Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 167401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Golde, M. Wagner, D. Stehr, H. Schneider, M. Helm, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, G. Strasser, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Fano signatures in the intersubband terahertz response of optically excited semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 127403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sell, A.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. D. Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle switch-on of ultrastrong light-matter interaction,” Nature458, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sell, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Phase-locked generation and field-resolved detection of widely tunable terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 100MV/cm,” Opt. Lett.33, 2767–2769 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sellars, M.

W. Tittel, M. Afzelius, T. Chanelière, R. L. Cone, S. Kröll, S. A. Moiseev, and M. Sellars, “Photon-echo quantum memory in solid state systems,” Laser & Photon. Rev.4, 244–267 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serapiglia, G. B.

G. B. Serapiglia, E. Paspalakis, C. Sirtori, K. L. Vodopyanov, and C. C. Phillips, “Laser-induced quantum coherence in a semiconductor quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherwin, M. S.

B. Zaks, D. Stehr, T.-A. Truong, P. M. Petroff, S. Hughes, and M. S. Sherwin, “THz-driven quantum wells: Coulomb interactions and Stark shifts in the ultrastrong coupling regime,” New J. Phys.13, 083009 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Wagner, M. Helm, M. S. Sherwin, and D. Stehr, “Coherent control of THz intersubband polarization in a voltage controlled single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 131109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Carter, V. Birkedal, C. S. Wang, L. A. Coldren, A. V. Maslov, D. S. Citrin, and M. S. Sherwin, “Quantum coherence in an optical modulator,” Science310, 651–653 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. N. Heyman, A. G. Markelz, J. B. Williams, M. S. Sherwin, K. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Undressing a collective intersubband excitation in a quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett.76, 2382–2385 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Sherwin, K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. Heyman, A. Markelz, K. Campman, S. Fafard, P. F. Hopkins, and A. Gossard, “Nonlinear quantum dynamics in semiconductor quantum wells,” Physica D83, 229–242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature449, 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. B. Serapiglia, E. Paspalakis, C. Sirtori, K. L. Vodopyanov, and C. C. Phillips, “Laser-induced quantum coherence in a semiconductor quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorba, L.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. D. Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle switch-on of ultrastrong light-matter interaction,” Nature458, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stehr, D.

M. Wagner, M. Helm, M. S. Sherwin, and D. Stehr, “Coherent control of THz intersubband polarization in a voltage controlled single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 131109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Zaks, D. Stehr, T.-A. Truong, P. M. Petroff, S. Hughes, and M. S. Sherwin, “THz-driven quantum wells: Coulomb interactions and Stark shifts in the ultrastrong coupling regime,” New J. Phys.13, 083009 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. M. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, and M. Helm, “Observation of the intraexcitonic Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 167401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Golde, M. Wagner, D. Stehr, H. Schneider, M. Helm, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, G. Strasser, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Fano signatures in the intersubband terahertz response of optically excited semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 127403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner, J. T.

J. R. Danielson, Y.-S. Lee, J. P. Prineas, J. T. Steiner, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Interaction of strong single-cycle terahertz pulses with semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 237401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, G.

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. M. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, and M. Helm, “Observation of the intraexcitonic Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 167401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Golde, M. Wagner, D. Stehr, H. Schneider, M. Helm, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, G. Strasser, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Fano signatures in the intersubband terahertz response of optically excited semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 127403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kersting, R. Bratschitsch, G. Strasser, K. Unterrainer, and J. N. Heyman, “Sampling a terahertz dipole transition with subcycle time resolution,” Opt. Lett.25, 272–274 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

W. Tittel, M. Afzelius, T. Chanelière, R. L. Cone, S. Kröll, S. A. Moiseev, and M. Sellars, “Photon-echo quantum memory in solid state systems,” Laser & Photon. Rev.4, 244–267 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tredicucci, A.

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. D. Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle switch-on of ultrastrong light-matter interaction,” Nature458, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Truong, T.-A.

B. Zaks, D. Stehr, T.-A. Truong, P. M. Petroff, S. Hughes, and M. S. Sherwin, “THz-driven quantum wells: Coulomb interactions and Stark shifts in the ultrastrong coupling regime,” New J. Phys.13, 083009 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Unterrainer, K.

D. Dietze, K. Unterrainer, and J. Darmo, “Dynamically phase-matched terahertz generation,” Opt. Lett.37, 1047–1049 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature449, 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kersting, R. Bratschitsch, G. Strasser, K. Unterrainer, and J. N. Heyman, “Sampling a terahertz dipole transition with subcycle time resolution,” Opt. Lett.25, 272–274 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Heyman, R. Kersting, and K. Unterrainer, “Time-domain measurement of intersubband oscillations in a quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72, 644–646 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

G. B. Serapiglia, E. Paspalakis, C. Sirtori, K. L. Vodopyanov, and C. C. Phillips, “Laser-induced quantum coherence in a semiconductor quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, M.

M. Wagner, M. Helm, M. S. Sherwin, and D. Stehr, “Coherent control of THz intersubband polarization in a voltage controlled single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 131109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. M. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, and M. Helm, “Observation of the intraexcitonic Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 167401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Golde, M. Wagner, D. Stehr, H. Schneider, M. Helm, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, G. Strasser, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Fano signatures in the intersubband terahertz response of optically excited semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 127403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. S.

S. G. Carter, V. Birkedal, C. S. Wang, L. A. Coldren, A. V. Maslov, D. S. Citrin, and M. S. Sherwin, “Quantum coherence in an optical modulator,” Science310, 651–653 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, J. B.

K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. N. Heyman, A. G. Markelz, J. B. Williams, M. S. Sherwin, K. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Undressing a collective intersubband excitation in a quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett.76, 2382–2385 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winnerl, S.

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. M. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, and M. Helm, “Observation of the intraexcitonic Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 167401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Woerner, M.

C. W. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Phase-resolved nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas under femtosecond intersubband excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 047402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaks, B.

B. Zaks, D. Stehr, T.-A. Truong, P. M. Petroff, S. Hughes, and M. S. Sherwin, “THz-driven quantum wells: Coulomb interactions and Stark shifts in the ultrastrong coupling regime,” New J. Phys.13, 083009 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zaluzny, M.

M. Zalużny, “Influence of the depolarization effect on the nonlinear intersubband absorption spectra of quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B47, 3995–3998 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. N. Heyman, R. Kersting, and K. Unterrainer, “Time-domain measurement of intersubband oscillations in a quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72, 644–646 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Wagner, M. Helm, M. S. Sherwin, and D. Stehr, “Coherent control of THz intersubband polarization in a voltage controlled single quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 131109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser & Photon. Rev. (2)

W. Tittel, M. Afzelius, T. Chanelière, R. L. Cone, S. Kröll, S. A. Moiseev, and M. Sellars, “Photon-echo quantum memory in solid state systems,” Laser & Photon. Rev.4, 244–267 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser & Photon. Rev.5, 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Phys. (1)

H. Schmidt, D. E. Nikonov, K. L. Campman, K. D. Maranowski, A. C. Gossard, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum interference in semiconductor quantum wells,” Laser Phys.9, 797–812 (1999).

Nature (2)

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, “Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser,” Nature449, 698–701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Günter, A. A. Anappara, J. Hees, A. Sell, G. Biasiol, L. Sorba, S. D. Liberato, C. Ciuti, A. Tredicucci, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle switch-on of ultrastrong light-matter interaction,” Nature458, 178–181 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

B. Zaks, D. Stehr, T.-A. Truong, P. M. Petroff, S. Hughes, and M. S. Sherwin, “THz-driven quantum wells: Coulomb interactions and Stark shifts in the ultrastrong coupling regime,” New J. Phys.13, 083009 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

I. I. Rabi, “Space quantization in a gyrating magnetic field,” Phys. Rev.51, 652–654 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

C. Ciuti, G. Bastard, and I. Carusotto, “Quantum vacuum properties of the intersubband cavity polariton field,” Phys. Rev. B72, 115303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Zalużny, “Influence of the depolarization effect on the nonlinear intersubband absorption spectra of quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B47, 3995–3998 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsuura and T. Kamizato, “Subbands and excitons in a quantum well in an electric field,” Phys. Rev. B33, 8385–8389 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

H. Harde, S. Keiding, and D. Grischkowsky, “THz commensurate echoes: Periodic rephasing of molecular transitions in free-induction decay,” Phys. Rev. Lett.66, 1834–1837 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Golde, M. Wagner, D. Stehr, H. Schneider, M. Helm, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch, G. Strasser, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Fano signatures in the intersubband terahertz response of optically excited semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 127403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Danielson, Y.-S. Lee, J. P. Prineas, J. T. Steiner, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Interaction of strong single-cycle terahertz pulses with semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 237401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wagner, H. Schneider, D. Stehr, S. Winnerl, A. M. Andrews, S. Schartner, G. Strasser, and M. Helm, “Observation of the intraexcitonic Autler-Townes effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 167401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Serapiglia, E. Paspalakis, C. Sirtori, K. L. Vodopyanov, and C. C. Phillips, “Laser-induced quantum coherence in a semiconductor quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84, 1019–1022 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, “Phase-resolved nonlinear response of a two-dimensional electron gas under femtosecond intersubband excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 047402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Dynes, M. D. Frogley, M. Beck, J. Faist, and C. C. Phillips, “A Stark splitting and quantum interference with intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 157403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. N. Heyman, A. G. Markelz, J. B. Williams, M. S. Sherwin, K. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Undressing a collective intersubband excitation in a quantum well,” Phys. Rev. Lett.76, 2382–2385 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica D (1)

M. S. Sherwin, K. Craig, B. Galdrikian, J. Heyman, A. Markelz, K. Campman, S. Fafard, P. F. Hopkins, and A. Gossard, “Nonlinear quantum dynamics in semiconductor quantum wells,” Physica D83, 229–242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. G. Carter, V. Birkedal, C. S. Wang, L. A. Coldren, A. V. Maslov, D. S. Citrin, and M. S. Sherwin, “Quantum coherence in an optical modulator,” Science310, 651–653 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

H. C. Liu and F c (Eds.), Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells: Physics and Device Applications I, vol. 62 of Semiconductors and Semimetals (Academic Press, 2000).

D. Dietze, “Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor heterostructures,” Ph.D. thesis, Vienna University of Technology (2012).

M. Helm, The Basic Physics of Intersubband Transitions, vol. 62 of Semiconductors and Semimetals (Academic Press, 2000).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overview of experiment. (a) The MQW sample is mounted on a copper holder with aperture. (b) By applying a negative bias to the Schottky contact, the quantum wells are depleted. (c) Transmitted (black, solid) and modulation signal (red, dashed) for weak THz fields. The two transients are to scale. (d) Sketch of the lowest four levels of the QW. The spectrum of the incident pulse spans the ground and first two excited levels. Black arrows indicate allowed transitions, red dashed arrows show a 2-photon transition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modulation signals for different pump powers. The insets show the normalized modulation spectra with frequency in THz. (a) For the lowest THz field amplitude, the free induction decay is almost monochromatic (red). The black dashed curve shows the results of FDTD simulations for a two-level system. (b) For 4.5 kV/cm, a beating becomes obvious. The temporal position of the beat nodes are indicated by the arrows. (c) For higher peak fields, the total pulse becomes shorter and shows echo-like features. (d) Above 12 kV/cm, the free induction decay contains higher frequencies.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Absorption spectra for increasing THz peak electric fields (from bottom to top). The lowest three transitions, |1〉 → |2〉 (A), |2〉 → |3〉 (B), and |3〉 → |4〉 (C) are visible. The curves are vertically offset for clarity. (b) Integrated absorbance of the three transitions A, B, and C as function of the THz pulse energy. (c) Fractional occupations of the lowest three quantum well levels as function of the incident THz pulse energy. (d) Comparison of measured and calculated frequency shift of the fundamental transition as function of the THz pulse energy.

Metrics