Abstract

Axially distributed image sensing (ADS) technique is capable of capturing 3D objects and reconstructing high-resolution slice plane images for 3D objects. In this paper, we propose a computational method for depth extraction of 3D objects using ADS. In the proposed method, the high-resolution elemental images are recorded by simply moving the camera along the optical axis and the recorded elemental images are used to generate a set of 3D slice images using the computational reconstruction algorithm based on ray back-projection. To extract depth of 3D object, we propose the simple block comparison algorithm between the first elemental image and a set of 3D slice images. This provides a simple computation process and robustness for depth extraction. To demonstrate our method, we carry out the preliminary experiments of three scenarios for 3D objects and the results are presented. To our best knowledge, this is the first report to extract the depth information using an ADS method.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. M. DaneshPanah, B. Javidi, and E. A. Watson, “Three dimensional imaging with randomly distributed sensors,” Opt. Express16(9), 6368–6377 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J.-H. Jung, K. Hong, G. Park, I. Chung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Reconstruction of three-dimensional occluded object using optical flow and triangular mesh reconstruction in integral imaging,” Opt. Express18(25), 26373–26387 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D.-C. Hwang, D.-H. Shin, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Depth extraction of three-dimensional objects in space by the computational integral imaging reconstruction technique,” Appl. Opt.47(19), D128–D135 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B.-G. Lee, H.-H. Kang, and E.-S. Kim, “Occlusion removal method of partially occluded object using variance in computational integral imaging,” 3D Research1(2), 2–10 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. DaneshPanah and B. Javidi, “Profilometry and optical slicing by passive three-dimensional imaging,” Opt. Lett.34(7), 1105–1107 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  19. A. Stern and B. Javidi, “3-D computational synthetic aperture integral imaging (COMPSAII),” Opt. Express11(19), 2446–2451 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. S. Hwang, S.-H. Hong, and B. Javidi, “Free view 3-D visualization of occluded objects by using computational synthetic aperture integral imaging,” J. Disp. Technol.3(1), 64–70 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Cho and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional visualization of objects in turbid water using integral imaging,” J. Disp. Technol.6(10), 544–547 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Schulein, M. DaneshPanah, and B. Javidi, “3D imaging with axially distributed sensing,” Opt. Lett.34(13), 2012–2014 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. D. Shin, M. Cho, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional optical microscopy using axially distributed image sensing,” Opt. Lett.35(21), 3646–3648 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. Shin and B. Javidi, “Visualization of 3D objects in scattering medium using axially distributed sensing,” J. Disp. Technol.8(6), 317–320 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

D. Shin and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging and visualization of partially occluded objects using axially distributed stereo image sensing,” Opt. Lett.37(9), 1394–1396 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shin and B. Javidi, “Visualization of 3D objects in scattering medium using axially distributed sensing,” J. Disp. Technol.8(6), 317–320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

D. Shin and B. Javidi, “3D visualization of partially occluded objects using axially distributed sensing,” J. Disp. Technol.7(5), 223–225 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J.-H. Jung, K. Hong, G. Park, I. Chung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Reconstruction of three-dimensional occluded object using optical flow and triangular mesh reconstruction in integral imaging,” Opt. Express18(25), 26373–26387 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-G. Lee, H.-H. Kang, and E.-S. Kim, “Occlusion removal method of partially occluded object using variance in computational integral imaging,” 3D Research1(2), 2–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-M. Kim, K.-H. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent researches based on integral imaging display method,” 3D Research1(1), 17–27 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Cho and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional visualization of objects in turbid water using integral imaging,” J. Disp. Technol.6(10), 544–547 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Shin, M. Cho, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional optical microscopy using axially distributed image sensing,” Opt. Lett.35(21), 3646–3648 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

2007

G. Passalis, N. Sgouros, S. Athineos, and T. Theoharis, “Enhanced reconstruction of three-dimensional shape and texture from integral photography images,” Appl. Opt.46(22), 5311–5320 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Hwang, S.-H. Hong, and B. Javidi, “Free view 3-D visualization of occluded objects by using computational synthetic aperture integral imaging,” J. Disp. Technol.3(1), 64–70 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 591–607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, H. Arimoto, and K. Isobe, “Coherence-based 3-D and spectral imaging and laser-scanning microscopy,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 608–628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

2002

2001

J.-S. Ku, K.-M. Lee, and S.-U. Lee, “Multi-image matching for a general motion stereo camera model,” Pattern Recognit.34(9), 1701–1712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arimoto, H.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, H. Arimoto, and K. Isobe, “Coherence-based 3-D and spectral imaging and laser-scanning microscopy,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 608–628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Athineos, S.

Cho, M.

M. Cho and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional visualization of objects in turbid water using integral imaging,” J. Disp. Technol.6(10), 544–547 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Shin, M. Cho, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional optical microscopy using axially distributed image sensing,” Opt. Lett.35(21), 3646–3648 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H.

Chung, I.

DaneshPanah, M.

Hong, K.

Hong, K.-H.

Y.-M. Kim, K.-H. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent researches based on integral imaging display method,” 3D Research1(1), 17–27 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S.-H.

Y. S. Hwang, S.-H. Hong, and B. Javidi, “Free view 3-D visualization of occluded objects by using computational synthetic aperture integral imaging,” J. Disp. Technol.3(1), 64–70 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, D.-C.

Hwang, Y. S.

Y. S. Hwang, S.-H. Hong, and B. Javidi, “Free view 3-D visualization of occluded objects by using computational synthetic aperture integral imaging,” J. Disp. Technol.3(1), 64–70 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Isobe, K.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, H. Arimoto, and K. Isobe, “Coherence-based 3-D and spectral imaging and laser-scanning microscopy,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 608–628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, H. Arimoto, and K. Isobe, “Coherence-based 3-D and spectral imaging and laser-scanning microscopy,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 608–628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.-S.

Javidi, B.

D. Shin and B. Javidi, “Visualization of 3D objects in scattering medium using axially distributed sensing,” J. Disp. Technol.8(6), 317–320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Shin and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging and visualization of partially occluded objects using axially distributed stereo image sensing,” Opt. Lett.37(9), 1394–1396 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shin and B. Javidi, “3D visualization of partially occluded objects using axially distributed sensing,” J. Disp. Technol.7(5), 223–225 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Cho and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional visualization of objects in turbid water using integral imaging,” J. Disp. Technol.6(10), 544–547 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Shin, M. Cho, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional optical microscopy using axially distributed image sensing,” Opt. Lett.35(21), 3646–3648 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. DaneshPanah and B. Javidi, “Profilometry and optical slicing by passive three-dimensional imaging,” Opt. Lett.34(7), 1105–1107 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schulein, M. DaneshPanah, and B. Javidi, “3D imaging with axially distributed sensing,” Opt. Lett.34(13), 2012–2014 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. DaneshPanah, B. Javidi, and E. A. Watson, “Three dimensional imaging with randomly distributed sensors,” Opt. Express16(9), 6368–6377 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Hwang, S.-H. Hong, and B. Javidi, “Free view 3-D visualization of occluded objects by using computational synthetic aperture integral imaging,” J. Disp. Technol.3(1), 64–70 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 591–607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “3-D computational synthetic aperture integral imaging (COMPSAII),” Opt. Express11(19), 2446–2451 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional synthetic aperture integral imaging,” Opt. Lett.27(13), 1144–1146 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, J.-H.

Jung, S.

Kang, H.-H.

B.-G. Lee, H.-H. Kang, and E.-S. Kim, “Occlusion removal method of partially occluded object using variance in computational integral imaging,” 3D Research1(2), 2–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E.-S.

B.-G. Lee, H.-H. Kang, and E.-S. Kim, “Occlusion removal method of partially occluded object using variance in computational integral imaging,” 3D Research1(2), 2–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D.-C. Hwang, D.-H. Shin, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Depth extraction of three-dimensional objects in space by the computational integral imaging reconstruction technique,” Appl. Opt.47(19), D128–D135 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

Kim, S.-C.

Kim, Y.

Kim, Y.-M.

Y.-M. Kim, K.-H. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent researches based on integral imaging display method,” 3D Research1(1), 17–27 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ku, J.-S.

J.-S. Ku, K.-M. Lee, and S.-U. Lee, “Multi-image matching for a general motion stereo camera model,” Pattern Recognit.34(9), 1701–1712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Lee, B.-G.

B.-G. Lee, H.-H. Kang, and E.-S. Kim, “Occlusion removal method of partially occluded object using variance in computational integral imaging,” 3D Research1(2), 2–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Shin, B.-G. Lee, and J.-J. Lee, “Occlusion removal method of partially occluded 3D object using sub-image block matching in computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express16(21), 16294–16304 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-J.

Lee, K.-M.

J.-S. Ku, K.-M. Lee, and S.-U. Lee, “Multi-image matching for a general motion stereo camera model,” Pattern Recognit.34(9), 1701–1712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-U.

J.-S. Ku, K.-M. Lee, and S.-U. Lee, “Multi-image matching for a general motion stereo camera model,” Pattern Recognit.34(9), 1701–1712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Min, S.-W.

Park, G.

Park, J.-H.

Passalis, G.

Schulein, R.

Sgouros, N.

Shin, D.

D. Shin and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging and visualization of partially occluded objects using axially distributed stereo image sensing,” Opt. Lett.37(9), 1394–1396 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shin and B. Javidi, “Visualization of 3D objects in scattering medium using axially distributed sensing,” J. Disp. Technol.8(6), 317–320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Shin and B. Javidi, “3D visualization of partially occluded objects using axially distributed sensing,” J. Disp. Technol.7(5), 223–225 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Shin, M. Cho, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional optical microscopy using axially distributed image sensing,” Opt. Lett.35(21), 3646–3648 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, D.-H.

Stern, A.

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 591–607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “3-D computational synthetic aperture integral imaging (COMPSAII),” Opt. Express11(19), 2446–2451 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Theoharis, T.

Watanabe, W.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, H. Arimoto, and K. Isobe, “Coherence-based 3-D and spectral imaging and laser-scanning microscopy,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 608–628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watson, E. A.

3D Research

Y.-M. Kim, K.-H. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent researches based on integral imaging display method,” 3D Research1(1), 17–27 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B.-G. Lee, H.-H. Kang, and E.-S. Kim, “Occlusion removal method of partially occluded object using variance in computational integral imaging,” 3D Research1(2), 2–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Disp. Technol.

Y. S. Hwang, S.-H. Hong, and B. Javidi, “Free view 3-D visualization of occluded objects by using computational synthetic aperture integral imaging,” J. Disp. Technol.3(1), 64–70 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Cho and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional visualization of objects in turbid water using integral imaging,” J. Disp. Technol.6(10), 544–547 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Shin and B. Javidi, “Visualization of 3D objects in scattering medium using axially distributed sensing,” J. Disp. Technol.8(6), 317–320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Shin and B. Javidi, “3D visualization of partially occluded objects using axially distributed sensing,” J. Disp. Technol.7(5), 223–225 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Pattern Recognit.

J.-S. Ku, K.-M. Lee, and S.-U. Lee, “Multi-image matching for a general motion stereo camera model,” Pattern Recognit.34(9), 1701–1712 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 591–607 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, H. Arimoto, and K. Isobe, “Coherence-based 3-D and spectral imaging and laser-scanning microscopy,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 608–628 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Okoshi, Three-dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic Press, 1976).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Proposed depth extraction processes using ADS

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pickup process in ADS

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Principle of digital reconstruction in ADS

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Block comparison algorithm between the first elemental image and slice images

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ray diagram for calculation of minimum step size

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculation results of minimum step size for practical parameters.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Three scenarios for optical experiments object

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Four examples of the recorded elemental images for second object (a) first elemental image (b) 10th elemental image (c) 20th elemental image (d) 30th elemental image

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Reconstructed slice images for second objects (a) at 350 mm (b) at 420 mm (c) at 500 mm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Extracted depth map for three scenarios

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I L = 1 k i=1 k U i E i
I L 1 k i=1 k D r U i E i
SA D L = i=1 b j=1 b | D r U 1 E 1 (x+i,y+j) I L (x+i,y+j)|
L ^ (x,y)= argmin L SA D L (x,y)
δ= (L z 1 )c d .

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