Abstract

We present a practicable way to take advantage of the spectral information contained in a broadband terahertz pulse for the determination of birefringence and orientation of the optical axis in a glass fiber reinforced polymer with a single measurement. Our setup employs circularly polarized terahertz waves and a polarization-sensitive detector to measure both components of the electromagnetic field simultaneously. The anisotropic optical parameters are obtained from an analysis of the phase and frequency resolved components of the terahertz field. This method shows a high tolerance against the skew of the detection axes and is also independent of a reference measurement.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Efficient terahertz en-face imaging,” Opt. Express19, 23042–23053 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Born, E. Wolf, and A. Bhatia, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge University Press, 7th ed, 1999).
    [PubMed]
  3. Y.-S. Jin, G.-J. Kim, and S.-G. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.49, 513–517 (2006).
  4. M. Reid and R. Fedosejevs, “Terahertz birefringence and attenuation properties of wood and paper,” Appl. Optics45, 2766–2772 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Öhrström, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, and F. J. Rühli, “Technical note: terahertz imaging of ancient mummies and bone,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.142, 497–500 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol.70, 472–477 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Wang, Y. Cui, W. Sun, J. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization real-time imaging based on balanced electro-optic detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27, 2387–2393 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Hofmann, C. Herzinger, J. L. Tedesco, D. Gaskill, J. Woollam, and M. Schubert, “Terahertz ellipsometry and terahertz optical-hall effect,” Thin Solid Films519, 2593–2600 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Hofmann, D. Schmidt, A. Boosalis, P. Kühne, R. Skomski, C. M. Herzinger, J. A. Woollam, M. Schubert, and E. Schubert, “THz dielectric anisotropy of metal slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 081903–1–3 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B7, 2006–2015 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Castro-Camus, “Polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves33, 418–430 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Castro-Camus and M. B. Johnston, “Extraction of the anisotropic dielectric properties of materials from polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectra,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op.11, 105206–1–6 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. B. Johnston, M. D. Fraser, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Polarization-sensitive terahertz detection by multicontact photoconductive receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 254102–1–3 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Makabe, Y. Hirota, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization state measurement of terahertz electromagnetic radiation by three-contact photoconductive antenna,” Opt. Express15, 11650–11657 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. N. C. J. van der Valk, W. A. M. van der Marel, and P. C. M. Planken, “Terahertz polarization imaging,” Opt. Lett.30, 2802–2804 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. Engelke, G. Ahrens, G. Grützner, and D. Stifter, “Transversal ultrahigh-resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography for strain mapping in materials,” Opt. Express14, 5945–5953 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Redo-Sanchez, N. Karpowicz, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Damage and defect inspection with terahertz waves,” in “The 4th International Workshop on Ultrasonic and Advanced Methods for Nondestructive Testing and Material Characterization, June 19,” ( www.ndt.net , 2006), pp. 67–78.
  18. S. Ebara, Y. Hirota, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Highly sensitive birefringence measurement in THz frequency region and its application to stress measurement,” in “32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves, IRMMW-THz 2007,” (2007), pp. 666–667.
  19. C. Jördens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis,” Appl. Optics48, 2037–2044 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Hirota, R. Hattori, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Polarization modulation of terahertz electromagnetic radiation by four-contact photoconductive antenna,” Opt. Express14, 4486–4493 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Polarization sensitive imaging with pulsed thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 63–67.
  22. M. Pfleger, S. Katletz, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Scheller, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Comparison of polarization-sensitive detection methods of thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 149–154.

2012 (1)

E. Castro-Camus, “Polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves33, 418–430 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Efficient terahertz en-face imaging,” Opt. Express19, 23042–23053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hofmann, C. Herzinger, J. L. Tedesco, D. Gaskill, J. Woollam, and M. Schubert, “Terahertz ellipsometry and terahertz optical-hall effect,” Thin Solid Films519, 2593–2600 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Hofmann, D. Schmidt, A. Boosalis, P. Kühne, R. Skomski, C. M. Herzinger, J. A. Woollam, M. Schubert, and E. Schubert, “THz dielectric anisotropy of metal slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 081903–1–3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

L. Öhrström, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, and F. J. Rühli, “Technical note: terahertz imaging of ancient mummies and bone,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.142, 497–500 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol.70, 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Y. Cui, W. Sun, J. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization real-time imaging based on balanced electro-optic detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27, 2387–2393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

E. Castro-Camus and M. B. Johnston, “Extraction of the anisotropic dielectric properties of materials from polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectra,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op.11, 105206–1–6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis,” Appl. Optics48, 2037–2044 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (4)

2005 (2)

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. B. Johnston, M. D. Fraser, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Polarization-sensitive terahertz detection by multicontact photoconductive receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 254102–1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. C. J. van der Valk, W. A. M. van der Marel, and P. C. M. Planken, “Terahertz polarization imaging,” Opt. Lett.30, 2802–2804 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

Ahrens, G.

Bhatia, A.

M. Born, E. Wolf, and A. Bhatia, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge University Press, 7th ed, 1999).
[PubMed]

Bitzer, A.

L. Öhrström, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, and F. J. Rühli, “Technical note: terahertz imaging of ancient mummies and bone,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.142, 497–500 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boosalis, A.

T. Hofmann, D. Schmidt, A. Boosalis, P. Kühne, R. Skomski, C. M. Herzinger, J. A. Woollam, M. Schubert, and E. Schubert, “THz dielectric anisotropy of metal slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 081903–1–3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, and A. Bhatia, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge University Press, 7th ed, 1999).
[PubMed]

Castro-Camus, E.

E. Castro-Camus, “Polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves33, 418–430 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Castro-Camus and M. B. Johnston, “Extraction of the anisotropic dielectric properties of materials from polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectra,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op.11, 105206–1–6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. B. Johnston, M. D. Fraser, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Polarization-sensitive terahertz detection by multicontact photoconductive receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 254102–1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

Ebara, S.

S. Ebara, Y. Hirota, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Highly sensitive birefringence measurement in THz frequency region and its application to stress measurement,” in “32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves, IRMMW-THz 2007,” (2007), pp. 666–667.

Engelke, R.

Fattinger, C.

Fedosejevs, R.

M. Reid and R. Fedosejevs, “Terahertz birefringence and attenuation properties of wood and paper,” Appl. Optics45, 2766–2772 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, M. D.

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. B. Johnston, M. D. Fraser, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Polarization-sensitive terahertz detection by multicontact photoconductive receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 254102–1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gaskill, D.

T. Hofmann, C. Herzinger, J. L. Tedesco, D. Gaskill, J. Woollam, and M. Schubert, “Terahertz ellipsometry and terahertz optical-hall effect,” Thin Solid Films519, 2593–2600 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, E.

Grischkowsky, D.

Grützner, G.

Hangyo, M.

Hattori, R.

Heinen, B.

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Efficient terahertz en-face imaging,” Opt. Express19, 23042–23053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pfleger, S. Katletz, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Scheller, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Comparison of polarization-sensitive detection methods of thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 149–154.

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Polarization sensitive imaging with pulsed thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 63–67.

Herzinger, C.

T. Hofmann, C. Herzinger, J. L. Tedesco, D. Gaskill, J. Woollam, and M. Schubert, “Terahertz ellipsometry and terahertz optical-hall effect,” Thin Solid Films519, 2593–2600 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Herzinger, C. M.

T. Hofmann, D. Schmidt, A. Boosalis, P. Kühne, R. Skomski, C. M. Herzinger, J. A. Woollam, M. Schubert, and E. Schubert, “THz dielectric anisotropy of metal slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 081903–1–3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hirota, Y.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hofmann, T.

T. Hofmann, D. Schmidt, A. Boosalis, P. Kühne, R. Skomski, C. M. Herzinger, J. A. Woollam, M. Schubert, and E. Schubert, “THz dielectric anisotropy of metal slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 081903–1–3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Hofmann, C. Herzinger, J. L. Tedesco, D. Gaskill, J. Woollam, and M. Schubert, “Terahertz ellipsometry and terahertz optical-hall effect,” Thin Solid Films519, 2593–2600 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jagadish, C.

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. B. Johnston, M. D. Fraser, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Polarization-sensitive terahertz detection by multicontact photoconductive receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 254102–1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, C.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol.70, 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S.-G.

Y.-S. Jin, G.-J. Kim, and S.-G. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.49, 513–517 (2006).

Jin, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Jin, G.-J. Kim, and S.-G. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.49, 513–517 (2006).

Johnston, M. B.

E. Castro-Camus and M. B. Johnston, “Extraction of the anisotropic dielectric properties of materials from polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectra,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op.11, 105206–1–6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. B. Johnston, M. D. Fraser, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Polarization-sensitive terahertz detection by multicontact photoconductive receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 254102–1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jördens, C.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol.70, 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis,” Appl. Optics48, 2037–2044 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

A. Redo-Sanchez, N. Karpowicz, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Damage and defect inspection with terahertz waves,” in “The 4th International Workshop on Ultrasonic and Advanced Methods for Nondestructive Testing and Material Characterization, June 19,” ( www.ndt.net , 2006), pp. 67–78.

Katletz, S.

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Efficient terahertz en-face imaging,” Opt. Express19, 23042–23053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Polarization sensitive imaging with pulsed thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 63–67.

M. Pfleger, S. Katletz, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Scheller, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Comparison of polarization-sensitive detection methods of thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 149–154.

Keiding, S.

Kim, G.-J.

Y.-S. Jin, G.-J. Kim, and S.-G. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.49, 513–517 (2006).

Koch, M.

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Efficient terahertz en-face imaging,” Opt. Express19, 23042–23053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol.70, 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis,” Appl. Optics48, 2037–2044 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Polarization sensitive imaging with pulsed thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 63–67.

M. Pfleger, S. Katletz, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Scheller, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Comparison of polarization-sensitive detection methods of thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 149–154.

Kühne, P.

T. Hofmann, D. Schmidt, A. Boosalis, P. Kühne, R. Skomski, C. M. Herzinger, J. A. Woollam, M. Schubert, and E. Schubert, “THz dielectric anisotropy of metal slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 081903–1–3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd-Hughes, J.

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. B. Johnston, M. D. Fraser, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Polarization-sensitive terahertz detection by multicontact photoconductive receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 254102–1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Makabe, H.

Mikulics, M.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis,” Appl. Optics48, 2037–2044 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Pfleger, S. Katletz, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Scheller, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Comparison of polarization-sensitive detection methods of thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 149–154.

Öhrström, L.

L. Öhrström, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, and F. J. Rühli, “Technical note: terahertz imaging of ancient mummies and bone,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.142, 497–500 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfleger, M.

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Efficient terahertz en-face imaging,” Opt. Express19, 23042–23053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Polarization sensitive imaging with pulsed thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 63–67.

M. Pfleger, S. Katletz, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Scheller, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Comparison of polarization-sensitive detection methods of thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 149–154.

Pircher, M.

Planken, P. C. M.

Pühringer, H.

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Efficient terahertz en-face imaging,” Opt. Express19, 23042–23053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pfleger, S. Katletz, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Scheller, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Comparison of polarization-sensitive detection methods of thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 149–154.

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Polarization sensitive imaging with pulsed thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 63–67.

Redo-Sanchez, A.

A. Redo-Sanchez, N. Karpowicz, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Damage and defect inspection with terahertz waves,” in “The 4th International Workshop on Ultrasonic and Advanced Methods for Nondestructive Testing and Material Characterization, June 19,” ( www.ndt.net , 2006), pp. 67–78.

Reid, M.

M. Reid and R. Fedosejevs, “Terahertz birefringence and attenuation properties of wood and paper,” Appl. Optics45, 2766–2772 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reisecker, V.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol.70, 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Romeike, D.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol.70, 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rühli, F. J.

L. Öhrström, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, and F. J. Rühli, “Technical note: terahertz imaging of ancient mummies and bone,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.142, 497–500 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheller, M.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol.70, 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis,” Appl. Optics48, 2037–2044 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Pfleger, S. Katletz, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Scheller, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Comparison of polarization-sensitive detection methods of thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 149–154.

Scherger, B.

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Efficient terahertz en-face imaging,” Opt. Express19, 23042–23053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pfleger, S. Katletz, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Scheller, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Comparison of polarization-sensitive detection methods of thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 149–154.

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Polarization sensitive imaging with pulsed thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 63–67.

Schmidt, D.

T. Hofmann, D. Schmidt, A. Boosalis, P. Kühne, R. Skomski, C. M. Herzinger, J. A. Woollam, M. Schubert, and E. Schubert, “THz dielectric anisotropy of metal slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 081903–1–3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E.

T. Hofmann, D. Schmidt, A. Boosalis, P. Kühne, R. Skomski, C. M. Herzinger, J. A. Woollam, M. Schubert, and E. Schubert, “THz dielectric anisotropy of metal slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 081903–1–3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M.

T. Hofmann, C. Herzinger, J. L. Tedesco, D. Gaskill, J. Woollam, and M. Schubert, “Terahertz ellipsometry and terahertz optical-hall effect,” Thin Solid Films519, 2593–2600 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Hofmann, D. Schmidt, A. Boosalis, P. Kühne, R. Skomski, C. M. Herzinger, J. A. Woollam, M. Schubert, and E. Schubert, “THz dielectric anisotropy of metal slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 081903–1–3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Skomski, R.

T. Hofmann, D. Schmidt, A. Boosalis, P. Kühne, R. Skomski, C. M. Herzinger, J. A. Woollam, M. Schubert, and E. Schubert, “THz dielectric anisotropy of metal slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 081903–1–3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stifter, D.

Sun, W.

Tan, H. H.

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. B. Johnston, M. D. Fraser, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Polarization-sensitive terahertz detection by multicontact photoconductive receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 254102–1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

Tedesco, J. L.

T. Hofmann, C. Herzinger, J. L. Tedesco, D. Gaskill, J. Woollam, and M. Schubert, “Terahertz ellipsometry and terahertz optical-hall effect,” Thin Solid Films519, 2593–2600 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van der Marel, W. A. M.

van der Valk, N. C. J.

van Exter, M.

Vieweg, N.

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Efficient terahertz en-face imaging,” Opt. Express19, 23042–23053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Polarization sensitive imaging with pulsed thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 63–67.

M. Pfleger, S. Katletz, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Scheller, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Comparison of polarization-sensitive detection methods of thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 149–154.

Walther, M.

L. Öhrström, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, and F. J. Rühli, “Technical note: terahertz imaging of ancient mummies and bone,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.142, 497–500 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Wichmann, M.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis,” Appl. Optics48, 2037–2044 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wiesauer, K.

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Efficient terahertz en-face imaging,” Opt. Express19, 23042–23053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol.70, 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis,” Appl. Optics48, 2037–2044 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Wiesauer, M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. Engelke, G. Ahrens, G. Grützner, and D. Stifter, “Transversal ultrahigh-resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography for strain mapping in materials,” Opt. Express14, 5945–5953 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pfleger, S. Katletz, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Scheller, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Comparison of polarization-sensitive detection methods of thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 149–154.

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Polarization sensitive imaging with pulsed thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 63–67.

Wietzke, S.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol.70, 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, and A. Bhatia, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge University Press, 7th ed, 1999).
[PubMed]

Woollam, J.

T. Hofmann, C. Herzinger, J. L. Tedesco, D. Gaskill, J. Woollam, and M. Schubert, “Terahertz ellipsometry and terahertz optical-hall effect,” Thin Solid Films519, 2593–2600 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Woollam, J. A.

T. Hofmann, D. Schmidt, A. Boosalis, P. Kühne, R. Skomski, C. M. Herzinger, J. A. Woollam, M. Schubert, and E. Schubert, “THz dielectric anisotropy of metal slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 081903–1–3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

A. Redo-Sanchez, N. Karpowicz, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Damage and defect inspection with terahertz waves,” in “The 4th International Workshop on Ultrasonic and Advanced Methods for Nondestructive Testing and Material Characterization, June 19,” ( www.ndt.net , 2006), pp. 67–78.

Ye, J.

Zentgraf, T.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol.70, 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

A. Redo-Sanchez, N. Karpowicz, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Damage and defect inspection with terahertz waves,” in “The 4th International Workshop on Ultrasonic and Advanced Methods for Nondestructive Testing and Material Characterization, June 19,” ( www.ndt.net , 2006), pp. 67–78.

Zhang, Y.

Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (1)

L. Öhrström, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, and F. J. Rühli, “Technical note: terahertz imaging of ancient mummies and bone,” Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.142, 497–500 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Optics (2)

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, “Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis,” Appl. Optics48, 2037–2044 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Reid and R. Fedosejevs, “Terahertz birefringence and attenuation properties of wood and paper,” Appl. Optics45, 2766–2772 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Hofmann, D. Schmidt, A. Boosalis, P. Kühne, R. Skomski, C. M. Herzinger, J. A. Woollam, M. Schubert, and E. Schubert, “THz dielectric anisotropy of metal slanted columnar thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 081903–1–3 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, M. B. Johnston, M. D. Fraser, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Polarization-sensitive terahertz detection by multicontact photoconductive receivers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 254102–1–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Compos. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, D. Romeike, C. Jansen, T. Zentgraf, K. Wiesauer, V. Reisecker, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy to study the orientation of glass fibres in reinforced plastics,” Compos. Sci. Technol.70, 472–477 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves (1)

E. Castro-Camus, “Polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves33, 418–430 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

Y.-S. Jin, G.-J. Kim, and S.-G. Jeon, “Terahertz dielectric properties of polymers,” J. Korean Phys. Soc.49, 513–517 (2006).

J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op. (1)

E. Castro-Camus and M. B. Johnston, “Extraction of the anisotropic dielectric properties of materials from polarization-resolved terahertz time-domain spectra,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op.11, 105206–1–6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Thin Solid Films (1)

T. Hofmann, C. Herzinger, J. L. Tedesco, D. Gaskill, J. Woollam, and M. Schubert, “Terahertz ellipsometry and terahertz optical-hall effect,” Thin Solid Films519, 2593–2600 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. Born, E. Wolf, and A. Bhatia, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge University Press, 7th ed, 1999).
[PubMed]

A. Redo-Sanchez, N. Karpowicz, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Damage and defect inspection with terahertz waves,” in “The 4th International Workshop on Ultrasonic and Advanced Methods for Nondestructive Testing and Material Characterization, June 19,” ( www.ndt.net , 2006), pp. 67–78.

S. Ebara, Y. Hirota, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Highly sensitive birefringence measurement in THz frequency region and its application to stress measurement,” in “32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves, IRMMW-THz 2007,” (2007), pp. 666–667.

S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Polarization sensitive imaging with pulsed thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 63–67.

M. Pfleger, S. Katletz, H. Pühringer, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, B. Heinen, M. Scheller, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, and K. Wiesauer, “Comparison of polarization-sensitive detection methods of thz radiation,” in “International THz Conference,” vol. 287 of Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, R. Leitner and T. Arnolds, eds. (2011), pp. 149–154.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the measurement setup. BS = non-polarizing infrared beam splitter, OAPM = off-axis parabolic mirror, THzBS = THz beam splitter. The light path of the infrared beam is drawn in red and that of the THz pulse in yellow.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photomicrograph of the electrode structure on the polarization sensitive antenna. The diagonal electrode acts as the common ground for the horizontal and vertical gaps. Depending on the positioning of the laser spot the detection axes (black solid and dashed lines) are tilted with regard to the horizontal and vertical axes (indicated by red lines). The thin dashed line indicates the polarization direction of the THz beam along the 45° diagonal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Time domain signal of the two channels of the PS detector during a depth scan of a birefringent sample. Birefringence in the sample distorts the second pulse reflected from the backside. (b) Dynamic range of the two channels calculated by Fourier transformation of the signals reflected from a mirror and scaled by their respective noise levels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Photograph of the injection molded GFP part. (b) Reflectance of the sample in the THz range (see text).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Determination of the minimum frequency fmin from Eq. (5) for calculating the birefringence. Points with a minimum larger than the threshold value of 1 are rejected. (b) Extraction of the amplitude in Eq. (7) for computation of the optical axis. (a) and (b) Black solid lines are measurement, the dashed line is the theoretical curve for an ideal detector (ε = 0), and solid red lines are calculated with ε = tan(18°). (c) Image of the extracted minimum frequency for the GRP sample.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Birefringence (color coded) and orientation of the slow optical axis (black arrows). (a) is obtained with the detection axes tilted by about 18°. For (b) the detection axes were nearly collinear (tilt angle 35°) but more symmetric.

Equations (7)

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( S a S b ) = S ( f ) e ι φ 0 ( f ) ( 1 ε ε 1 ) F R ( θ ) ( e ι φ 2 0 0 e ι φ 2 ) R ( θ ) F ( 1 1 ) .
S a + S b = S ˜ ( 1 + ε ) ( e ι φ 1 + e ι φ 2 ) .
φ j = φ 0 ± Δ φ 2 = φ 0 ± 2 π c 0 d Δ n f ,
A 2 : = | S a | 2 + | S b | 2 2 = | S ˜ | 2 ( ε 2 + 2 ε cos Δ φ + 1 )
| S a + S b | ( | S a | 2 + | S b | 2 ) / 2 = | S a + S b | A = 2 ( 1 + ε ) | cos Δ φ 2 | ε 2 + 2 ε cos Δ φ + 1 .
Δ φ ( f min ) = π Δ n = c 0 4 f min d .
| S a | 2 | S b | 2 | S a | 2 + | S b | 2 = | S a | 2 | S b | 2 2 A 2 = ( 1 ε 2 ) sin ( Δ φ ) ε 2 + 2 ε cos ( Δ φ ) + 1 ( sin 2 θ ) .

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