Abstract

Higher-order optical vortices are inherently unstable in the sense that they tend to split up in a series of vortices with unity charge. We demonstrate this vortex-splitting phenomenon in beams produced with holograms and spatial light modulators and discuss its generic and practically unavoidable nature. To analyze the splitting phenomena in detail, we use a multi-pinhole interferometer to map the combined amplitude and phase profile of the optical field. This technique, which is based on the analysis of the far-field interference pattern observed behind an opaque screen perforated with multiple pinholes, turns out to be very robust and can among others be used to study very ’dark’ regions of electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, the vortex splitting provides an ultra-sensitive measurement method of unwanted scattering from holograms and other phase-changing optical elements.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–81891992.
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  8. H. Di Lorenzo Pires, H. C. B. Florijn, and M. P. van Exter, “Measurement of the spiral spectrum of entangled two-photon states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 020505 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (2)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I.M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Löffler, A. Aiello, and J. P. Woerdman, “Observation of OAM sidebands due to optical reflection,” pre-print (2012), arXiv:1204.4003 (PRL, in print).

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

T. Ando, N. Matsumoto, Y. Ohtake, Y. Takiguchi, and T. Inoue, “Structure of optical singularities in coaxial superpositions of Laguerre-Gaussian modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27, 2602–2612 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Di Lorenzo Pires, H. C. B. Florijn, and M. P. van Exter, “Measurement of the spiral spectrum of entangled two-photon states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 020505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Serabyn, D. Mawet, and R. Burruss, “An image of an exoplanet separated by two diffraction beamwidths from a star,” Nature 464, 1018–1020 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

G. C. G. Berkhout and M. W. Beijersbergen, “Using a multipoint interferometer to measure the orbital angular momentum of light in astronomy,” J. Opt. A 11, 094021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Guo, S.-J. Yue, and G.-X. Wei, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of optical vortices using a multipinhole plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

V. G. Denisenko, A. Minovich, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, M. S. Soskin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Mapping phases of singular scaler light fields,” Opt. Lett. 35, 89–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Janicijevic and S. Topuzoski, “Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction of a Gaussian laser beam by fork-shaped gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 2659–2669 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. C. G. Berkhout and M. W. Beijersbergen, “Method for probing the orbital angular momentum of optical vortices in electromagnetic waves from astronomical objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 100801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

M. R. Dennis, “Rows of optical vortices from elliptically perturbing a high-order beam,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1325–1327 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O’Holleran, M. J. Padgett, and M. R. Dennis, “Topology of optical vortex lines formed by the interference of three, four, and five plane waves,” Opt. Expr. 14, 3039–3044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. ’t Hooft, “Half-integral spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” J. Opt. A 6, S228–S290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. V. Berry and M. R. Dennis, “Knotted and linked phase singularities in monochromatic waves,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 457, 2251–2263 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

M. S. Soskin, V. N. Gorshkow, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. T. Malos, and N. R. Heckenberg, “Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4064–4075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

E. G. Churin, J. Hossfeld, and T. Tschudi, “Polarization configurations with singular point former by computer generated holograms,” Opt. Commun. 99, 13–17 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Basistiy, V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optics of light beams with screw dislocations,” Opt. Commun. 103, 422–428 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Screw dislocations in light wavefronts,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 985–990 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–81891992.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, and A. G. White, “Generation of optical phase singularities by computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett. 17, 221–223 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

M. R. Sharpe and D. Irish, “Stray light in diffraction grating monochromators,” Opt. Acta 25, 861–893 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, “Dislocations in wave trains,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 336, 165–190 (1974).
[CrossRef]

’t Hooft, G. W.

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. ’t Hooft, “Half-integral spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” J. Opt. A 6, S228–S290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I.M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aiello, A.

W. Löffler, A. Aiello, and J. P. Woerdman, “Observation of OAM sidebands due to optical reflection,” pre-print (2012), arXiv:1204.4003 (PRL, in print).

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–81891992.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Allen, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Optical Angular Momentum (Taylor & Francis, 2003).

Ando, T.

Barnett, S. M.

L. Allen, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Optical Angular Momentum (Taylor & Francis, 2003).

Basistiy, I. V.

I. V. Basistiy, V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optics of light beams with screw dislocations,” Opt. Commun. 103, 422–428 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bazhenov, V. Y.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Screw dislocations in light wavefronts,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 985–990 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bazhenov, V. Yu.

I. V. Basistiy, V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optics of light beams with screw dislocations,” Opt. Commun. 103, 422–428 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

G. C. G. Berkhout and M. W. Beijersbergen, “Using a multipoint interferometer to measure the orbital angular momentum of light in astronomy,” J. Opt. A 11, 094021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. C. G. Berkhout and M. W. Beijersbergen, “Method for probing the orbital angular momentum of optical vortices in electromagnetic waves from astronomical objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 100801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–81891992.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berkhout, G. C. G.

G. C. G. Berkhout and M. W. Beijersbergen, “Using a multipoint interferometer to measure the orbital angular momentum of light in astronomy,” J. Opt. A 11, 094021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. C. G. Berkhout and M. W. Beijersbergen, “Method for probing the orbital angular momentum of optical vortices in electromagnetic waves from astronomical objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 100801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berry, M. V.

M. V. Berry and M. R. Dennis, “Knotted and linked phase singularities in monochromatic waves,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 457, 2251–2263 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, “Dislocations in wave trains,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 336, 165–190 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Burruss, R.

E. Serabyn, D. Mawet, and R. Burruss, “An image of an exoplanet separated by two diffraction beamwidths from a star,” Nature 464, 1018–1020 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Churin, E. G.

E. G. Churin, J. Hossfeld, and T. Tschudi, “Polarization configurations with singular point former by computer generated holograms,” Opt. Commun. 99, 13–17 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Denisenko, V. G.

V. G. Denisenko, A. Minovich, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, M. S. Soskin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Mapping phases of singular scaler light fields,” Opt. Lett. 35, 89–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, M. R.

K. O’Holleran, M. J. Padgett, and M. R. Dennis, “Topology of optical vortex lines formed by the interference of three, four, and five plane waves,” Opt. Expr. 14, 3039–3044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Dennis, “Rows of optical vortices from elliptically perturbing a high-order beam,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1325–1327 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Berry and M. R. Dennis, “Knotted and linked phase singularities in monochromatic waves,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 457, 2251–2263 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Dennis and J. B. Götte, “Topological aberration of optical vortex beams and singularimetry of dielectric interfaces,” pre-print (2012), arXiv:1205.6457.

Desyatnikov, A. S.

V. G. Denisenko, A. Minovich, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, M. S. Soskin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Mapping phases of singular scaler light fields,” Opt. Lett. 35, 89–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Di Lorenzo Pires, H.

H. Di Lorenzo Pires, H. C. B. Florijn, and M. P. van Exter, “Measurement of the spiral spectrum of entangled two-photon states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 020505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I.M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Eliel, E. R.

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. ’t Hooft, “Half-integral spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” J. Opt. A 6, S228–S290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fazal, I.M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I.M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Florijn, H. C. B.

H. Di Lorenzo Pires, H. C. B. Florijn, and M. P. van Exter, “Measurement of the spiral spectrum of entangled two-photon states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 020505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foo, G.

Gorshkow, V. N.

M. S. Soskin, V. N. Gorshkow, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. T. Malos, and N. R. Heckenberg, “Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4064–4075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Götte, J. B.

M. R. Dennis and J. B. Götte, “Topological aberration of optical vortex beams and singularimetry of dielectric interfaces,” pre-print (2012), arXiv:1205.6457.

Guo, C.-S.

C.-S. Guo, S.-J. Yue, and G.-X. Wei, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of optical vortices using a multipinhole plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heckenberg, N. R.

M. S. Soskin, V. N. Gorshkow, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. T. Malos, and N. R. Heckenberg, “Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4064–4075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, and A. G. White, “Generation of optical phase singularities by computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett. 17, 221–223 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hell, S.W.

Hossfeld, J.

E. G. Churin, J. Hossfeld, and T. Tschudi, “Polarization configurations with singular point former by computer generated holograms,” Opt. Commun. 99, 13–17 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I.M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, T.

Irish, D.

M. R. Sharpe and D. Irish, “Stray light in diffraction grating monochromators,” Opt. Acta 25, 861–893 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Janicijevic, L.

Keller, J.

Kivshar, Y. S.

V. G. Denisenko, A. Minovich, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, M. S. Soskin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Mapping phases of singular scaler light fields,” Opt. Lett. 35, 89–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kloosterboer, J. G.

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. ’t Hooft, “Half-integral spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” J. Opt. A 6, S228–S290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krolikowski, W.

V. G. Denisenko, A. Minovich, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, M. S. Soskin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Mapping phases of singular scaler light fields,” Opt. Lett. 35, 89–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

Löffler, W.

W. Löffler, A. Aiello, and J. P. Woerdman, “Observation of OAM sidebands due to optical reflection,” pre-print (2012), arXiv:1204.4003 (PRL, in print).

Mair, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malos, J. T.

M. S. Soskin, V. N. Gorshkow, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. T. Malos, and N. R. Heckenberg, “Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4064–4075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, N.

Mawet, D.

E. Serabyn, D. Mawet, and R. Burruss, “An image of an exoplanet separated by two diffraction beamwidths from a star,” Nature 464, 1018–1020 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDuff, R.

Minovich, A.

V. G. Denisenko, A. Minovich, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, M. S. Soskin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Mapping phases of singular scaler light fields,” Opt. Lett. 35, 89–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nye, J. F.

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, “Dislocations in wave trains,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 336, 165–190 (1974).
[CrossRef]

O’Holleran, K.

K. O’Holleran, M. J. Padgett, and M. R. Dennis, “Topology of optical vortex lines formed by the interference of three, four, and five plane waves,” Opt. Expr. 14, 3039–3044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oemrawsingh, S. S. R.

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. ’t Hooft, “Half-integral spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” J. Opt. A 6, S228–S290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohtake, Y.

Padgett, M. J.

K. O’Holleran, M. J. Padgett, and M. R. Dennis, “Topology of optical vortex lines formed by the interference of three, four, and five plane waves,” Opt. Expr. 14, 3039–3044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Optical Angular Momentum (Taylor & Francis, 2003).

Palacios, D. M.

Ren, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I.M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schönle, A.

Serabyn, E.

E. Serabyn, D. Mawet, and R. Burruss, “An image of an exoplanet separated by two diffraction beamwidths from a star,” Nature 464, 1018–1020 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharpe, M. R.

M. R. Sharpe and D. Irish, “Stray light in diffraction grating monochromators,” Opt. Acta 25, 861–893 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R. P.

Smith, C. P.

Soskin, M. S.

V. G. Denisenko, A. Minovich, A. S. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, M. S. Soskin, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Mapping phases of singular scaler light fields,” Opt. Lett. 35, 89–91 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Soskin, V. N. Gorshkow, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. T. Malos, and N. R. Heckenberg, “Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4064–4075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Basistiy, V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optics of light beams with screw dislocations,” Opt. Commun. 103, 422–428 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Screw dislocations in light wavefronts,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 985–990 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–81891992.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swartzlander, G. A.

Takiguchi, Y.

Topuzoski, S.

Torner, L.

J. P. Torres and L. Torner, Twisted Photons (John Wiley, 2011).

Torres, J. P.

J. P. Torres and L. Torner, Twisted Photons (John Wiley, 2011).

Tschudi, T.

E. G. Churin, J. Hossfeld, and T. Tschudi, “Polarization configurations with singular point former by computer generated holograms,” Opt. Commun. 99, 13–17 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I.M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vaity, P.

van Exter, M. P.

H. Di Lorenzo Pires, H. C. B. Florijn, and M. P. van Exter, “Measurement of the spiral spectrum of entangled two-photon states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 020505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Houwelingen, J. A. W.

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. ’t Hooft, “Half-integral spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” J. Opt. A 6, S228–S290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vasnetsov, M. V.

M. S. Soskin, V. N. Gorshkow, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. T. Malos, and N. R. Heckenberg, “Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4064–4075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Basistiy, V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optics of light beams with screw dislocations,” Opt. Commun. 103, 422–428 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Screw dislocations in light wavefronts,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 985–990 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vaziri, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verstegen, E. J. K.

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. ’t Hooft, “Half-integral spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” J. Opt. A 6, S228–S290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I.M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, G.-X.

C.-S. Guo, S.-J. Yue, and G.-X. Wei, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of optical vortices using a multipinhole plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weihs, G.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, A. G.

Willner, A. E.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I.M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

W. Löffler, A. Aiello, and J. P. Woerdman, “Observation of OAM sidebands due to optical reflection,” pre-print (2012), arXiv:1204.4003 (PRL, in print).

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. ’t Hooft, “Half-integral spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” J. Opt. A 6, S228–S290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–81891992.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I.M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.-Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I.M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yue, S.-J.

C.-S. Guo, S.-J. Yue, and G.-X. Wei, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of optical vortices using a multipinhole plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yue, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I.M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C.-S. Guo, S.-J. Yue, and G.-X. Wei, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of optical vortices using a multipinhole plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 231104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Screw dislocations in light wavefronts,” J. Mod. Opt. 39, 985–990 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (2)

S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, E. R. Eliel, J. P. Woerdman, E. J. K. Verstegen, J. G. Kloosterboer, and G. W. ’t Hooft, “Half-integral spiral phase plates for optical wavelengths,” J. Opt. A 6, S228–S290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. C. G. Berkhout and M. W. Beijersbergen, “Using a multipoint interferometer to measure the orbital angular momentum of light in astronomy,” J. Opt. A 11, 094021 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I.M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Serabyn, D. Mawet, and R. Burruss, “An image of an exoplanet separated by two diffraction beamwidths from a star,” Nature 464, 1018–1020 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Acta (1)

M. R. Sharpe and D. Irish, “Stray light in diffraction grating monochromators,” Opt. Acta 25, 861–893 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

E. G. Churin, J. Hossfeld, and T. Tschudi, “Polarization configurations with singular point former by computer generated holograms,” Opt. Commun. 99, 13–17 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Basistiy, V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optics of light beams with screw dislocations,” Opt. Commun. 103, 422–428 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Expr. (1)

K. O’Holleran, M. J. Padgett, and M. R. Dennis, “Topology of optical vortex lines formed by the interference of three, four, and five plane waves,” Opt. Expr. 14, 3039–3044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

M. S. Soskin, V. N. Gorshkow, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. T. Malos, and N. R. Heckenberg, “Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 4064–4075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–81891992.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H. Di Lorenzo Pires, H. C. B. Florijn, and M. P. van Exter, “Measurement of the spiral spectrum of entangled two-photon states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 020505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. G. Berkhout and M. W. Beijersbergen, “Method for probing the orbital angular momentum of optical vortices in electromagnetic waves from astronomical objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 100801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (2)

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, “Dislocations in wave trains,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 336, 165–190 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Berry and M. R. Dennis, “Knotted and linked phase singularities in monochromatic waves,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 457, 2251–2263 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

L. Allen, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Optical Angular Momentum (Taylor & Francis, 2003).

J. P. Torres and L. Torner, Twisted Photons (John Wiley, 2011).

M. R. Dennis and J. B. Götte, “Topological aberration of optical vortex beams and singularimetry of dielectric interfaces,” pre-print (2012), arXiv:1205.6457.

W. Löffler, A. Aiello, and J. P. Woerdman, “Observation of OAM sidebands due to optical reflection,” pre-print (2012), arXiv:1204.4003 (PRL, in print).

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