Abstract

A terahertz (THz) beam steering method is demonstrated by applying the characteristic of grating lobe (GL) radiation from a linear array antenna and the interference of femtosecond optical pulses. A photoconductive device is illuminated by two femtosecond laser beams combined at an angle of less than 0.5°. Considering the interference pattern as a THz point source array, THz GL radiation is generated through the superposition of radiation emitted from all point sources and steered by varying the interval of the interference pattern. The THz beam direction could be changed by 20° at 0.93THz by varying the relative incidence angle of the pump beams by 0.033°.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2549–2554 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Oda, “Uncooled bolometer-type terahertz focal plane array and camera for real-time imaging,” C. R. Phys. 11(7-8), 496–509 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of movingobjects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Recur, A. Younus, S. Salort, P. Mounaix, B. Chassagne, P. Desbarats, J.-P. Caumes, and E. Abraham, “Investigation on reconstruction methods applied to 3D terahertz computed tomography,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5105–5117 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Martin Koch, “Terahertz Communications: A 2020 vision,” in Terahertz Frequency Detection and Identification of Materials and Objects, R. E. Miles, X. -C. Zhang, H. Eisele and A. Krotkus, ed. (Springer 2007).
  9. H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid- state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2291–2301 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Maki and C. Otani, “Terahertz beam steering and frequency tuning by using the spatial dispersion of ultrafast laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10158–10169 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Tani, S. Matsuura, K. Sakai, and S. Nakashima, “Emission characteristics of photoconductive antennas based on low-temperature-grown GaAs and semi-insulating GaAs,” Appl. Opt. 36(30), 7853–7859 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, “Electrooptical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 184–197 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Ahn, A. V. Efimov, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “Terahertz waveform synthesis via optical rectification of shaped ultrafast laser pulses,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2486–2496 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

N. Oda, “Uncooled bolometer-type terahertz focal plane array and camera for real-time imaging,” C. R. Phys. 11(7-8), 496–509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid- state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Maki and C. Otani, “Terahertz beam steering and frequency tuning by using the spatial dispersion of ultrafast laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10158–10169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of movingobjects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, “Electrooptical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 184–197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, E.

Ahn, J.

Araki, T.

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of movingobjects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, “Electrooptical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 184–197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid- state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ahn, A. V. Efimov, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “Terahertz waveform synthesis via optical rectification of shaped ultrafast laser pulses,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2486–2496 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid- state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Caumes, J.-P.

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chassagne, B.

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid- state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cich, M. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid- state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deibel, J.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Desbarats, P.

Duling, I. N.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, A. V.

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Froberg, N. M.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

Jackson, J. B.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

Maki, K.

Matsuura, S.

Menu, M.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mounaix, P.

Mourou, G. A.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, M.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakashima, S.

Nuss, M. C.

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, “Electrooptical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 184–197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Oda, N.

N. Oda, “Uncooled bolometer-type terahertz focal plane array and camera for real-time imaging,” C. R. Phys. 11(7-8), 496–509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, Y.

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Otani, C.

Padilla, W. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid- state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Recur, B.

Sakai, K.

Salort, S.

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

Taylor, A. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid- state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ahn, A. V. Efimov, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “Terahertz waveform synthesis via optical rectification of shaped ultrafast laser pulses,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2486–2496 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, Y.

Whitaker, J. F.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, S. L.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, T.

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of movingobjects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yasui, T.

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of movingobjects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Younus, A.

Zhang, X.-C.

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zimdars, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

C. R. Phys. (1)

N. Oda, “Uncooled bolometer-type terahertz focal plane array and camera for real-time imaging,” C. R. Phys. 11(7-8), 496–509 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

N. M. Froberg, B. B. Hu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Terahertz radiation from a photoconducting antenna array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2291–2301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, “Electrooptical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 184–197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, M. J. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid- state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, “Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of movingobjects,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 128–136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(7), S266–S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Martin Koch, “Terahertz Communications: A 2020 vision,” in Terahertz Frequency Detection and Identification of Materials and Objects, R. E. Miles, X. -C. Zhang, H. Eisele and A. Krotkus, ed. (Springer 2007).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Linear array antenna and (b) calculated radiation pattern from 10 omnidirectional antenna elements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Generation method of THz GL radiation and (b) geometric relation between the incidence angle interference period of the two pump beams and emission direction of THz GL radiation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The beam profile of the pump beam measured by a CCD at the angle of 0.25° between two pump beams and (b) the transverse pump intensity profile around the center position.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal waveforms of the THz radiation for three different incidence angles of one pump beam at the detection angle of 40°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The measured (symbol) and calculated (line) power of THz radiation at 0.93THz versus incidence angle of one pump beam and (b) radiation pattern of THz radiation generated by converting the incidence angle into the THz radiation angle in Fig. 6(a).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The relation between the incidence angle of one pump beam and the THz radiation angle at the frequencies of 0.73 and 0.93THz.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

sinθ= nλ d
d= λ P sin θ P
sin θ T = λ T λ P sin θ P
λ T d = n Si sin θ Si cos( θ Si θ Tin ) sin( θ Si θ Tout )[ cos θ Si +sin θ Si tan( θ Si θ Tin ) ]

Metrics