Abstract

We present a method to map the absolute electromagnetic field strength inside photonic crystals. We apply the method to map the dominant electric field component Ez of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab at microwave frequencies. The slab is placed between two mirrors to select Bloch standing waves and a subwavelength spherical scatterer is scanned inside the resulting resonator. The resonant Bloch frequencies shift depending on the electric field at the position of the scatterer. To map the electric field component Ez we measure the frequency shift in the reflection and transmission spectrum of the slab versus the scatterer position. Very good agreement is found between measurements and calculations without any adjustable parameters.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

M. Esslinger, J. Dorfmüller, W. Khunsin, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Background-free imaging of plasmonic structures with cross-polarized apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033704 (2012).

2011 (7)

J. Dahdah, M. Pilar-Bernal, N. Courjal, G. Ulliac, and F. Baida, “Near-field observations of light confinement in a two dimensional lithium niobate photonic crystal cavity,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 074318 (2011).

M. R. Jorgensen, J. W. Galusha, and M. H. Bart, “Strongly modified spontaneous emission rates in Diamond-structured photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 143902 (2011).

M. D. Leistikow, A. P. Mosk, E. Yeganegi, S. R. Huisman, A. Lagendijk, and W. L. Vos, “Inhibited spontaneous emission of quantum dots observed in a 3D photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 193903 (2011).

M. Frimmer, Y. Chen, and A. F. Koenderink, “Scanning emitter lifetime imaging microscopy for spontaneous emission control,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 123602 (2011).

R. A. Marsh, M. A. Shapiro, R. J. Temkin, V. A. Dolgashev, L. L. Laurent, J. R. Lewandowski, A. D. Yeremian, and S. G. Tantawi, “X-band photonic band-gap accelerator structure breakdown experiment,” Phys. Rev. STAB 14, 021301 (2011).

H. K. Park, J. R. Oh, and Y. R. Do, “2D SiNx photonic crystal coated Y3Al5O12 : Ce3+ ceramic plate phosphor for high-power white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19, 25593–25601 (2011).

D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, “Optical-force-induced artifacts in scanning probe microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4758–4760 (2011).

2010 (4)

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. Garcia, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes,” Science 327, 1352–1355 (2010).

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).

U. K. Khankhoje, S. - H. Kim, B. C. Richards, J. Hendrickson, J. Sweet, J. D. Olitzky, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, and A. Scherer, “Modelling and fabrication of GaAs photonic-crystal cavities for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Nanotechnology 21, 065202 (2010).

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10, 3524–3528 (2010).

2009 (3)

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163102 (2009).

D. - H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, and E. T. Samulski, “Photonic crystal geometry for organic solar cells,” Nano Lett. 9, 2742–2746 (2009).

A. Rodenas, G. Zhou, D. Jaque, and M. Gu, “Rare-earth spontaneous emission control in three-dimensional lithium niobate photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3526–3530 (2009).

2007 (4)

M. Florescu, H. Lee, I. Puscasu, M. Pralle, L. Florescu, D. Z. Ting, and J. P. Dowling, “Improving solar cell efficiency using photonic band-gap materials,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 1599–1610 (2007).

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).

K. Nozaki, S. Kita, and T. Baba, “Room temperature continuous wave operation and controlled spontaneous emission in ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser,” Opt. Express 15, 7506–7514 (2007).

M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, J. H. Kang, J. W. Lee, S. C. Jeoung, Q. H. Park, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, “Fourier-transform terahertz near-field imaging of one-dimensional slit arrays: mapping of electric-field-, magnetic-field-, and Poynting vectors,” Opt. Express 15, 11781–11789 (2007).

2006 (4)

M. Abashin, P. Tortora, I. Märki, U. Levy, W. Nakagawa, L. Vaccaro, H. Herzig, and Y. Fainman, “Near-field characterization of propagating optical modes in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 14, 1643–1657 (2006).

D. Englund and J. Vuckovic, “Direct analysis of photonic nanostructures,” Opt. Express,  14, 3472–3483 (2006).

H. - H. Tao, R. - J. Liu, Z. - Y. Li, S. Feng, Y. - Z. Liu, C. Ren, B. - Y. Cheng, D. - Z. Zhang, H. - Q. Ma, L. - A. Wu, and Z. - B. Zhang, “Mapping of complex optical field patterns in multimode photonic crystal waveguides by near field scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205111 (2006).

H. Altug, D. Englund, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultrafast photonic crystal nanocavity laser,” Nature Phys. 2, 484–488 (2006).

2005 (4)

2004 (4)

P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgang, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).

H.- G. Park, S. - H. Kim, S. - H. Kwon, Y. - G. Ju, J. - K. Yang, J. - H. Baek, S. - B. Kim, and Y. - H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305, 1444–1447 (2004).

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gösele, and V. Sandoghdar, “Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).

2003 (2)

L. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, Y. Qiu, and P. Gogna, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy of photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676–1678 (2003).

E. Flück, N. F. van Hulst, W. L. Vos, and L. Kuipers, “Near-field optical investigation of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 015601 (2003).

2002 (2)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, J. Arentoft, A. Boltasseva, T. Sondergaard, and M. Kristensen, “Direct mapping of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 212, 51–55 (2002).

M. Kageshima, H. Jensenius, M. Dienwiebel, Y. Nakayama, H. Tokumoto, S. P. Jarvis, and T. H. Oosterkamp, “Noncontact atomic force microscopy in liquid environment with quartz tuning fork and carbon nanotube probe,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 188, 440–444 (2002).

2001 (1)

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Tracking femtosecond laser pulses in space and time” Science 294, 1080–1082 (2001).

2000 (1)

M. Labardi, S. Patane, and M. Allegrini, “Artifact-free near-field optical imaging by apertureless microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621–623 (2000).

1999 (2)

P. J. Valle, J. - J. Greffet, and R. Carminati, “Optical contrast, topographic contrast and artifacts in illumination-mode scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 648–656 (1999).

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).

1997 (3)

K. D. Weston and S. K. Buratto, “A reflection near-field scanning optical microscope technique for subwavelength resolution imaging of thin organic films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 5684–5691 (1997).

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. - J. Greffet, “Optical content and resolution of near-field optical images: Influence of the operating mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501–509 (1997).

1996 (1)

R. Sprik, B. A. van Tiggelen, and A. Lagendijk, “Optical emission in periodic dielectrics,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 265–270 (1996).

1992 (1)

H. Guo, Y. Carmel, W. R. Lou, L. Chen, J. Rodgers, D. K. Abe, A. Bromborsky, W. Destler, and V. Granatstein, “A novel highly accurate synthetic technique for determination of the dispersive characteristics in periodic slow wave circuits,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 40, 2086–2094 (1992).

1987 (2)

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486–2489 (1987).

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).

1952 (1)

L. C. Maier and J. C. Slater, “Field strength measurements in resonant cavities,” J. Appl. Phys., 23, 68–77 (1952).

Abashin, M.

Abe, D. K.

H. Guo, Y. Carmel, W. R. Lou, L. Chen, J. Rodgers, D. K. Abe, A. Bromborsky, W. Destler, and V. Granatstein, “A novel highly accurate synthetic technique for determination of the dispersive characteristics in periodic slow wave circuits,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 40, 2086–2094 (1992).

Adam, A. J. L.

Agio, M.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gösele, and V. Sandoghdar, “Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).

Aizpurua, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10, 3524–3528 (2010).

Alkorta, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10, 3524–3528 (2010).

Allegrini, M.

M. Labardi, S. Patane, and M. Allegrini, “Artifact-free near-field optical imaging by apertureless microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621–623 (2000).

Altug, H.

H. Altug, D. Englund, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultrafast photonic crystal nanocavity laser,” Nature Phys. 2, 484–488 (2006).

Arentoft, J.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, J. Arentoft, A. Boltasseva, T. Sondergaard, and M. Kristensen, “Direct mapping of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 212, 51–55 (2002).

Asano, T.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308, 1296–1298 (2005).

Ashcroft, N. W.

N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics (Holt, Rinehard & Winston, 1976).

Baba, T.

Baek, J. - H.

H.- G. Park, S. - H. Kim, S. - H. Kwon, Y. - G. Ju, J. - K. Yang, J. - H. Baek, S. - B. Kim, and Y. - H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305, 1444–1447 (2004).

Baida, F.

J. Dahdah, M. Pilar-Bernal, N. Courjal, G. Ulliac, and F. Baida, “Near-field observations of light confinement in a two dimensional lithium niobate photonic crystal cavity,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 074318 (2011).

Balet, L.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163102 (2009).

Balistreri, M. L. M.

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Tracking femtosecond laser pulses in space and time” Science 294, 1080–1082 (2001).

Bart, M. H.

M. R. Jorgensen, J. W. Galusha, and M. H. Bart, “Strongly modified spontaneous emission rates in Diamond-structured photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 143902 (2011).

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).

Bielefeldt, H.

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Kramper, P.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gösele, and V. Sandoghdar, “Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).

Kristensen, M.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, J. Arentoft, A. Boltasseva, T. Sondergaard, and M. Kristensen, “Direct mapping of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 212, 51–55 (2002).

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E. Flück, N. F. van Hulst, W. L. Vos, and L. Kuipers, “Near-field optical investigation of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 015601 (2003).

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Tracking femtosecond laser pulses in space and time” Science 294, 1080–1082 (2001).

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H.- G. Park, S. - H. Kim, S. - H. Kwon, Y. - G. Ju, J. - K. Yang, J. - H. Baek, S. - B. Kim, and Y. - H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305, 1444–1447 (2004).

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M. Labardi, S. Patane, and M. Allegrini, “Artifact-free near-field optical imaging by apertureless microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621–623 (2000).

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M. D. Leistikow, A. P. Mosk, E. Yeganegi, S. R. Huisman, A. Lagendijk, and W. L. Vos, “Inhibited spontaneous emission of quantum dots observed in a 3D photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 193903 (2011).

R. Sprik, B. A. van Tiggelen, and A. Lagendijk, “Optical emission in periodic dielectrics,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 265–270 (1996).

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R. A. Marsh, M. A. Shapiro, R. J. Temkin, V. A. Dolgashev, L. L. Laurent, J. R. Lewandowski, A. D. Yeremian, and S. G. Tantawi, “X-band photonic band-gap accelerator structure breakdown experiment,” Phys. Rev. STAB 14, 021301 (2011).

Lee, B.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).

Lee, H.

M. Florescu, H. Lee, I. Puscasu, M. Pralle, L. Florescu, D. Z. Ting, and J. P. Dowling, “Improving solar cell efficiency using photonic band-gap materials,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 1599–1610 (2007).

Lee, J. W.

Lee, K. G.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).

Lee, R. K.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).

Lee, Y. - H.

H.- G. Park, S. - H. Kim, S. - H. Kwon, Y. - G. Ju, J. - K. Yang, J. - H. Baek, S. - B. Kim, and Y. - H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305, 1444–1447 (2004).

Leistikow, M. D.

M. D. Leistikow, A. P. Mosk, E. Yeganegi, S. R. Huisman, A. Lagendijk, and W. L. Vos, “Inhibited spontaneous emission of quantum dots observed in a 3D photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 193903 (2011).

Levy, U.

Lewandowski, J. R.

R. A. Marsh, M. A. Shapiro, R. J. Temkin, V. A. Dolgashev, L. L. Laurent, J. R. Lewandowski, A. D. Yeremian, and S. G. Tantawi, “X-band photonic band-gap accelerator structure breakdown experiment,” Phys. Rev. STAB 14, 021301 (2011).

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S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163102 (2009).

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H. - H. Tao, R. - J. Liu, Z. - Y. Li, S. Feng, Y. - Z. Liu, C. Ren, B. - Y. Cheng, D. - Z. Zhang, H. - Q. Ma, L. - A. Wu, and Z. - B. Zhang, “Mapping of complex optical field patterns in multimode photonic crystal waveguides by near field scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205111 (2006).

Lienau, C.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).

Liu, R. - J.

H. - H. Tao, R. - J. Liu, Z. - Y. Li, S. Feng, Y. - Z. Liu, C. Ren, B. - Y. Cheng, D. - Z. Zhang, H. - Q. Ma, L. - A. Wu, and Z. - B. Zhang, “Mapping of complex optical field patterns in multimode photonic crystal waveguides by near field scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205111 (2006).

Liu, Y. - Z.

H. - H. Tao, R. - J. Liu, Z. - Y. Li, S. Feng, Y. - Z. Liu, C. Ren, B. - Y. Cheng, D. - Z. Zhang, H. - Q. Ma, L. - A. Wu, and Z. - B. Zhang, “Mapping of complex optical field patterns in multimode photonic crystal waveguides by near field scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205111 (2006).

Lodahl, P.

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. Garcia, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes,” Science 327, 1352–1355 (2010).

P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgang, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).

Loncar, M.

L. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, Y. Qiu, and P. Gogna, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy of photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676–1678 (2003).

Lopez, R.

D. - H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, and E. T. Samulski, “Photonic crystal geometry for organic solar cells,” Nano Lett. 9, 2742–2746 (2009).

Lou, W. R.

H. Guo, Y. Carmel, W. R. Lou, L. Chen, J. Rodgers, D. K. Abe, A. Bromborsky, W. Destler, and V. Granatstein, “A novel highly accurate synthetic technique for determination of the dispersive characteristics in periodic slow wave circuits,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 40, 2086–2094 (1992).

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H. - H. Tao, R. - J. Liu, Z. - Y. Li, S. Feng, Y. - Z. Liu, C. Ren, B. - Y. Cheng, D. - Z. Zhang, H. - Q. Ma, L. - A. Wu, and Z. - B. Zhang, “Mapping of complex optical field patterns in multimode photonic crystal waveguides by near field scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205111 (2006).

Madrazo, A.

R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. - J. Greffet, “Optical content and resolution of near-field optical images: Influence of the operating mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501–509 (1997).

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L. C. Maier and J. C. Slater, “Field strength measurements in resonant cavities,” J. Appl. Phys., 23, 68–77 (1952).

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Marsh, R. A.

R. A. Marsh, M. A. Shapiro, R. J. Temkin, V. A. Dolgashev, L. L. Laurent, J. R. Lewandowski, A. D. Yeremian, and S. G. Tantawi, “X-band photonic band-gap accelerator structure breakdown experiment,” Phys. Rev. STAB 14, 021301 (2011).

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J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, 2008).

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M. D. Leistikow, A. P. Mosk, E. Yeganegi, S. R. Huisman, A. Lagendijk, and W. L. Vos, “Inhibited spontaneous emission of quantum dots observed in a 3D photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 193903 (2011).

Müller, F.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gösele, and V. Sandoghdar, “Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).

Nakagawa, W.

Nakayama, Y.

M. Kageshima, H. Jensenius, M. Dienwiebel, Y. Nakayama, H. Tokumoto, S. P. Jarvis, and T. H. Oosterkamp, “Noncontact atomic force microscopy in liquid environment with quartz tuning fork and carbon nanotube probe,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 188, 440–444 (2002).

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R. Carminati, A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. - J. Greffet, “Optical content and resolution of near-field optical images: Influence of the operating mode,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 501–509 (1997).

Nikolaev, I. S.

P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgang, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).

Noda, S.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308, 1296–1298 (2005).

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B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).

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O’Brien, J. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).

Oh, J. R.

Okamoto, L.

L. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, Y. Qiu, and P. Gogna, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy of photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676–1678 (2003).

Olitzky, J. D.

U. K. Khankhoje, S. - H. Kim, B. C. Richards, J. Hendrickson, J. Sweet, J. D. Olitzky, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, and A. Scherer, “Modelling and fabrication of GaAs photonic-crystal cavities for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Nanotechnology 21, 065202 (2010).

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M. Kageshima, H. Jensenius, M. Dienwiebel, Y. Nakayama, H. Tokumoto, S. P. Jarvis, and T. H. Oosterkamp, “Noncontact atomic force microscopy in liquid environment with quartz tuning fork and carbon nanotube probe,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 188, 440–444 (2002).

Oskooi, A. F.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).

Overgang, K.

P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgang, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).

Ozbay, E.

Painter, O.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).

Park, D. J.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).

Park, H.- G.

H.- G. Park, S. - H. Kim, S. - H. Kwon, Y. - G. Ju, J. - K. Yang, J. - H. Baek, S. - B. Kim, and Y. - H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305, 1444–1447 (2004).

Park, H. K.

Park, Q. H.

M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, J. H. Kang, J. W. Lee, S. C. Jeoung, Q. H. Park, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, “Fourier-transform terahertz near-field imaging of one-dimensional slit arrays: mapping of electric-field-, magnetic-field-, and Poynting vectors,” Opt. Express 15, 11781–11789 (2007).

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).

Patane, S.

M. Labardi, S. Patane, and M. Allegrini, “Artifact-free near-field optical imaging by apertureless microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621–623 (2000).

Pilar-Bernal, M.

J. Dahdah, M. Pilar-Bernal, N. Courjal, G. Ulliac, and F. Baida, “Near-field observations of light confinement in a two dimensional lithium niobate photonic crystal cavity,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 074318 (2011).

Planken, P. C. M.

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).

Pralle, M.

M. Florescu, H. Lee, I. Puscasu, M. Pralle, L. Florescu, D. Z. Ting, and J. P. Dowling, “Improving solar cell efficiency using photonic band-gap materials,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 1599–1610 (2007).

Puscasu, I.

M. Florescu, H. Lee, I. Puscasu, M. Pralle, L. Florescu, D. Z. Ting, and J. P. Dowling, “Improving solar cell efficiency using photonic band-gap materials,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 1599–1610 (2007).

Qiu, Y.

L. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, Y. Qiu, and P. Gogna, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy of photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676–1678 (2003).

Ren, C.

H. - H. Tao, R. - J. Liu, Z. - Y. Li, S. Feng, Y. - Z. Liu, C. Ren, B. - Y. Cheng, D. - Z. Zhang, H. - Q. Ma, L. - A. Wu, and Z. - B. Zhang, “Mapping of complex optical field patterns in multimode photonic crystal waveguides by near field scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205111 (2006).

Riboli, F.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163102 (2009).

Richards, B. C.

U. K. Khankhoje, S. - H. Kim, B. C. Richards, J. Hendrickson, J. Sweet, J. D. Olitzky, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, and A. Scherer, “Modelling and fabrication of GaAs photonic-crystal cavities for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Nanotechnology 21, 065202 (2010).

Rodenas, A.

A. Rodenas, G. Zhou, D. Jaque, and M. Gu, “Rare-earth spontaneous emission control in three-dimensional lithium niobate photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3526–3530 (2009).

Rodgers, J.

H. Guo, Y. Carmel, W. R. Lou, L. Chen, J. Rodgers, D. K. Abe, A. Bromborsky, W. Destler, and V. Granatstein, “A novel highly accurate synthetic technique for determination of the dispersive characteristics in periodic slow wave circuits,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 40, 2086–2094 (1992).

Ropers, C.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).

Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).

Rupper, G.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).

Samulski, E. T.

D. - H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, and E. T. Samulski, “Photonic crystal geometry for organic solar cells,” Nano Lett. 9, 2742–2746 (2009).

Sandoghdar, V.

A. F. Koenderink, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and V. Sandoghdar, “Spontaneous emission in the near-field of two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3210–3212 (2005).

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gösele, and V. Sandoghdar, “Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).

Sapienza, L.

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. Garcia, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes,” Science 327, 1352–1355 (2010).

Scherer, A.

U. K. Khankhoje, S. - H. Kim, B. C. Richards, J. Hendrickson, J. Sweet, J. D. Olitzky, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, and A. Scherer, “Modelling and fabrication of GaAs photonic-crystal cavities for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Nanotechnology 21, 065202 (2010).

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).

L. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, Y. Qiu, and P. Gogna, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy of photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676–1678 (2003).

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).

Schnell, M.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10, 3524–3528 (2010).

Seo, M. A.

Shapiro, M. A.

R. A. Marsh, M. A. Shapiro, R. J. Temkin, V. A. Dolgashev, L. L. Laurent, J. R. Lewandowski, A. D. Yeremian, and S. G. Tantawi, “X-band photonic band-gap accelerator structure breakdown experiment,” Phys. Rev. STAB 14, 021301 (2011).

Shchekin, O. B.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).

Slater, J. C.

L. C. Maier and J. C. Slater, “Field strength measurements in resonant cavities,” J. Appl. Phys., 23, 68–77 (1952).

Smolka, S.

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. Garcia, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes,” Science 327, 1352–1355 (2010).

Sondergaard, T.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, J. Arentoft, A. Boltasseva, T. Sondergaard, and M. Kristensen, “Direct mapping of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 212, 51–55 (2002).

Soukoulis, C. M.

A. F. Koenderink, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and V. Sandoghdar, “Spontaneous emission in the near-field of two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3210–3212 (2005).

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gösele, and V. Sandoghdar, “Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).

Sprik, R.

R. Sprik, B. A. van Tiggelen, and A. Lagendijk, “Optical emission in periodic dielectrics,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 265–270 (1996).

Stobbe, S.

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. Garcia, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes,” Science 327, 1352–1355 (2010).

Sukhov, S.

Sweet, J.

U. K. Khankhoje, S. - H. Kim, B. C. Richards, J. Hendrickson, J. Sweet, J. D. Olitzky, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, and A. Scherer, “Modelling and fabrication of GaAs photonic-crystal cavities for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Nanotechnology 21, 065202 (2010).

Takahashi, S.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308, 1296–1298 (2005).

Tanaka, Y.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308, 1296–1298 (2005).

Tantawi, S. G.

R. A. Marsh, M. A. Shapiro, R. J. Temkin, V. A. Dolgashev, L. L. Laurent, J. R. Lewandowski, A. D. Yeremian, and S. G. Tantawi, “X-band photonic band-gap accelerator structure breakdown experiment,” Phys. Rev. STAB 14, 021301 (2011).

Tao, H. - H.

H. - H. Tao, R. - J. Liu, Z. - Y. Li, S. Feng, Y. - Z. Liu, C. Ren, B. - Y. Cheng, D. - Z. Zhang, H. - Q. Ma, L. - A. Wu, and Z. - B. Zhang, “Mapping of complex optical field patterns in multimode photonic crystal waveguides by near field scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205111 (2006).

Temkin, R. J.

R. A. Marsh, M. A. Shapiro, R. J. Temkin, V. A. Dolgashev, L. L. Laurent, J. R. Lewandowski, A. D. Yeremian, and S. G. Tantawi, “X-band photonic band-gap accelerator structure breakdown experiment,” Phys. Rev. STAB 14, 021301 (2011).

Thyrrestrup, H.

L. Sapienza, H. Thyrrestrup, S. Stobbe, P. D. Garcia, S. Smolka, and P. Lodahl, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes,” Science 327, 1352–1355 (2010).

Ting, D. Z.

M. Florescu, H. Lee, I. Puscasu, M. Pralle, L. Florescu, D. Z. Ting, and J. P. Dowling, “Improving solar cell efficiency using photonic band-gap materials,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 1599–1610 (2007).

Tokumoto, H.

M. Kageshima, H. Jensenius, M. Dienwiebel, Y. Nakayama, H. Tokumoto, S. P. Jarvis, and T. H. Oosterkamp, “Noncontact atomic force microscopy in liquid environment with quartz tuning fork and carbon nanotube probe,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 188, 440–444 (2002).

Tortora, P.

Tumbleston, J. R.

D. - H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, and E. T. Samulski, “Photonic crystal geometry for organic solar cells,” Nano Lett. 9, 2742–2746 (2009).

Ulliac, G.

J. Dahdah, M. Pilar-Bernal, N. Courjal, G. Ulliac, and F. Baida, “Near-field observations of light confinement in a two dimensional lithium niobate photonic crystal cavity,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 074318 (2011).

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P. J. Valle, J. - J. Greffet, and R. Carminati, “Optical contrast, topographic contrast and artifacts in illumination-mode scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 648–656 (1999).

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P. J. M. van der Slot, T. Denis, and K. - J. Boller, “The photonic FEL: toward a handheld THz FEL,” in Proc. of the FEL 2008, V. Schaa, ed. (JACoW, 2008), pp. 231–234.

T. Denis, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K. - J. Boller, “Experimental design of a single beam photonic free-electron laser,” in Proc. of the FEL 2009, S. Waller, ed. (JACoW, 2009), pp. 431–434.

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P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgang, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).

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E. Flück, N. F. van Hulst, W. L. Vos, and L. Kuipers, “Near-field optical investigation of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 015601 (2003).

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Tracking femtosecond laser pulses in space and time” Science 294, 1080–1082 (2001).

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P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgang, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).

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S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163102 (2009).

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M. Esslinger, J. Dorfmüller, W. Khunsin, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Background-free imaging of plasmonic structures with cross-polarized apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033704 (2012).

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S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, J. Arentoft, A. Boltasseva, T. Sondergaard, and M. Kristensen, “Direct mapping of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 212, 51–55 (2002).

Vos, W. L.

M. D. Leistikow, A. P. Mosk, E. Yeganegi, S. R. Huisman, A. Lagendijk, and W. L. Vos, “Inhibited spontaneous emission of quantum dots observed in a 3D photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 193903 (2011).

A. F. Koenderink and W. L. Vos, “Optical properties of real photonic crystals: anomalous diffuse transmission,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1075–1084 (2005).

P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgang, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).

E. Flück, N. F. van Hulst, W. L. Vos, and L. Kuipers, “Near-field optical investigation of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 015601 (2003).

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D. Englund and J. Vuckovic, “Direct analysis of photonic nanostructures,” Opt. Express,  14, 3472–3483 (2006).

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P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gösele, and V. Sandoghdar, “Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).

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K. D. Weston and S. K. Buratto, “A reflection near-field scanning optical microscope technique for subwavelength resolution imaging of thin organic films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 5684–5691 (1997).

Wiersma, D. S.

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163102 (2009).

Williams, S.

D. - H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, and E. T. Samulski, “Photonic crystal geometry for organic solar cells,” Nano Lett. 9, 2742–2746 (2009).

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, 2008).

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K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).

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H. - H. Tao, R. - J. Liu, Z. - Y. Li, S. Feng, Y. - Z. Liu, C. Ren, B. - Y. Cheng, D. - Z. Zhang, H. - Q. Ma, L. - A. Wu, and Z. - B. Zhang, “Mapping of complex optical field patterns in multimode photonic crystal waveguides by near field scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205111 (2006).

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Yariv, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).

Yeganegi, E.

M. D. Leistikow, A. P. Mosk, E. Yeganegi, S. R. Huisman, A. Lagendijk, and W. L. Vos, “Inhibited spontaneous emission of quantum dots observed in a 3D photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 193903 (2011).

Yeremian, A. D.

R. A. Marsh, M. A. Shapiro, R. J. Temkin, V. A. Dolgashev, L. L. Laurent, J. R. Lewandowski, A. D. Yeremian, and S. G. Tantawi, “X-band photonic band-gap accelerator structure breakdown experiment,” Phys. Rev. STAB 14, 021301 (2011).

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K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).

Yoshie, T.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).

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Zhang, L.

D. - H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, and E. T. Samulski, “Photonic crystal geometry for organic solar cells,” Nano Lett. 9, 2742–2746 (2009).

Zhang, Z. - B.

H. - H. Tao, R. - J. Liu, Z. - Y. Li, S. Feng, Y. - Z. Liu, C. Ren, B. - Y. Cheng, D. - Z. Zhang, H. - Q. Ma, L. - A. Wu, and Z. - B. Zhang, “Mapping of complex optical field patterns in multimode photonic crystal waveguides by near field scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205111 (2006).

Zhou, G.

A. Rodenas, G. Zhou, D. Jaque, and M. Gu, “Rare-earth spontaneous emission control in three-dimensional lithium niobate photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3526–3530 (2009).

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A. Rodenas, G. Zhou, D. Jaque, and M. Gu, “Rare-earth spontaneous emission control in three-dimensional lithium niobate photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3526–3530 (2009).

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L. Okamoto, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, Y. Qiu, and P. Gogna, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy of photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1676–1678 (2003).

S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, L. Balet, L. H. Li, M. Francardi, A. Gerardino, A. Fiore, and M. Gurioli, “Polarization-sensitive near-field investigation of photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 163102 (2009).

M. Labardi, S. Patane, and M. Allegrini, “Artifact-free near-field optical imaging by apertureless microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621–623 (2000).

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

M. Kageshima, H. Jensenius, M. Dienwiebel, Y. Nakayama, H. Tokumoto, S. P. Jarvis, and T. H. Oosterkamp, “Noncontact atomic force microscopy in liquid environment with quartz tuning fork and carbon nanotube probe,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 188, 440–444 (2002).

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A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).

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R. Sprik, B. A. van Tiggelen, and A. Lagendijk, “Optical emission in periodic dielectrics,” Europhys. Lett. 35, 265–270 (1996).

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P. J. Valle, J. - J. Greffet, and R. Carminati, “Optical contrast, topographic contrast and artifacts in illumination-mode scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 648–656 (1999).

J. Dahdah, M. Pilar-Bernal, N. Courjal, G. Ulliac, and F. Baida, “Near-field observations of light confinement in a two dimensional lithium niobate photonic crystal cavity,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 074318 (2011).

J. Appl. Phys., (1)

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

K. D. Weston and S. K. Buratto, “A reflection near-field scanning optical microscope technique for subwavelength resolution imaging of thin organic films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 5684–5691 (1997).

Nano Lett. (2)

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10, 3524–3528 (2010).

D. - H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, and E. T. Samulski, “Photonic crystal geometry for organic solar cells,” Nano Lett. 9, 2742–2746 (2009).

Nanotechnology (1)

U. K. Khankhoje, S. - H. Kim, B. C. Richards, J. Hendrickson, J. Sweet, J. D. Olitzky, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, and A. Scherer, “Modelling and fabrication of GaAs photonic-crystal cavities for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Nanotechnology 21, 065202 (2010).

Nat. Photonics (1)

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).

Nature (2)

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).

P. Lodahl, A. F. van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgang, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, “Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals,” Nature 430, 654–657 (2004).

Nature Phys. (1)

H. Altug, D. Englund, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultrafast photonic crystal nanocavity laser,” Nature Phys. 2, 484–488 (2006).

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, J. Arentoft, A. Boltasseva, T. Sondergaard, and M. Kristensen, “Direct mapping of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 212, 51–55 (2002).

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. - H. Tao, R. - J. Liu, Z. - Y. Li, S. Feng, Y. - Z. Liu, C. Ren, B. - Y. Cheng, D. - Z. Zhang, H. - Q. Ma, L. - A. Wu, and Z. - B. Zhang, “Mapping of complex optical field patterns in multimode photonic crystal waveguides by near field scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 205111 (2006).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

E. Flück, N. F. van Hulst, W. L. Vos, and L. Kuipers, “Near-field optical investigation of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 015601 (2003).

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P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gösele, and V. Sandoghdar, “Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).

M. R. Jorgensen, J. W. Galusha, and M. H. Bart, “Strongly modified spontaneous emission rates in Diamond-structured photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 143902 (2011).

M. D. Leistikow, A. P. Mosk, E. Yeganegi, S. R. Huisman, A. Lagendijk, and W. L. Vos, “Inhibited spontaneous emission of quantum dots observed in a 3D photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 193903 (2011).

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486–2489 (1987).

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).

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R. A. Marsh, M. A. Shapiro, R. J. Temkin, V. A. Dolgashev, L. L. Laurent, J. R. Lewandowski, A. D. Yeremian, and S. G. Tantawi, “X-band photonic band-gap accelerator structure breakdown experiment,” Phys. Rev. STAB 14, 021301 (2011).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Esslinger, J. Dorfmüller, W. Khunsin, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Background-free imaging of plasmonic structures with cross-polarized apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 033704 (2012).

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O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).

H.- G. Park, S. - H. Kim, S. - H. Kwon, Y. - G. Ju, J. - K. Yang, J. - H. Baek, S. - B. Kim, and Y. - H. Lee, “Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser,” Science 305, 1444–1447 (2004).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic three-dimensional view of the photonic crystal slab indicating the defining geometry parameters. Metallic rods are placed inside a rectangular metallic waveguide. The dashed line indicates the size of the supercell. (b) Calculated band structure of the photonic crystal slab showing the four lowest TE-like modes having a non-zero Ez component of the electric field.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transverse Ez-eigenmode patterns of the photonic crystal slab for mode 1 and mode 2 at two cross sections (xy-plane) inside the unit cell. First, through the first row of rods (at z = 0.5az, (a) and (b)). Second, at a cross section through the empty part of the waveguide (at z = 2.5az, (c) and (d)). The normalized wave number for both patterns is kzaz,eff = 0 and the corresponding normalized frequency for (a) is 0.61 and for (b) 0.71.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic view of the setup to measure the electromagnetic field inside the photonic crystal slab by a scatterer. The Fig. shows a cross section through the photonic crystal slab at y = 0. The photonic crystal slab is sandwiched between two aluminum mirrors (bold black). The input and output antennas are mounted at the center of both mirrors. To map the Ez field component along the x-direction a spherical metallic scatterer, which is mounted on a string, can be moved throughout the photonic crystal slab.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission and reflection spectrum of the photonic crystal slab without a scatterer between 8.0 GHz and 13.5 GHz. The peaks correspond to the various longitudinal modes for each transverse mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Zoom into transmission and reflection spectrum of the photonic crystal slab depicted in Fig. 4. The spectra clearly show the different longitudinal modes for transverse mode 1. The labeling depicts the number of anti-nodes, m, along the propagation direction. (b) Measured band structure of the photonic crystal slab for the four lowest frequency TE-like eigenmodes (symbols) compared to the calculated values from Fig. 1(b)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured frequency shift Δν induced by placing the spherical scatterer at that location for mode 1 at a longitudinal resonance frequencies of ν = 8.16GHz (a) and ν = 8.42GHz (b). The corresponding wave number is k z a z , eff = 1 15 π and k z a z , eff = 6 15 π, respectively. The resulting electric field component Ez calculated from the measured frequency shift shown in (a) and (b) is shown in (c) and (d), respectively. The measured electric field component Ez (symbols) is compared to the calculated electric field (lines).

Equations (7)

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Δ ν ( r ) = 1 2 μ 0 H ( r ) 2 ε 0 E ( r ) 2 U π R 3 ν 0
Δ ν ( r ) ε 0 E z ( r ) 2 U π R 3 ν 0
E z ( r ) = Δ ν ( r ) U π R 3 ε 0 ν 0 .
δ ϕ = n a z , eff k z = m π m = 1 , 2
0 < a z , eff k z = m n π π .
Q = 2 π ν 0 U P diss .
E z ( r ) = 12 Δ ν ( r ) ν 0 1 π l 3 ln ( 1 + 1 ( d / l ) 2 ) ln ( 1 1 ( d / l ) 2 ) 2 1 ( d / l ) 2 ( 1 ( d / l ) 2 ) 3 / 2

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