Abstract

We have studied the feasibility of extending the operating wavelength range of high-Q silicon nanocavities above and below the 1.55 μm wavelength band, while maintaining Q factors of more than one million. We have succeeded in developing such nanocavities in the optical telecommunication bands from 1.27 μm to 1.50 μm. Very high Q values of more than two million were obtained even for the 1.30 μm band. The Q values increase proportionally to the resonant wavelength because the scattering loss decreases. We have also analyzed the influence of absorption due to surface water. We conclude that high-Q nanocavities are feasible for an even wider wavelength region including parts of the mid-infrared.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (7)

S. Kita, S. Otsuka, S. Hachuda, T. Endo, Y. Imai, Y. Nishijima, H. Misawa, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal nanolaser biosensors,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E 95C, 188–198 (2012).

S. Matsuo, K. Takeda, T. Sato, M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Nozaki, H. Taniyama, K. Hasebe, and T. Kakitsuka, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of lateral current injection wavelength-scale embedded active-region photonic-crystal laser,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3773–3780 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Gai, B. Luther-Davies, and T. P. White, “Photonic crystal nanocavities fabricated from chalcogenide glass fully embedded in an index-matched cladding with a high Q-factor (>750,000),” Opt. Express 20(14), 15503–15515 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, C. Santori, Z. Huang, V. M. Acosta, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers to photonic crystal cavities in monocrystalline diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033604 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sam-Giao, D. Neel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Sergent, M. Arita, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “High-Q (>5000) AlN nanobeam photonic crystal cavity embedding GaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 121103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Trivino, G. Rossbach, U. Dharanipathy, J. Levrat, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, K. A. Atlasov, R. Butte, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “High quality factor two dimensional GaN photonic crystal cavity membranes grown on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(7), 071103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (9)

M. Khan, T. Babinec, M. W. McCutcheon, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Fabrication and characterization of high-quality-factor silicon nitride nanobeam cavities,” Opt. Lett. 36(3), 421–423 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yamada, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Silicon carbide-based photonic crystal nanocavities for ultra-broadband operation from infrared to visible wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, “Strong light confinement with periodicity,” Proc. IEEE 99(10), 1768–1779 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Ellis, M. A. Mayer, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. Harris, E. E. Haller, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantumdot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 297–300 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Taguchi, Y. Takahashi, Y. Sato, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Statistical studies of photonic heterostructure nanocavities with an average Q factor of three million,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11916–11921 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yokoo, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities written with a nanoprobe,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3634–3642 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, S. W. Jeon, and S. Noda, “Symmetrically glass-clad photonic crystal nanocavities with ultrahigh quality factors,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 91–93 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Upham, Y. Tanaka, Y. Kawamoto, Y. Sato, T. Nakamura, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Time-resolved catch and release of an optical pulse from a dynamic photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23377–23385 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sato, Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Strong coupling between distant photonic nanocavities and its dynamic control,” Nat. Photonics 6(1), 56–61 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

T. Tanabe, H. Sumikura, H. Taniyama, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, “All-silicon sub-Gb/s telecom detector with low dark current and high quantum efficiency on chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Haret, X. Checoury, Z. Han, P. Boucaud, S. Combrié, and A. De Rossi, “All-silicon photonic crystal photoconductor on silicon-on-insulator at telecom wavelength,” Opt. Express 18(23), 23965–23972 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Lu, P. T. Lin, K. U. Sio, and P. T. Lee, “Optical sensing of square lattice photonic crystal point-shifted nanocavity for protein adsorption detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Nomura, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Ota, and Y. Arakawa, “Laser oscillation in a strongly coupled single-quantum-dot–nanocavity system,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 279–283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Han, X. Checoury, D. Neel, S. David, M. E. Kurdi, and P. Boucaud, “Optimized design for 2×106 ultra-high Q silicon photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4387–4391 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Englund, B. Shields, K. Rivoire, F. Hatami, J. Vučković, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Deterministic coupling of a single nitrogen vacancy center to a photonic crystal cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3922–3926 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, E. C. Mägi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, X. Gai, S. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Photowritten high-Q cavities in two-dimensional chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3671–3673 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hagino, Y. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Effects of fluctuation in air hole radii and positions on optical characteristics in photonic crystal heterostructure nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. B 79(8), 085112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Chemical sensing in slotted photonic crystal heterostructure cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, H. Hagino, T. Sugiya, Y. Sato, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Design and demonstration of high-Q photonic heterostructure nanocavities suitable for integration,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18093–18102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (7)

B. S. Song, T. Nagashima, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Resonant-wavelength control of nanocavities by nanometer-scaled adjustment of two-dimensional photonic crystal slab structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(7), 532–534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 741–747 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Kwon, T. Sünner, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal cavity created by modulating air hole radius of a waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4605–4614 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320(5877), 769–772 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, H. Hagino, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Higher-order resonant modes in a photonic heterostructure nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241910 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, “A cascaded silicon Raman laser,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 170–174 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Yosia, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, T. Sato, T. Kakitsuka, and M. Notomi, “All-optical on-chip bit memory based on ultra high Q InGaAsP photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19382–19387 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (8)

Y. Takahashi, H. Hagino, Y. Tanaka, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “High-Q nanocavity with a 2-ns photon lifetime,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17206–17213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. de Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “High-Q cavities in multilayer photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17248–17253 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, “Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 449–458 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and A. Gomyo, “Observation of enhanced photoluminescence from silicon photonic crystal nanocavity at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(21), 211104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang and C. W. Wong, “Coupled-mode theory for stimulated Raman scattering in high-Q/Vm silicon photonic band gap defect cavity lasers,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4763–4780 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Dynamic control of the Q factors in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 862–865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nozaki, S. Kita, and T. Baba, “Room temperature continuous wave operation and controlled spontaneous emission in ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7506–7514 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

H. Takano, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Highly efficient multi-channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3491–3496 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Chang, W. Y. Chen, H. S. Chang, T. P. Hsieh, J. I. Chyi, and T. M. Hsu, “Efficient single-photon sources based on low-density quantum dots in photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 117401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
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R. Herrmann, T. Sünner, T. Hein, A. Löffler, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Ultrahigh-quality photonic crystal cavity in GaAs,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1229–1231 (2006).
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T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~ 1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 14(5), 1996–2002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
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B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-High-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432(7014), 200–203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
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2000 (1)

S. Noda, A. Chutinan, and M. Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature 407(6804), 608–610 (2000).
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1999 (1)

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakamura, and Y. Hase, “Control of cleaning performance of an ammonia and hydrogen peroxide mixture (APM) on the basis of a kinetic reaction model,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 12(3), 288–294 (1999).
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V. Alex, S. Finkbeiner, and J. Weber, “Temperature dependence of the indirect energy gap in crystalline silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(9), 6943–6946 (1996).
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1993 (1)

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G. Davies, “The optical properties of luminescence centers in silicon,” Phys. Rep. 176(3-4), 83–188 (1989).
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B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-High-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
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Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
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S. Sergent, M. Arita, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “High-Q (>5000) AlN nanobeam photonic crystal cavity embedding GaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 121103 (2012).
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Asano, T.

J. Upham, Y. Tanaka, Y. Kawamoto, Y. Sato, T. Nakamura, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Time-resolved catch and release of an optical pulse from a dynamic photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23377–23385 (2011).
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S. Yamada, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Silicon carbide-based photonic crystal nanocavities for ultra-broadband operation from infrared to visible wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201102 (2011).
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H. Hagino, Y. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Effects of fluctuation in air hole radii and positions on optical characteristics in photonic crystal heterostructure nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. B 79(8), 085112 (2009).
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Y. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, H. Hagino, T. Sugiya, Y. Sato, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Design and demonstration of high-Q photonic heterostructure nanocavities suitable for integration,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18093–18102 (2009).
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B. S. Song, T. Nagashima, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Resonant-wavelength control of nanocavities by nanometer-scaled adjustment of two-dimensional photonic crystal slab structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(7), 532–534 (2008).
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Y. Takahashi, H. Hagino, Y. Tanaka, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “High-Q nanocavity with a 2-ns photon lifetime,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17206–17213 (2007).
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Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Dynamic control of the Q factors in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 862–865 (2007).
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S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, “Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 449–458 (2007).
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H. Takano, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Highly efficient multi-channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3491–3496 (2006).
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T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~ 1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 14(5), 1996–2002 (2006).
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B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-High-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
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Atatüre, M.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
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N. V. Trivino, G. Rossbach, U. Dharanipathy, J. Levrat, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, K. A. Atlasov, R. Butte, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “High quality factor two dimensional GaN photonic crystal cavity membranes grown on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(7), 071103 (2012).
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S. Kita, S. Otsuka, S. Hachuda, T. Endo, Y. Imai, Y. Nishijima, H. Misawa, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal nanolaser biosensors,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E 95C, 188–198 (2012).

K. Nozaki, S. Kita, and T. Baba, “Room temperature continuous wave operation and controlled spontaneous emission in ultrasmall photonic crystal nanolaser,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7506–7514 (2007).
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Badolato, A.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
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Beausoleil, R. G.

A. Faraon, C. Santori, Z. Huang, V. M. Acosta, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers to photonic crystal cavities in monocrystalline diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033604 (2012).
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Boucaud, P.

D. Sam-Giao, D. Neel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
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Z. Han, X. Checoury, D. Neel, S. David, M. E. Kurdi, and P. Boucaud, “Optimized design for 2×106 ultra-high Q silicon photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4387–4391 (2010).
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L. D. Haret, X. Checoury, Z. Han, P. Boucaud, S. Combrié, and A. De Rossi, “All-silicon photonic crystal photoconductor on silicon-on-insulator at telecom wavelength,” Opt. Express 18(23), 23965–23972 (2010).
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Brimont, C.

D. Sam-Giao, D. Neel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
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Butte, R.

N. V. Trivino, G. Rossbach, U. Dharanipathy, J. Levrat, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, K. A. Atlasov, R. Butte, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “High quality factor two dimensional GaN photonic crystal cavity membranes grown on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(7), 071103 (2012).
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N. V. Trivino, G. Rossbach, U. Dharanipathy, J. Levrat, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, K. A. Atlasov, R. Butte, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “High quality factor two dimensional GaN photonic crystal cavity membranes grown on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(7), 071103 (2012).
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N. V. Trivino, G. Rossbach, U. Dharanipathy, J. Levrat, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, K. A. Atlasov, R. Butte, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “High quality factor two dimensional GaN photonic crystal cavity membranes grown on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(7), 071103 (2012).
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Chang, H. S.

W. H. Chang, W. Y. Chen, H. S. Chang, T. P. Hsieh, J. I. Chyi, and T. M. Hsu, “Efficient single-photon sources based on low-density quantum dots in photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 117401 (2006).
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Chang, W. H.

W. H. Chang, W. Y. Chen, H. S. Chang, T. P. Hsieh, J. I. Chyi, and T. M. Hsu, “Efficient single-photon sources based on low-density quantum dots in photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 117401 (2006).
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Checoury, X.

D. Sam-Giao, D. Neel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Haret, X. Checoury, Z. Han, P. Boucaud, S. Combrié, and A. De Rossi, “All-silicon photonic crystal photoconductor on silicon-on-insulator at telecom wavelength,” Opt. Express 18(23), 23965–23972 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Han, X. Checoury, D. Neel, S. David, M. E. Kurdi, and P. Boucaud, “Optimized design for 2×106 ultra-high Q silicon photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4387–4391 (2010).
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Chen, W. Y.

W. H. Chang, W. Y. Chen, H. S. Chang, T. P. Hsieh, J. I. Chyi, and T. M. Hsu, “Efficient single-photon sources based on low-density quantum dots in photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 117401 (2006).
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Choi, D. Y.

Chutinan, A.

S. Noda, A. Chutinan, and M. Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature 407(6804), 608–610 (2000).
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Chyi, J. I.

W. H. Chang, W. Y. Chen, H. S. Chang, T. P. Hsieh, J. I. Chyi, and T. M. Hsu, “Efficient single-photon sources based on low-density quantum dots in photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 117401 (2006).
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H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, “A cascaded silicon Raman laser,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 170–174 (2008).
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D. Sam-Giao, D. Neel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
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Z. Han, X. Checoury, D. Neel, S. David, M. E. Kurdi, and P. Boucaud, “Optimized design for 2×106 ultra-high Q silicon photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4387–4391 (2010).
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Davies, G.

G. Davies, “The optical properties of luminescence centers in silicon,” Phys. Rep. 176(3-4), 83–188 (1989).
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P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
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T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432(7014), 200–203 (2004).
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N. V. Trivino, G. Rossbach, U. Dharanipathy, J. Levrat, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, K. A. Atlasov, R. Butte, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “High quality factor two dimensional GaN photonic crystal cavity membranes grown on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(7), 071103 (2012).
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D. Sam-Giao, D. Neel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
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Ell, C.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432(7014), 200–203 (2004).
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S. Kita, S. Otsuka, S. Hachuda, T. Endo, Y. Imai, Y. Nishijima, H. Misawa, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal nanolaser biosensors,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E 95C, 188–198 (2012).

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D. Englund, B. Shields, K. Rivoire, F. Hatami, J. Vučković, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Deterministic coupling of a single nitrogen vacancy center to a photonic crystal cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3922–3926 (2010).
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D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
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K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
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A. Faraon, C. Santori, Z. Huang, V. M. Acosta, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers to photonic crystal cavities in monocrystalline diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033604 (2012).
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I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320(5877), 769–772 (2008).
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Fattal, D.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vucković, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013904 (2005).
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V. Alex, S. Finkbeiner, and J. Weber, “Temperature dependence of the indirect energy gap in crystalline silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(9), 6943–6946 (1996).
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P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009).
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S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, “Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 449–458 (2007).
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I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320(5877), 769–772 (2008).
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D. Sam-Giao, D. Neel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
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K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432(7014), 200–203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and A. Gomyo, “Observation of enhanced photoluminescence from silicon photonic crystal nanocavity at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(21), 211104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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N. V. Trivino, G. Rossbach, U. Dharanipathy, J. Levrat, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, K. A. Atlasov, R. Butte, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “High quality factor two dimensional GaN photonic crystal cavity membranes grown on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(7), 071103 (2012).
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D. Sam-Giao, D. Neel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
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K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
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S. Kita, S. Otsuka, S. Hachuda, T. Endo, Y. Imai, Y. Nishijima, H. Misawa, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal nanolaser biosensors,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E 95C, 188–198 (2012).

Hagino, H.

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T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432(7014), 200–203 (2004).
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T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432(7014), 200–203 (2004).
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D. Sam-Giao, D. Neel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
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T. W. Lu, P. T. Lin, K. U. Sio, and P. T. Lee, “Optical sensing of square lattice photonic crystal point-shifted nanocavity for protein adsorption detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213702 (2010).
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B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-High-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
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Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
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Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Dynamic control of the Q factors in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 862–865 (2007).
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T. Tanabe, H. Sumikura, H. Taniyama, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, “All-silicon sub-Gb/s telecom detector with low dark current and high quantum efficiency on chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101103 (2010).
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Y. Sato, Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Strong coupling between distant photonic nanocavities and its dynamic control,” Nat. Photonics 6(1), 56–61 (2011).
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H. Hagino, Y. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Effects of fluctuation in air hole radii and positions on optical characteristics in photonic crystal heterostructure nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. B 79(8), 085112 (2009).
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Y. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, H. Hagino, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Higher-order resonant modes in a photonic heterostructure nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241910 (2008).
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Y. Takahashi, H. Hagino, Y. Tanaka, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “High-Q nanocavity with a 2-ns photon lifetime,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17206–17213 (2007).
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A. Yokoo, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities written with a nanoprobe,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3634–3642 (2011).
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T. Tanabe, H. Sumikura, H. Taniyama, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, “All-silicon sub-Gb/s telecom detector with low dark current and high quantum efficiency on chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101103 (2010).
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M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 741–747 (2008).
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J. Upham, Y. Tanaka, Y. Kawamoto, Y. Sato, T. Nakamura, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Time-resolved catch and release of an optical pulse from a dynamic photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23377–23385 (2011).
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Y. Sato, Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Strong coupling between distant photonic nanocavities and its dynamic control,” Nat. Photonics 6(1), 56–61 (2011).
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H. Hagino, Y. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Effects of fluctuation in air hole radii and positions on optical characteristics in photonic crystal heterostructure nanocavities,” Phys. Rev. B 79(8), 085112 (2009).
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Y. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, H. Hagino, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Higher-order resonant modes in a photonic heterostructure nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241910 (2008).
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Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Dynamic control of the Q factors in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 862–865 (2007).
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Y. Sato, Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Strong coupling between distant photonic nanocavities and its dynamic control,” Nat. Photonics 6(1), 56–61 (2011).
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S. Yamada, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Silicon carbide-based photonic crystal nanocavities for ultra-broadband operation from infrared to visible wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201102 (2011).
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A. Yokoo, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities written with a nanoprobe,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3634–3642 (2011).
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T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432(7014), 200–203 (2004).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

D. Sam-Giao, D. Neel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. J. Rashid, F. Semond, J. Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, “High quality factor AlN nanocavities embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191104 (2012).
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S. Sergent, M. Arita, S. Kako, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “High-Q (>5000) AlN nanobeam photonic crystal cavity embedding GaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 121103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, H. Hagino, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Higher-order resonant modes in a photonic heterostructure nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241910 (2008).
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S. Yamada, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Silicon carbide-based photonic crystal nanocavities for ultra-broadband operation from infrared to visible wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 201102 (2011).
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N. V. Trivino, G. Rossbach, U. Dharanipathy, J. Levrat, A. Castiglia, J. F. Carlin, K. A. Atlasov, R. Butte, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “High quality factor two dimensional GaN photonic crystal cavity membranes grown on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(7), 071103 (2012).
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T. Tanabe, H. Sumikura, H. Taniyama, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, “All-silicon sub-Gb/s telecom detector with low dark current and high quantum efficiency on chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101103 (2010).
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B. S. Song, T. Nagashima, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Resonant-wavelength control of nanocavities by nanometer-scaled adjustment of two-dimensional photonic crystal slab structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(7), 532–534 (2008).
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K. Yamamoto, A. Nakamura, and Y. Hase, “Control of cleaning performance of an ammonia and hydrogen peroxide mixture (APM) on the basis of a kinetic reaction model,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 12(3), 288–294 (1999).
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S. Kita, S. Otsuka, S. Hachuda, T. Endo, Y. Imai, Y. Nishijima, H. Misawa, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal nanolaser biosensors,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E 95C, 188–198 (2012).

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V. Alex, S. Finkbeiner, and J. Weber, “Temperature dependence of the indirect energy gap in crystalline silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(9), 6943–6946 (1996).
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D. Englund, B. Shields, K. Rivoire, F. Hatami, J. Vučković, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Deterministic coupling of a single nitrogen vacancy center to a photonic crystal cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3922–3926 (2010).
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A. Yokoo, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities written with a nanoprobe,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3634–3642 (2011).
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Nat. Mater. (2)

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Dynamic control of the Q factors in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 862–865 (2007).
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B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-High-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
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Nat. Photonics (5)

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 741–747 (2008).
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Y. Sato, Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Strong coupling between distant photonic nanocavities and its dynamic control,” Nat. Photonics 6(1), 56–61 (2011).
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S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, “Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 449–458 (2007).
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M. Nomura, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Ota, and Y. Arakawa, “Laser oscillation in a strongly coupled single-quantum-dot–nanocavity system,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 279–283 (2010).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

Z. Han, X. Checoury, D. Neel, S. David, M. E. Kurdi, and P. Boucaud, “Optimized design for 2×106 ultra-high Q silicon photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4387–4391 (2010).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM top view of a heterostructure nanocavity where the indicated differences in lattice constants are too small to be distinguished visually (a2 = a1 + 8 nm, a2' = a1 + 4 nm). We fabricated seven nanocavities with different values of a1 ranging from 330 nm to 390 nm. The cavity is excited through evanescent mode coupling via a waveguide with 10% extended width, and dropped light from the cavity is measured. (b) Cross-sectional image of the edge of a Si slab with an air-suspended structure. A tunable laser is incident on one edge of the excitation waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AFM images of the SOI wafer surface (a) before and (b) after APM treatment. The average roughness (Ra) of the surface hardly changes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Confocal laser scanning microscope image of a measured sample which has six nanocavities with the same structure. (b) Dropped light spectra for six nanocavities with a1 = 340 nm. The linewidths are smaller than 1.0 pm for all cavities. (c) Magnified view of a single spectrum. The solid line is a Lorentzian fit to the peak.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimentally obtained Q and λ for nanocavities with a1 = 330 nm - 390 nm. The symbols × , □, △, and ○ represent the Qexp of each cavity, the average Qexp for six cavities with the same a1, the additional loss factor, and previously reported Qexp values, respectively. The upper labels show five bands used for optical telecommunications. The dashed line indicates the absorption spectrum of bulk water, taken from Ref [59].

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters characterizing the fabricated nanocavities: main lattice constant (a1), radius of air holes (r), slab thickness (d), theoretical Qideal, and theoretical λ. The data for a1 = 410 nm are taken from a previous study [28].

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