Abstract

A new type of bismuth doped Ba2B5O9Cl crystal is reported to exhibit broadband near infrared (NIR) photoluminescence at room temperature, which has been identified here originating from elementary bismuth atom. Rietveld refining, static and dynamic spectroscopic properties reveal two types of Bi0 centers in the doped compound due to the successful substitution for two different nine-coordinated barium lattice sites. These centers can be created only in a reducing condition, and when treated in air and N2/H2 flow in turn, they can be removed and restored reversely. As the dwelling time is prolonged in N2/H2 at high temperature, conversion from Bi2+ to Bi0, as reflected by changes of their relative emission intensities, is witnessed in the crystal of Ba2B5O9Cl:Bi. The lifetime of the NIR luminescence was observed in a magnitude of ~30 μs, rather different from bismuth doped either glasses or crystals reported previously.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (5)

2011 (10)

H. T. Sun, Y. Sakka, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, and H. Gao, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from ionic liquids containing subvalent bismuth,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 100–102 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Bufetov, M. A. Melkumov, S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Vel’miskin, A. E. Levchenko, E. G. Firstova, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical gain and laser generation in bismuth-doped silica fibers free of other dopants,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 166–168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhou, H. Lin, B. Chen, and E. Y. Pun, “Superbroadband near-infrared emission in Tm-Bi codoped sodium-germanium-gallate glasses,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6514–6523 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19551–19561 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, N. Zhang, L. Wondraczek, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, and Q. Zhang, “Ultrabroad NIR luminescence and energy transfer in Bi and Er/Bi co-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20799–20807 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Su, H. Zhao, H. Li, L. Zheng, G. Ren, J. Xu, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and P. Solarz, “Near-infrared ultrabroadband luminescence spectra properties of subvalent bismuth in CsI halide crystals,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4551–4553 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Firstov, A. Shubin, V. Khopin, M. Mel’kumov, I. Bufetov, O. Medvedkov, A. Gur’yanov, and E. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fiber laser with 20-W output power at 1460nm,” Quantum Electron. 41(7), 581–583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, Z. Liu, Z. Song, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, K. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Influence of optical basicity on broadband near infrared emission in bismuth doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(24), 6816–6818 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2241–2245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

2009 (9)

J. Ruan, L. Su, J. Qiu, D. Chen, and J. Xu, “Bi-doped BaF2 crystal for broadband near-infrared light source,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5163–5169 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Sun, Y. Miwa, F. Shimaoka, M. Fujii, A. Hosokawa, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Superbroadband near-IR nano-optical source based on bismuth-doped high-silica nanocrystalline zeolites,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1219–1221 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Su, P. Zhou, J. Yu, H. Li, L. Zheng, F. Wu, Y. Yang, Q. Yang, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and near-infrared broadband luminescence of Bi-doped SrB4O7 glasses and crystalline materials,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13554–13560 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Su, J. Yu, P. Zhou, H. Li, L. Zheng, Y. Yang, F. Wu, H. Xia, and J. Xu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence in γ-irradiated Bi-doped α-BaB(2)O(4) single crystals,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2504–2506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Hughes, T. Akada, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and D. W. Hewak, “Ultrabroad emission from a bismuth doped chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19345–19355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Chi, D. Zhou, Z. Song, and J. Qiu, “Effect of optical basicity on broadband infrared fluorescence in bismuth-doped alkali metal germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 945–948 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, “Bismuth-doped oxide glasses as potential solar spectral converters and concentrators,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(5), 627–630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, and L. Wondraczek, “Generation of emission centers for broadband NIR luminescence in bismuthate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(2), 542–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

M. Peng, B. Wu, N. Da, C. Wang, D. Chen, C. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Bismuth-activated luminescent materials for broadband optical amplifier in WDM system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(12-13), 1221–1225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, and E. Dianov, “Efficient bismuth-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(9), 834–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Yang, D. Chen, W. Wang, Y. Xu, H. Zeng, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effects of thermal treatment on broadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped chalcohalide glasses,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28(16), 3189–3191 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Hughes, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Advanced bismuth-doped lead-germanate glass for broadband optical gain devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(8), 1380–1386 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Okhrimchuk, L. N. Butvina, E. M. Dianov, N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, and K. N. Boldyrev, “Near-infrared luminescence of RbPb2Cl5:Bi crystals,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2182–2184 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, D. Chen, J. Qiu, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth-doped zinc aluminosilicate glasses and glass-ceramics with ultra-broadband infrared luminescence,” Opt. Mater. 29(5), 556–561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Dianov, A. Shubin, M. Melkumov, O. Medvedkov, and I. Bufetov, “High-power cw bismuth-fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1749–1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

2002 (2)

P. Held, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, “Crystal structure of dibarium pentaborate chloride, Ba2B5O9Cl,” Z. Kristallogr. NCS 217, 463–464 (2002).

J. Hao and M. Cocivera, “Blue cathodoluminescence from Ba2B5O9Cl:Eu phosphor thin films on glass substates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(22), 4154–4156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Kuznetsov, B. Popovkin, W. Henderson, M. Taylor, and L. Bengtsson-Kloo, “Monocations of bismuth and indium in arene media: a spectroscopic and EXAFS investigation,” J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 11(11), 1777–1781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Ulvenlund, A. Wheatley, and L. Bengtsson, “Synthesis of main-group metal clusters in organic solvents,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1(1), 59–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

K. Manzel, U. Engelhardt, H. Abe, W. Schulze, and F. Froben, “Matrix Raman studies of Bin (n≥2) molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 77(3), 514–516 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

V. E. Bondybey, G. P. Schwartz, J. E. Griffiths, and J. H. English, “Spectra of inert gas matrices containing bismuth: ground-state frequency of Bi2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 30–34 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

S. Radhakrishna and R. Setty, “Bismuth centers in alkali halides,” Phys. Rev. B 14(3), 969–976 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

N. Bjerrum, C. Boston, and G. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and Bi53+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem. 6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Bjerrum, C. R. Boston, and G. P. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and Bi53+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem. 6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Abe, H.

K. Manzel, U. Engelhardt, H. Abe, W. Schulze, and F. Froben, “Matrix Raman studies of Bin (n≥2) molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 77(3), 514–516 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Akada, T.

Bai, Z.

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson, L.

S. Ulvenlund, A. Wheatley, and L. Bengtsson, “Synthesis of main-group metal clusters in organic solvents,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1(1), 59–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson-Kloo, L.

A. Kuznetsov, B. Popovkin, W. Henderson, M. Taylor, and L. Bengtsson-Kloo, “Monocations of bismuth and indium in arene media: a spectroscopic and EXAFS investigation,” J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 11(11), 1777–1781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bigot, L.

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bjerrum, N.

N. Bjerrum, C. Boston, and G. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and Bi53+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem. 6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bjerrum, N. J.

N. J. Bjerrum, C. R. Boston, and G. P. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and Bi53+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem. 6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bohaty, L.

P. Held, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, “Crystal structure of dibarium pentaborate chloride, Ba2B5O9Cl,” Z. Kristallogr. NCS 217, 463–464 (2002).

Boldyrev, K. N.

Bondybey, V. E.

V. E. Bondybey, G. P. Schwartz, J. E. Griffiths, and J. H. English, “Spectra of inert gas matrices containing bismuth: ground-state frequency of Bi2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 30–34 (1980).
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Boston, C.

N. Bjerrum, C. Boston, and G. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and Bi53+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem. 6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Boston, C. R.

N. J. Bjerrum, C. R. Boston, and G. P. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and Bi53+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem. 6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bouwmans, G.

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bufetov, I.

S. Firstov, A. Shubin, V. Khopin, M. Mel’kumov, I. Bufetov, O. Medvedkov, A. Gur’yanov, and E. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fiber laser with 20-W output power at 1460nm,” Quantum Electron. 41(7), 581–583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Dianov, A. Shubin, M. Melkumov, O. Medvedkov, and I. Bufetov, “High-power cw bismuth-fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1749–1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bufetov, I. A.

Bulatov, L. I.

Butvina, L. N.

Cao, R.

Cao, Y.

C. Li, Z. Song, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, X. Yu, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, R. Wang, Y. Xu, and Y. Cao, “Broadband yellow–white and near infrared luminescence from Bi-doped Ba10(PO4)6Cl2 prepared in reductive atmosphere,” J. Lumin. 132(7), 1807–1811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

Chen, D.

J. Ruan, L. Su, J. Qiu, D. Chen, and J. Xu, “Bi-doped BaF2 crystal for broadband near-infrared light source,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5163–5169 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yang, D. Chen, W. Wang, Y. Xu, H. Zeng, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effects of thermal treatment on broadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped chalcohalide glasses,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28(16), 3189–3191 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, B. Wu, N. Da, C. Wang, D. Chen, C. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Bismuth-activated luminescent materials for broadband optical amplifier in WDM system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(12-13), 1221–1225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, D. Chen, J. Qiu, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth-doped zinc aluminosilicate glasses and glass-ceramics with ultra-broadband infrared luminescence,” Opt. Mater. 29(5), 556–561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Superbroadband 1310 nm emission from bismuth and tantalum codoped germanium oxide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2433–2435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Broadband infrared luminescence from Li2O-Al2O3-ZnO-SiO2 glasses doped with Bi2O3.,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6892–6898 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, I. Yang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth- and aluminum-codoped germanium oxide glasses for super-broadband optical amplification,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 1998–2000 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

G. Yang, D. Chen, W. Wang, Y. Xu, H. Zeng, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effects of thermal treatment on broadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped chalcohalide glasses,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28(16), 3189–3191 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chi, G.

G. Chi, D. Zhou, Z. Song, and J. Qiu, “Effect of optical basicity on broadband infrared fluorescence in bismuth-doped alkali metal germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 945–948 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cocivera, M.

J. Hao and M. Cocivera, “Blue cathodoluminescence from Ba2B5O9Cl:Eu phosphor thin films on glass substates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(22), 4154–4156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Da, N.

M. Peng, B. Wu, N. Da, C. Wang, D. Chen, C. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Bismuth-activated luminescent materials for broadband optical amplifier in WDM system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(12-13), 1221–1225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deki, S.

Dianov, E.

S. Firstov, A. Shubin, V. Khopin, M. Mel’kumov, I. Bufetov, O. Medvedkov, A. Gur’yanov, and E. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fiber laser with 20-W output power at 1460nm,” Quantum Electron. 41(7), 581–583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, and E. Dianov, “Efficient bismuth-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(9), 834–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Dianov, A. Shubin, M. Melkumov, O. Medvedkov, and I. Bufetov, “High-power cw bismuth-fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1749–1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Dianov, V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, A. Umnikov, M. Yashkov, and A. Gur'yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

Dong, G.

W. Xu, M. Peng, Z. Ma, G. Dong, and J. Qiu, “A new study on bismuth doped oxide glasses,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15692–15702 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2241–2245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dong, H.

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dvoyrin, V.

V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, and E. Dianov, “Efficient bismuth-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(9), 834–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Dianov, V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, A. Umnikov, M. Yashkov, and A. Gur'yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dvoyrin, V. V.

Engelhardt, U.

K. Manzel, U. Engelhardt, H. Abe, W. Schulze, and F. Froben, “Matrix Raman studies of Bin (n≥2) molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 77(3), 514–516 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fattakhova, Z. T.

Favre, A.

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feng, G.

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Firstov, S.

S. Firstov, A. Shubin, V. Khopin, M. Mel’kumov, I. Bufetov, O. Medvedkov, A. Gur’yanov, and E. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fiber laser with 20-W output power at 1460nm,” Quantum Electron. 41(7), 581–583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Firstov, S. V.

Firstova, E. G.

Froben, F.

K. Manzel, U. Engelhardt, H. Abe, W. Schulze, and F. Froben, “Matrix Raman studies of Bin (n≥2) molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 77(3), 514–516 (1981).
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Fujii, M.

Gao, H.

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, Y. Sakka, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, and H. Gao, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from ionic liquids containing subvalent bismuth,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 100–102 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffiths, J. E.

V. E. Bondybey, G. P. Schwartz, J. E. Griffiths, and J. H. English, “Spectra of inert gas matrices containing bismuth: ground-state frequency of Bi2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 30–34 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gur’yanov, A.

S. Firstov, A. Shubin, V. Khopin, M. Mel’kumov, I. Bufetov, O. Medvedkov, A. Gur’yanov, and E. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fiber laser with 20-W output power at 1460nm,” Quantum Electron. 41(7), 581–583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guryanov, A. N.

Gur'yanov, A.

E. Dianov, V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, A. Umnikov, M. Yashkov, and A. Gur'yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. English, J.

V. E. Bondybey, G. P. Schwartz, J. E. Griffiths, and J. H. English, “Spectra of inert gas matrices containing bismuth: ground-state frequency of Bi2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 30–34 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J.

J. Hao and M. Cocivera, “Blue cathodoluminescence from Ba2B5O9Cl:Eu phosphor thin films on glass substates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(22), 4154–4156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haula, E. V.

Hayashi, S.

Held, P.

P. Held, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, “Crystal structure of dibarium pentaborate chloride, Ba2B5O9Cl,” Z. Kristallogr. NCS 217, 463–464 (2002).

Henderson, W.

A. Kuznetsov, B. Popovkin, W. Henderson, M. Taylor, and L. Bengtsson-Kloo, “Monocations of bismuth and indium in arene media: a spectroscopic and EXAFS investigation,” J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 11(11), 1777–1781 (2000).
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Hewak, D. W.

Hosokawa, A.

Hughes, M.

Hughes, M. A.

Jha, A.

X. Jiang and A. Jha, “An investigation on the dependence of photoluminescence in Bi2O3-doped GeO2 glasses on controlled atmospheres during melting,” Opt. Mater. 33(1), 14–18 (2010).
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Jiang, X.

X. Jiang and A. Jha, “An investigation on the dependence of photoluminescence in Bi2O3-doped GeO2 glasses on controlled atmospheres during melting,” Opt. Mater. 33(1), 14–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, D. Chen, J. Qiu, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth-doped zinc aluminosilicate glasses and glass-ceramics with ultra-broadband infrared luminescence,” Opt. Mater. 29(5), 556–561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, I. Yang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth- and aluminum-codoped germanium oxide glasses for super-broadband optical amplification,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 1998–2000 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazin, P. E.

Khopin, V.

S. Firstov, A. Shubin, V. Khopin, M. Mel’kumov, I. Bufetov, O. Medvedkov, A. Gur’yanov, and E. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fiber laser with 20-W output power at 1460nm,” Quantum Electron. 41(7), 581–583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khopin, V. F.

Korchak, V. N.

Kustov, E. F.

Kuznetsov, A.

A. Kuznetsov, B. Popovkin, W. Henderson, M. Taylor, and L. Bengtsson-Kloo, “Monocations of bismuth and indium in arene media: a spectroscopic and EXAFS investigation,” J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 11(11), 1777–1781 (2000).
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Levchenko, A. E.

Li, C.

C. Li, Z. Song, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, X. Yu, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, R. Wang, Y. Xu, and Y. Cao, “Broadband yellow–white and near infrared luminescence from Bi-doped Ba10(PO4)6Cl2 prepared in reductive atmosphere,” J. Lumin. 132(7), 1807–1811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Li, J.

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lichkova, N. V.

Liebertz, J.

P. Held, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, “Crystal structure of dibarium pentaborate chloride, Ba2B5O9Cl,” Z. Kristallogr. NCS 217, 463–464 (2002).

Lin, H.

Lisiecki, R.

Liu, Z.

Z. Yang, Z. Liu, Z. Song, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, K. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Influence of optical basicity on broadband near infrared emission in bismuth doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(24), 6816–6818 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

Manzel, K.

K. Manzel, U. Engelhardt, H. Abe, W. Schulze, and F. Froben, “Matrix Raman studies of Bin (n≥2) molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 77(3), 514–516 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mashinsky, V.

V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, and E. Dianov, “Efficient bismuth-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(9), 834–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Dianov, V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, A. Umnikov, M. Yashkov, and A. Gur'yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mashinsky, V. M.

Medvedkov, O.

S. Firstov, A. Shubin, V. Khopin, M. Mel’kumov, I. Bufetov, O. Medvedkov, A. Gur’yanov, and E. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fiber laser with 20-W output power at 1460nm,” Quantum Electron. 41(7), 581–583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Dianov, A. Shubin, M. Melkumov, O. Medvedkov, and I. Bufetov, “High-power cw bismuth-fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1749–1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mel’kumov, M.

S. Firstov, A. Shubin, V. Khopin, M. Mel’kumov, I. Bufetov, O. Medvedkov, A. Gur’yanov, and E. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fiber laser with 20-W output power at 1460nm,” Quantum Electron. 41(7), 581–583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Melkumov, M.

Melkumov, M. A.

Meng, X.

Miwa, Y.

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, Y. Miwa, F. Shimaoka, M. Fujii, A. Hosokawa, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Superbroadband near-IR nano-optical source based on bismuth-doped high-silica nanocrystalline zeolites,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1219–1221 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizuhata, M.

Ohishi, Y.

Okhrimchuk, A. G.

Peng, M.

R. Cao, M. Peng, J. Zheng, J. Qiu, and Q. Zhang, “Superbroad near to mid infrared luminescence from closo-deltahedral Bi53+ cluster in Bi5(GaCl4)3,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2562–2571 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Xu, M. Peng, Z. Ma, G. Dong, and J. Qiu, “A new study on bismuth doped oxide glasses,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15692–15702 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cao, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, and J. Qiu, “Superbroad near-to-mid-infrared luminescence from Bi5(3+) in Bi5(AlCl4)3.,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2562–2571 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2241–2245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, N. Zhang, L. Wondraczek, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, and Q. Zhang, “Ultrabroad NIR luminescence and energy transfer in Bi and Er/Bi co-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20799–20807 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, “Photoluminescence of Sr(2)P(2)O(7):Bi(2+) as a red phosphor for additive light generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2544–2546 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, B. Sprenger, M. A. Schmidt, H. G. Schwefel, and L. Wondraczek, “Broadband NIR photoluminescence from Bi-doped Ba2P2O7 crystals: insights into the nature of NIR-emitting Bismuth centers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12852–12863 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, and L. Wondraczek, “Generation of emission centers for broadband NIR luminescence in bismuthate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(2), 542–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, “Bismuth-doped oxide glasses as potential solar spectral converters and concentrators,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(5), 627–630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, B. Wu, N. Da, C. Wang, D. Chen, C. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Bismuth-activated luminescent materials for broadband optical amplifier in WDM system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(12-13), 1221–1225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, D. Chen, J. Qiu, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth-doped zinc aluminosilicate glasses and glass-ceramics with ultra-broadband infrared luminescence,” Opt. Mater. 29(5), 556–561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Superbroadband 1310 nm emission from bismuth and tantalum codoped germanium oxide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2433–2435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Broadband infrared luminescence from Li2O-Al2O3-ZnO-SiO2 glasses doped with Bi2O3.,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6892–6898 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, I. Yang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth- and aluminum-codoped germanium oxide glasses for super-broadband optical amplification,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 1998–2000 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popovkin, B.

A. Kuznetsov, B. Popovkin, W. Henderson, M. Taylor, and L. Bengtsson-Kloo, “Monocations of bismuth and indium in arene media: a spectroscopic and EXAFS investigation,” J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 11(11), 1777–1781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pun, E. Y.

Pureur, V.

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

R. Cao, M. Peng, J. Zheng, J. Qiu, and Q. Zhang, “Superbroad near to mid infrared luminescence from closo-deltahedral Bi53+ cluster in Bi5(GaCl4)3,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2562–2571 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Xu, M. Peng, Z. Ma, G. Dong, and J. Qiu, “A new study on bismuth doped oxide glasses,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15692–15702 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cao, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, and J. Qiu, “Superbroad near-to-mid-infrared luminescence from Bi5(3+) in Bi5(AlCl4)3.,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2562–2571 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, Z. Song, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, X. Yu, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, R. Wang, Y. Xu, and Y. Cao, “Broadband yellow–white and near infrared luminescence from Bi-doped Ba10(PO4)6Cl2 prepared in reductive atmosphere,” J. Lumin. 132(7), 1807–1811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2241–2245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, N. Zhang, L. Wondraczek, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, and Q. Zhang, “Ultrabroad NIR luminescence and energy transfer in Bi and Er/Bi co-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20799–20807 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yang, Z. Liu, Z. Song, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, K. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Influence of optical basicity on broadband near infrared emission in bismuth doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(24), 6816–6818 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Chi, D. Zhou, Z. Song, and J. Qiu, “Effect of optical basicity on broadband infrared fluorescence in bismuth-doped alkali metal germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 945–948 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, and L. Wondraczek, “Generation of emission centers for broadband NIR luminescence in bismuthate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(2), 542–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ruan, L. Su, J. Qiu, D. Chen, and J. Xu, “Bi-doped BaF2 crystal for broadband near-infrared light source,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5163–5169 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, B. Wu, N. Da, C. Wang, D. Chen, C. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Bismuth-activated luminescent materials for broadband optical amplifier in WDM system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(12-13), 1221–1225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, D. Chen, J. Qiu, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth-doped zinc aluminosilicate glasses and glass-ceramics with ultra-broadband infrared luminescence,” Opt. Mater. 29(5), 556–561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Broadband infrared luminescence from Li2O-Al2O3-ZnO-SiO2 glasses doped with Bi2O3.,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6892–6898 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Superbroadband 1310 nm emission from bismuth and tantalum codoped germanium oxide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2433–2435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, I. Yang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth- and aluminum-codoped germanium oxide glasses for super-broadband optical amplification,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 1998–2000 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radhakrishna, S.

S. Radhakrishna and R. Setty, “Bismuth centers in alkali halides,” Phys. Rev. B 14(3), 969–976 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Razdobreev, I.

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ren, G.

Romanov, A. N.

Ruan, J.

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

Sakka, Y.

H. T. Sun, Y. Sakka, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, and H. Gao, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from ionic liquids containing subvalent bismuth,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 100–102 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. A.

Schulze, W.

K. Manzel, U. Engelhardt, H. Abe, W. Schulze, and F. Froben, “Matrix Raman studies of Bin (n≥2) molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 77(3), 514–516 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, G. P.

V. E. Bondybey, G. P. Schwartz, J. E. Griffiths, and J. H. English, “Spectra of inert gas matrices containing bismuth: ground-state frequency of Bi2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 30–34 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Schwefel, H. G.

Semenov, S. L.

Setty, R.

S. Radhakrishna and R. Setty, “Bismuth centers in alkali halides,” Phys. Rev. B 14(3), 969–976 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Shimaoka, F.

Shirahata, N.

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, Y. Sakka, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, and H. Gao, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from ionic liquids containing subvalent bismuth,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 100–102 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shubin, A.

S. Firstov, A. Shubin, V. Khopin, M. Mel’kumov, I. Bufetov, O. Medvedkov, A. Gur’yanov, and E. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped germanosilicate fiber laser with 20-W output power at 1460nm,” Quantum Electron. 41(7), 581–583 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Dianov, A. Shubin, M. Melkumov, O. Medvedkov, and I. Bufetov, “High-power cw bismuth-fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1749–1755 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, A. V.

Smith, G.

N. Bjerrum, C. Boston, and G. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and Bi53+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem. 6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. P.

N. J. Bjerrum, C. R. Boston, and G. P. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and Bi53+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem. 6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Solarz, P.

Song, Z.

C. Li, Z. Song, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, X. Yu, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, R. Wang, Y. Xu, and Y. Cao, “Broadband yellow–white and near infrared luminescence from Bi-doped Ba10(PO4)6Cl2 prepared in reductive atmosphere,” J. Lumin. 132(7), 1807–1811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, Z. Liu, Z. Song, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, K. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Influence of optical basicity on broadband near infrared emission in bismuth doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(24), 6816–6818 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Chi, D. Zhou, Z. Song, and J. Qiu, “Effect of optical basicity on broadband infrared fluorescence in bismuth-doped alkali metal germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 945–948 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sprenger, B.

Su, L.

Sulimov, V. B.

Sun, H.

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. T.

Suzuki, T.

Tang, H.

Taylor, M.

A. Kuznetsov, B. Popovkin, W. Henderson, M. Taylor, and L. Bengtsson-Kloo, “Monocations of bismuth and indium in arene media: a spectroscopic and EXAFS investigation,” J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 11(11), 1777–1781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trusov, L. A.

Tsvetkov, V. B.

Ulvenlund, S.

S. Ulvenlund, A. Wheatley, and L. Bengtsson, “Synthesis of main-group metal clusters in organic solvents,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1(1), 59–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Umnikov, A.

E. Dianov, V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, A. Umnikov, M. Yashkov, and A. Gur'yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Umnikov, A. A.

Usovich, O. V.

Veber, A. A.

Vel’miskin, V. V.

Wang, C.

M. Peng, B. Wu, N. Da, C. Wang, D. Chen, C. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Bismuth-activated luminescent materials for broadband optical amplifier in WDM system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(12-13), 1221–1225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

C. Li, Z. Song, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, X. Yu, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, R. Wang, Y. Xu, and Y. Cao, “Broadband yellow–white and near infrared luminescence from Bi-doped Ba10(PO4)6Cl2 prepared in reductive atmosphere,” J. Lumin. 132(7), 1807–1811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

G. Yang, D. Chen, W. Wang, Y. Xu, H. Zeng, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effects of thermal treatment on broadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped chalcohalide glasses,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28(16), 3189–3191 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wheatley, A.

S. Ulvenlund, A. Wheatley, and L. Bengtsson, “Synthesis of main-group metal clusters in organic solvents,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1(1), 59–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wondraczek, L.

R. Cao, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, and J. Qiu, “Superbroad near-to-mid-infrared luminescence from Bi5(3+) in Bi5(AlCl4)3.,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2562–2571 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2241–2245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, N. Zhang, L. Wondraczek, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, and Q. Zhang, “Ultrabroad NIR luminescence and energy transfer in Bi and Er/Bi co-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20799–20807 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, “Photoluminescence of Sr(2)P(2)O(7):Bi(2+) as a red phosphor for additive light generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2544–2546 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, B. Sprenger, M. A. Schmidt, H. G. Schwefel, and L. Wondraczek, “Broadband NIR photoluminescence from Bi-doped Ba2P2O7 crystals: insights into the nature of NIR-emitting Bismuth centers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12852–12863 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, and L. Wondraczek, “Generation of emission centers for broadband NIR luminescence in bismuthate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(2), 542–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, “Bismuth-doped oxide glasses as potential solar spectral converters and concentrators,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(5), 627–630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

M. Peng, B. Wu, N. Da, C. Wang, D. Chen, C. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Bismuth-activated luminescent materials for broadband optical amplifier in WDM system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(12-13), 1221–1225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

Xia, H.

Xu, J.

Xu, W.

Xu, Y.

C. Li, Z. Song, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, X. Yu, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, R. Wang, Y. Xu, and Y. Cao, “Broadband yellow–white and near infrared luminescence from Bi-doped Ba10(PO4)6Cl2 prepared in reductive atmosphere,” J. Lumin. 132(7), 1807–1811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Yang, D. Chen, W. Wang, Y. Xu, H. Zeng, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effects of thermal treatment on broadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped chalcohalide glasses,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28(16), 3189–3191 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

G. Yang, D. Chen, W. Wang, Y. Xu, H. Zeng, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effects of thermal treatment on broadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped chalcohalide glasses,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28(16), 3189–3191 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, I.

Yang, Q.

Yang, Y.

Yang, Z.

C. Li, Z. Song, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, X. Yu, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, R. Wang, Y. Xu, and Y. Cao, “Broadband yellow–white and near infrared luminescence from Bi-doped Ba10(PO4)6Cl2 prepared in reductive atmosphere,” J. Lumin. 132(7), 1807–1811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, N. Zhang, L. Wondraczek, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, and Q. Zhang, “Ultrabroad NIR luminescence and energy transfer in Bi and Er/Bi co-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20799–20807 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yang, Z. Liu, Z. Song, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, K. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Influence of optical basicity on broadband near infrared emission in bismuth doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(24), 6816–6818 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yashkov, M.

E. Dianov, V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, A. Umnikov, M. Yashkov, and A. Gur'yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yashkov, M. V.

Yin, Z.

C. Li, Z. Song, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, X. Yu, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, R. Wang, Y. Xu, and Y. Cao, “Broadband yellow–white and near infrared luminescence from Bi-doped Ba10(PO4)6Cl2 prepared in reductive atmosphere,” J. Lumin. 132(7), 1807–1811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, Z. Liu, Z. Song, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, K. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Influence of optical basicity on broadband near infrared emission in bismuth doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(24), 6816–6818 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Yu, X.

C. Li, Z. Song, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, X. Yu, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, R. Wang, Y. Xu, and Y. Cao, “Broadband yellow–white and near infrared luminescence from Bi-doped Ba10(PO4)6Cl2 prepared in reductive atmosphere,” J. Lumin. 132(7), 1807–1811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zagorodnev, V. N.

Zeng, H.

G. Yang, D. Chen, W. Wang, Y. Xu, H. Zeng, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effects of thermal treatment on broadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped chalcohalide glasses,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28(16), 3189–3191 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2241–2245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, N.

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2241–2245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, N. Zhang, L. Wondraczek, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, and Q. Zhang, “Ultrabroad NIR luminescence and energy transfer in Bi and Er/Bi co-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20799–20807 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Zhao, H.

Zhao, Q.

M. Peng, Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, and L. Wondraczek, “Generation of emission centers for broadband NIR luminescence in bismuthate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(2), 542–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J.

Zheng, L.

Zhou, B.

Zhou, D.

C. Li, Z. Song, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, X. Yu, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, R. Wang, Y. Xu, and Y. Cao, “Broadband yellow–white and near infrared luminescence from Bi-doped Ba10(PO4)6Cl2 prepared in reductive atmosphere,” J. Lumin. 132(7), 1807–1811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, Z. Liu, Z. Song, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, K. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Influence of optical basicity on broadband near infrared emission in bismuth doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(24), 6816–6818 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Chi, D. Zhou, Z. Song, and J. Qiu, “Effect of optical basicity on broadband infrared fluorescence in bismuth-doped alkali metal germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 945–948 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, P.

Zhou, S.

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C.

Zhu, K.

Z. Yang, Z. Liu, Z. Song, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, K. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Influence of optical basicity on broadband near infrared emission in bismuth doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(24), 6816–6818 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zollfrank, C.

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007).
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I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031103 (2007).
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J. Hao and M. Cocivera, “Blue cathodoluminescence from Ba2B5O9Cl:Eu phosphor thin films on glass substates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(22), 4154–4156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

V. E. Bondybey, G. P. Schwartz, J. E. Griffiths, and J. H. English, “Spectra of inert gas matrices containing bismuth: ground-state frequency of Bi2,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 30–34 (1980).
[CrossRef]

K. Manzel, U. Engelhardt, H. Abe, W. Schulze, and F. Froben, “Matrix Raman studies of Bin (n≥2) molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 77(3), 514–516 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, and E. Dianov, “Efficient bismuth-doped fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(9), 834–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Chem. (2)

N. Bjerrum, C. Boston, and G. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and Bi53+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem. 6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Bjerrum, C. R. Boston, and G. P. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and Bi53+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem. 6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloy. Comp. (1)

Z. Yang, Z. Liu, Z. Song, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, K. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Influence of optical basicity on broadband near infrared emission in bismuth doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(24), 6816–6818 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

M. Peng, Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, and L. Wondraczek, “Generation of emission centers for broadband NIR luminescence in bismuthate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(2), 542–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. (1)

S. Ulvenlund, A. Wheatley, and L. Bengtsson, “Synthesis of main-group metal clusters in organic solvents,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1(1), 59–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. (1)

A. Kuznetsov, B. Popovkin, W. Henderson, M. Taylor, and L. Bengtsson-Kloo, “Monocations of bismuth and indium in arene media: a spectroscopic and EXAFS investigation,” J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 11(11), 1777–1781 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. (1)

G. Yang, D. Chen, W. Wang, Y. Xu, H. Zeng, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effects of thermal treatment on broadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped chalcohalide glasses,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28(16), 3189–3191 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

C. Li, Z. Song, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, X. Yu, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, R. Wang, Y. Xu, and Y. Cao, “Broadband yellow–white and near infrared luminescence from Bi-doped Ba10(PO4)6Cl2 prepared in reductive atmosphere,” J. Lumin. 132(7), 1807–1811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (2)

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, “Bismuth-doped oxide glasses as potential solar spectral converters and concentrators,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(5), 627–630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2241–2245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, B. Wu, N. Da, C. Wang, D. Chen, C. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Bismuth-activated luminescent materials for broadband optical amplifier in WDM system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(12-13), 1221–1225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (13)

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Broadband infrared luminescence from Li2O-Al2O3-ZnO-SiO2 glasses doped with Bi2O3.,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6892–6898 (2005).
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J. Ruan, L. Su, J. Qiu, D. Chen, and J. Xu, “Bi-doped BaF2 crystal for broadband near-infrared light source,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5163–5169 (2009).
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L. Su, P. Zhou, J. Yu, H. Li, L. Zheng, F. Wu, Y. Yang, Q. Yang, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and near-infrared broadband luminescence of Bi-doped SrB4O7 glasses and crystalline materials,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13554–13560 (2009).
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M. A. Hughes, T. Akada, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and D. W. Hewak, “Ultrabroad emission from a bismuth doped chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19345–19355 (2009).
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J. Xu, H. Zhao, L. Su, J. Yu, P. Zhou, H. Tang, L. Zheng, and H. Li, “Study on the effect of heat-annealing and irradiation on spectroscopic properties of Bi:alpha-BaB2O4 single crystal,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3385–3391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, B. Sprenger, M. A. Schmidt, H. G. Schwefel, and L. Wondraczek, “Broadband NIR photoluminescence from Bi-doped Ba2P2O7 crystals: insights into the nature of NIR-emitting Bismuth centers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12852–12863 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhou, H. Lin, B. Chen, and E. Y. Pun, “Superbroadband near-infrared emission in Tm-Bi codoped sodium-germanium-gallate glasses,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6514–6523 (2011).
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S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19551–19561 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, N. Zhang, L. Wondraczek, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, and Q. Zhang, “Ultrabroad NIR luminescence and energy transfer in Bi and Er/Bi co-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20799–20807 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cao, M. Peng, J. Zheng, J. Qiu, and Q. Zhang, “Superbroad near to mid infrared luminescence from closo-deltahedral Bi53+ cluster in Bi5(GaCl4)3,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2562–2571 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cao, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, and J. Qiu, “Superbroad near-to-mid-infrared luminescence from Bi5(3+) in Bi5(AlCl4)3.,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2562–2571 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Romanov, Z. T. Fattakhova, A. A. Veber, O. V. Usovich, E. V. Haula, V. N. Korchak, V. B. Tsvetkov, L. A. Trusov, P. E. Kazin, and V. B. Sulimov, “On the origin of near-IR luminescence in Bi-doped materials (II). Subvalent monocation Bi⁺ and cluster Bi₅³⁺ luminescence in AlCl₃/ZnCl₂/BiCl₃ chloride glass,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7212–7220 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Xu, M. Peng, Z. Ma, G. Dong, and J. Qiu, “A new study on bismuth doped oxide glasses,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15692–15702 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (10)

L. Su, H. Zhao, H. Li, L. Zheng, G. Ren, J. Xu, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and P. Solarz, “Near-infrared ultrabroadband luminescence spectra properties of subvalent bismuth in CsI halide crystals,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4551–4553 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, “Photoluminescence of Sr(2)P(2)O(7):Bi(2+) as a red phosphor for additive light generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2544–2546 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Sun, Y. Sakka, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, and H. Gao, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from ionic liquids containing subvalent bismuth,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 100–102 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Bufetov, M. A. Melkumov, S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Vel’miskin, A. E. Levchenko, E. G. Firstova, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical gain and laser generation in bismuth-doped silica fibers free of other dopants,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 166–168 (2011).
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L. Su, J. Yu, P. Zhou, H. Li, L. Zheng, Y. Yang, F. Wu, H. Xia, and J. Xu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence in γ-irradiated Bi-doped α-BaB(2)O(4) single crystals,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2504–2506 (2009).
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H. T. Sun, Y. Miwa, F. Shimaoka, M. Fujii, A. Hosokawa, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Superbroadband near-IR nano-optical source based on bismuth-doped high-silica nanocrystalline zeolites,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1219–1221 (2009).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a, λex = 478 nm) NIR and (b, λex = 273 nm) red emission spectra of Ba2(1-x)B5O9Cl: 2x%Bi (x = 0.3) treated in H2 at 850°C for different times: (black line) 0.0 h, (red line) 0.5 h, (green line) 1.0 h, (blue line) 2.0 h and (pink line) 2.5 h.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

XRD pattern (-o-) of Ba2(1-x)B5O9Cl: 2x%Bi (x = 0.1) prepared in N2/H2, Rietveld refining results (), Bragg reflections (|) and the profile difference between experimental and calculated values (). Inset left: Double cell of Ba2B5O9Cl viewed along b; Inset right up and down: Coordination environment around Ba (1) and Ba (2), respectively. Blue ball: Ba; green ball: Cl; red ball: O; and cyan ball: B.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Excitation (curve 1: λem = 1055 nm; 2: λem = 1030 nm) and emission spectra (1: λex = 298 nm; 2: λex = 378 nm; 3: λex = 478 nm; 4: λex = 534 nm; 5: λex = 665 nm) of Ba2(1-x)B5O9Cl: 2x%Bi (x = 0.7).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Decay and fit (with simple exponential decay equation) curves of Ba2(1-x)B5O9Cl: 2x%Bi (x = 0.7): (1) and (2) for the case of the emission at 1061 nm upon 478 nm excitation, and (3) and (4) for the emission at 1030 nm upon the excitation of 298 nm. Inset shows the dependence of lifetime on the bismuth content x%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Emission spectra of Ba2(1-x)B5O9Cl: x%Bi (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, 3.0, 5.0) upon excitation of 478 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reversely removing and recovering NIR (-●-, λex = 478 nm) and red (-●-, λex = 273 nm) emission centers of bismuth by repeatable treating Ba2(1-x)B5O9Cl: 2x%Bi (x = 0.3) in air and H2 in turn. The emission was excited by 478 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparing energy levels of Bi0 [52] with Ba2B5O9Cl:Bi

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