Abstract

In this paper, we reported the realization of an ultra-long ring fiber laser (RFL) with hybrid emission related to both random lasing and cavity resonance. Compared with a linear random fiber laser (LRFL), the Rayleigh scattering (RS) inducting distributed feedback effect and the cavity inducting resonance effect exist simultaneously in the laser, which reduces the lasing threshold considerably and provides a hybrid way to form random lasing (RL). The laser output can be purely modeless RL when pump power is high enough. It is also discovered that the laser is insensitive to temperature variation and mechanical disturbance, this is unique and quite different from conventional RFLs which are environmentally unstable due to existence of the cavity modes.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. N. Park, J. W. Dawson, K. J. Vahala, and C. Miller, “All fiber,low threshold, widely tunable single-frequency fiber ring laser with a tandem fiber Fabry–Perot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639–2671 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. N. Wang, F. W. Tong, X. Fang, W. Jin, P. K. A. Wai, and J. M. Gong, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser source with a hybrid gain medium,” Opt. Commun. 228(4-6), 295–301 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. H. Yeh and C. W. Chow, “Single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with novel scheme utilizing fiber Bragg grating inside ring cavity,” Laser Phys. 20(2), 512–515 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Dong, P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, and C. C. Chan, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber laser with a continuously-tunable spacing,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3288–3293 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Fernández-Vallejo, S. Diaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, R. Unzu, M. A. Quintela, J. M. López-Higuera, and M. López-Amo, “Comparison of the stability of ring resonator structures for multiwavelength fiber lasers using Raman or er-doped fiber amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1551–1557 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, “Four-wave-mixing-induced turbulent spectral broadening in a long Raman fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1729–1738 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. S. Letokhov, “Generation of light a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption,” Sov. Phys 26, 835–840 (1968).
  8. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. A. Noginov, “Random lasers resonance control,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 397–398 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021805 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Podoleanu, “Route to OCT from OFS at university of Kent,” Photon. Sens. 1(2), 166–186 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Quasi-lossless transmission using second-order Raman amplification and fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4372–4377 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. W. L. Zhang, Y. J. Rao, J. M. Zhu, Z. X. Yang, Z. N. Wang, and X. H. Jia, “Low threshold 2nd-order random lasing of a fiber laser with a half-opened cavity,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14400–14405 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, “Study on fiber-optic low-coherence interferometric and fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Photon. Sens. 1(4), 382–400 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 744–747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Podoleanu, “Route to OCT from OFS at university of Kent,” Photon. Sens. 1(2), 166–186 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Fotiadi, “Random lasers: an incoherent fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 204–205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Lloyd, V. Dangui, M. J. F. Digonnet, S. Fan, and G. S. Kino, “Measurement of reduced backscattering noise in laser-driven fiber optic gyroscopes,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 121–123 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Yeh and C. W. Chow, “Single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with novel scheme utilizing fiber Bragg grating inside ring cavity,” Laser Phys. 20(2), 512–515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Fernández-Vallejo, S. Diaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, R. Unzu, M. A. Quintela, J. M. López-Higuera, and M. López-Amo, “Comparison of the stability of ring resonator structures for multiwavelength fiber lasers using Raman or er-doped fiber amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1551–1557 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

M. A. Noginov, “Random lasers resonance control,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 397–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, “Four-wave-mixing-induced turbulent spectral broadening in a long Raman fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1729–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

X. Dong, P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, and C. C. Chan, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber laser with a continuously-tunable spacing,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3288–3293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. P. Leong, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Directional edge-emitting UV random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

D. N. Wang, F. W. Tong, X. Fang, W. Jin, P. K. A. Wai, and J. M. Gong, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser source with a hybrid gain medium,” Opt. Commun. 228(4-6), 295–301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

Y. J. Rao and D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fiber optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7(7), 981–999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991

N. Park, J. W. Dawson, K. J. Vahala, and C. Miller, “All fiber,low threshold, widely tunable single-frequency fiber ring laser with a tandem fiber Fabry–Perot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639–2671 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1968

V. S. Letokhov, “Generation of light a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption,” Sov. Phys 26, 835–840 (1968).

Ania-Castañón, J. D.

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, “Quasi-lossless transmission using second-order Raman amplification and fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4372–4377 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babin, S. A.

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, “Four-wave-mixing-induced turbulent spectral broadening in a long Raman fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1729–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brito-Silva, A. M.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. C.

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choma, M. A.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chow, C. W.

C. H. Yeh and C. W. Chow, “Single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with novel scheme utilizing fiber Bragg grating inside ring cavity,” Laser Phys. 20(2), 512–515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Churkin, D.

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Churkin, D. V.

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, “Four-wave-mixing-induced turbulent spectral broadening in a long Raman fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1729–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dangui, V.

Dawson, J. W.

N. Park, J. W. Dawson, K. J. Vahala, and C. Miller, “All fiber,low threshold, widely tunable single-frequency fiber ring laser with a tandem fiber Fabry–Perot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639–2671 (1991).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, C. B.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Matos, C. J. S.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de S Menezes, L.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diaz, S.

M. Fernández-Vallejo, S. Diaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, R. Unzu, M. A. Quintela, J. M. López-Higuera, and M. López-Amo, “Comparison of the stability of ring resonator structures for multiwavelength fiber lasers using Raman or er-doped fiber amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1551–1557 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

Dong, X.

El-Taher, A. E.

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

Fang, X.

D. N. Wang, F. W. Tong, X. Fang, W. Jin, P. K. A. Wai, and J. M. Gong, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser source with a hybrid gain medium,” Opt. Commun. 228(4-6), 295–301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fernández-Vallejo, M.

M. Fernández-Vallejo, S. Diaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, R. Unzu, M. A. Quintela, J. M. López-Higuera, and M. López-Amo, “Comparison of the stability of ring resonator structures for multiwavelength fiber lasers using Raman or er-doped fiber amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1551–1557 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fotiadi, A. A.

A. A. Fotiadi, “Random lasers: an incoherent fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 204–205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, J. M.

D. N. Wang, F. W. Tong, X. Fang, W. Jin, P. K. A. Wai, and J. M. Gong, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser source with a hybrid gain medium,” Opt. Commun. 228(4-6), 295–301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grant, G.

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 744–747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Harper, P.

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ismagulov, A. E.

Jackson, D. A.

Y. J. Rao and D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fiber optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7(7), 981–999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jia, X. H.

Jin, W.

D. N. Wang, F. W. Tong, X. Fang, W. Jin, P. K. A. Wai, and J. M. Gong, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser source with a hybrid gain medium,” Opt. Commun. 228(4-6), 295–301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kablukov, S. I.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, “Four-wave-mixing-induced turbulent spectral broadening in a long Raman fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1729–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karalekas, V.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kino, G. S.

Lau, S. P.

E. S. P. Leong, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Directional edge-emitting UV random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leong, E. S. P.

E. S. P. Leong, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Directional edge-emitting UV random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, “Generation of light a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption,” Sov. Phys 26, 835–840 (1968).

Lloyd, S. W.

López-Amo, M.

M. Fernández-Vallejo, S. Diaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, R. Unzu, M. A. Quintela, J. M. López-Higuera, and M. López-Amo, “Comparison of the stability of ring resonator structures for multiwavelength fiber lasers using Raman or er-doped fiber amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1551–1557 (2009).
[CrossRef]

López-Higuera, J. M.

M. Fernández-Vallejo, S. Diaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, R. Unzu, M. A. Quintela, J. M. López-Higuera, and M. López-Amo, “Comparison of the stability of ring resonator structures for multiwavelength fiber lasers using Raman or er-doped fiber amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1551–1557 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martinez Gámez, M. A.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mezentsev, V. K.

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, C.

N. Park, J. W. Dawson, K. J. Vahala, and C. Miller, “All fiber,low threshold, widely tunable single-frequency fiber ring laser with a tandem fiber Fabry–Perot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639–2671 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ngo, N. Q.

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, “Random lasers resonance control,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 397–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, N.

N. Park, J. W. Dawson, K. J. Vahala, and C. Miller, “All fiber,low threshold, widely tunable single-frequency fiber ring laser with a tandem fiber Fabry–Perot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639–2671 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Herrera, R. A.

M. Fernández-Vallejo, S. Diaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, R. Unzu, M. A. Quintela, J. M. López-Higuera, and M. López-Amo, “Comparison of the stability of ring resonator structures for multiwavelength fiber lasers using Raman or er-doped fiber amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1551–1557 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Podivilov, E. V.

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, “Four-wave-mixing-induced turbulent spectral broadening in a long Raman fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1729–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Podoleanu, A.

A. Podoleanu, “Route to OCT from OFS at university of Kent,” Photon. Sens. 1(2), 166–186 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Quintela, M. A.

M. Fernández-Vallejo, S. Diaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, R. Unzu, M. A. Quintela, J. M. López-Higuera, and M. López-Amo, “Comparison of the stability of ring resonator structures for multiwavelength fiber lasers using Raman or er-doped fiber amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1551–1557 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y. J.

W. L. Zhang, Y. J. Rao, J. M. Zhu, Z. X. Yang, Z. N. Wang, and X. H. Jia, “Low threshold 2nd-order random lasing of a fiber laser with a half-opened cavity,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14400–14405 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Rao, “Study on fiber-optic low-coherence interferometric and fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Photon. Sens. 1(4), 382–400 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao and D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fiber optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7(7), 981–999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Redding, B.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Robles, F. E.

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 744–747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

Tong, F. W.

D. N. Wang, F. W. Tong, X. Fang, W. Jin, P. K. A. Wai, and J. M. Gong, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser source with a hybrid gain medium,” Opt. Commun. 228(4-6), 295–301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Turitsyn, S. K.

D. V. Churkin, A. E. El-Taher, I. D. Vatnik, J. D. Ania-Castañón, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, S. A. Babin, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Experimental and theoretical study of longitudinal power distribution in a random DFB fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11178–11188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unzu, R.

M. Fernández-Vallejo, S. Diaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, R. Unzu, M. A. Quintela, J. M. López-Higuera, and M. López-Amo, “Comparison of the stability of ring resonator structures for multiwavelength fiber lasers using Raman or er-doped fiber amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1551–1557 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

N. Park, J. W. Dawson, K. J. Vahala, and C. Miller, “All fiber,low threshold, widely tunable single-frequency fiber ring laser with a tandem fiber Fabry–Perot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639–2671 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vatnik, I. D.

Wai, P. K. A.

D. N. Wang, F. W. Tong, X. Fang, W. Jin, P. K. A. Wai, and J. M. Gong, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser source with a hybrid gain medium,” Opt. Commun. 228(4-6), 295–301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. N.

D. N. Wang, F. W. Tong, X. Fang, W. Jin, P. K. A. Wai, and J. M. Gong, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser source with a hybrid gain medium,” Opt. Commun. 228(4-6), 295–301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. N.

Wax, A.

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 744–747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, C.

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 744–747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. X.

Yeh, C. H.

C. H. Yeh and C. W. Chow, “Single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with novel scheme utilizing fiber Bragg grating inside ring cavity,” Laser Phys. 20(2), 512–515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. F.

E. S. P. Leong, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Directional edge-emitting UV random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. L.

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J. M.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. S. P. Leong, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Directional edge-emitting UV random laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Park, J. W. Dawson, K. J. Vahala, and C. Miller, “All fiber,low threshold, widely tunable single-frequency fiber ring laser with a tandem fiber Fabry–Perot filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2639–2671 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Fernández-Vallejo, S. Diaz, R. A. Perez-Herrera, R. Unzu, M. A. Quintela, J. M. López-Higuera, and M. López-Amo, “Comparison of the stability of ring resonator structures for multiwavelength fiber lasers using Raman or er-doped fiber amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(12), 1551–1557 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Math. Gen.

H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys.

C. H. Yeh and C. W. Chow, “Single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser with novel scheme utilizing fiber Bragg grating inside ring cavity,” Laser Phys. 20(2), 512–515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

Y. J. Rao and D. A. Jackson, “Recent progress in fiber optic low-coherence interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 7(7), 981–999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

M. A. Noginov, “Random lasers resonance control,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 397–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 744–747 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Fotiadi, “Random lasers: an incoherent fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 204–205 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

D. N. Wang, F. W. Tong, X. Fang, W. Jin, P. K. A. Wai, and J. M. Gong, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser source with a hybrid gain medium,” Opt. Commun. 228(4-6), 295–301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photon. Sens.

A. Podoleanu, “Route to OCT from OFS at university of Kent,” Photon. Sens. 1(2), 166–186 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, “Study on fiber-optic low-coherence interferometric and fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Photon. Sens. 1(4), 382–400 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Tunable random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 021805 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033828 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys

V. S. Letokhov, “Generation of light a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption,” Sov. Phys 26, 835–840 (1968).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the hybrid-emitting ring fiber laser. WDM: wavelength division multiplexer. OSA: optical spectrum analyzer; SMF: single-mode fiber

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output power of the HERFL as a function of the pump power.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Numerical simulation of power distribution of the HERFL. (a) and (b) correspond to the pump power of 1 W and 2 W, respectively. The solid and broken curves correspond to simulation with and without consideration of the RS effect, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RF spectra [(a) and (b)] under different pump power, output power versus cavity length [(c)], where the symbol Pp denotes the pump power

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output spectra of the 125 km RRFL for different values of pump power. In (a), the pump power varies from 0.933 to 1.318 W; in (b), the pump power varies from 1.413 to 3.631 W

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Output spectra of the random ring fiber laser operating under different environmental temperatures. The pump power used is 1.4 W.

Metrics