Abstract

Novel suspended SiO2 ridge optical waveguides on silicon are fabricated and characterized. The present suspended SiO2 ridge optical waveguide has a SiO2 ridge core surrounded by air. The propagation loss and the bend loss measured are about 0.385dB/cm and 0.037dB/90° respectively for the fabricated 1μm-wide waveguides with a bending radius of 100μm when operating at the wavelength of 1550 nm. With the present suspended SiO2 optical waveguides, a small racetrack resonator with a radius of 100μm is also demonstrated and the measured Q-factor is about 3160.

© 2012 OSA

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2010

2009

B. Yang, L. Yang, R. Hu, Z. Sheng, D. Dai, Q. Liu, and S. He, “Fabrication and characterization of small optical ridge waveguides based on SU-8 polymer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(18), 4091–4096 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Dai and S. He, “Proposal of a coupled-microring-based wavelength-selective 1×N power splitter,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 21(21), 1630–1632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

2005

M. Garrigues, J. Danglot, J.-L. Leclercq, and O. Parillaud, “Tunable high-finesse InP/air MOEMs filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1471–1473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Ichi Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2821–2834 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 36–38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2000

T. Miya, “Silica-based planar lightwave circuits: passive and thermally active devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 38–45 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 18(6), 2619–2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kilian, J. Kirchof, B. Kuhlow, G. Przyrembel, and W. Wischmann, “Birefringence free planar optical waveguide made by flame hydrolysis deposition (FHD) through tailoring of the overcladding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18(2), 193–198 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. Chu, B. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, “An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 691–693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1987

E. Kobeda and E. A. Irene, “Intrinsic SiO2 film stress measurements on thermally oxidized Si,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5(1), 15–19 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, S.

Armani, D. K.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

Beckx, S.

Bergman, K.

Biberman, A.

Bienstman, P.

Bogaerts, W.

Borel, P. I.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2821–2834 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

T. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 36–38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Chen, L.

Chu, S.

S. Chu, B. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, “An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 691–693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, D.

Z. Sheng, B. Yang, L. Yang, J. Hu, D. Dai, and S. He, “Experimental demonstration of deeply-etched SiO2 ridge optical waveguides and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 28–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Yang, L. Yang, R. Hu, Z. Sheng, D. Dai, Q. Liu, and S. He, “Fabrication and characterization of small optical ridge waveguides based on SU-8 polymer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(18), 4091–4096 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Dai and S. He, “Proposal of a coupled-microring-based wavelength-selective 1×N power splitter,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 21(21), 1630–1632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Dai and Y. Shi, “Deeply etched SiO2 ridge waveguide for sharp bends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 5019–5024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Danglot, J.

M. Garrigues, J. Danglot, J.-L. Leclercq, and O. Parillaud, “Tunable high-finesse InP/air MOEMs filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1471–1473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Dumon, P.

Fage-Pedersen, J.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2821–2834 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuda, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Ichi Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).

Garrigues, M.

M. Garrigues, J. Danglot, J.-L. Leclercq, and O. Parillaud, “Tunable high-finesse InP/air MOEMs filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1471–1473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goldhar, J.

T. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 36–38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

Hak, D.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hashizume, Y.

Haus, H. A.

He, S.

Z. Sheng, B. Yang, L. Yang, J. Hu, D. Dai, and S. He, “Experimental demonstration of deeply-etched SiO2 ridge optical waveguides and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 28–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Yang, L. Yang, R. Hu, Z. Sheng, D. Dai, Q. Liu, and S. He, “Fabrication and characterization of small optical ridge waveguides based on SU-8 polymer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(18), 4091–4096 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Dai and S. He, “Proposal of a coupled-microring-based wavelength-selective 1×N power splitter,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 21(21), 1630–1632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P.-T.

T. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 36–38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

Z. Sheng, B. Yang, L. Yang, J. Hu, D. Dai, and S. He, “Experimental demonstration of deeply-etched SiO2 ridge optical waveguides and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 28–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, R.

Hubner, J.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2821–2834 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, T.

T. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 36–38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ichi Takahashi, J.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Ichi Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).

Inoue, Y.

Irene, E. A.

E. Kobeda and E. A. Irene, “Intrinsic SiO2 film stress measurements on thermally oxidized Si,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5(1), 15–19 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Ichi Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).

Itoh, M.

Janz, S.

Jones, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanakaraju, S.

Kaneko, T.

S. Chu, B. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, “An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 691–693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

Kilian, A.

Kim, Y.

T. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 36–38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirchof, J.

Kobeda, E.

E. Kobeda and E. A. Irene, “Intrinsic SiO2 film stress measurements on thermally oxidized Si,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5(1), 15–19 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Koechlin, M.

Kohtoku, M.

Kokubun, Y.

S. Chu, B. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, “An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 691–693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2821–2834 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlow, B.

Lapointe, J.

Leclercq, J.-L.

M. Garrigues, J. Danglot, J.-L. Leclercq, and O. Parillaud, “Tunable high-finesse InP/air MOEMs filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1471–1473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

Lee, C.

T. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 36–38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

T. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. Lee, “All-optical switching in a laterally coupled microring resonator by carrier injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 36–38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Lipson, M.

Little, B.

S. Chu, B. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, “An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 691–693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Q.

Liu, Q. Y.

Lopinski, G.

Luyssaert, B.

Ma, R.

Majkic, A.

Martinez, L.

Martinu, L.

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 18(6), 2619–2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McKinnon, R.

Michel, J.

Mischki, T.

Miya, T.

T. Miya, “Silica-based planar lightwave circuits: passive and thermally active devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 38–45 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Ichi Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).

Nasu, Y.

Nicolaescu, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, W.

S. Chu, B. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, “An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 691–693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parillaud, O.

M. Garrigues, J. Danglot, J.-L. Leclercq, and O. Parillaud, “Tunable high-finesse InP/air MOEMs filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1471–1473 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, D.

Poberaj, G.

Poitras, D.

L. Martinu and D. Poitras, “Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 18(6), 2619–2645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M.

Post, E.

Poulsen, M. R.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2821–2834 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Povlsen, J. H.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2821–2834 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Przyrembel, G.

Rabinovich, W. S.

Richardson, C. J. K.

Rong, H.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rottwitt, K.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hubner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2821–2834 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

S. Chu, B. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, “An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(6), 691–693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J. H.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheng, Z.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The cross section of the proposed suspended SiO2 optical waveguide; (b) the SEM top-view picture; (c) the TE mode profile for a straight waveguide; (d) the calculated bending loss and transition loss. The width wco = 1μm, the height hr = 660nm, the slab height h = 310nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The fabrication process for our suspended optical waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM pictures of the structures. (a) the top view for the coupling region of a racetrack resonator. The waveguide width w = 1μm, and the gap width wgap = 1μm; (b) a straight waveguide; (c) the cross section of a fabricated waveguide; (d) the enlarged view for the cross section.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The transmission for the suspended waveguides with different lengths. Inset is the micrographic photograph of a spiraled waveguide for measuring propagation loss and bend loss.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The measured spectral response at the through port of the fabricated racetrack resonator. Inset is the SEM picture of the fabricated race-track resonator.

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