Abstract

A multimode fiber laser sensor system for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature is proposed and demonstrated. Because of the long cavity and birefringence, longitudinal mode beat frequency and polarization mode beat frequency are achieved in the beat frequency signals of the multimode fiber laser. The strain and temperature can be obtained by monitoring both of them for their different strain and temperature responses. The experimental measurement errors are within ± 16.2με and ± 1.9°C. The usage of only one fiber laser and one demodulation system makes the system simple, cost-effective and portable.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. B. O. Guan, L. Jin, Y. Zhang, and H. Y. Tam, “Polarimetric heterodyning fiber grating laser sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(8), 1097–1112 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Zhang, J. Luo, B. Liu, S. Wang, C. Jia, and X. Ma, “Polarimetric multilongitudinal-mode distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for strain measurement,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51(11), 2559–2563 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Fu, X. Shu, C. Mou, L. Zhang, S. He, and I. Bennion, “Transversal loading sensor based on tunable beat frequency of a dual-wavelength fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 987–989 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Guo, A. C. L. Wong, W. S. Liu, B. O. Guan, C. Lu, and H. Y. Tam, “Beat-frequency adjustable Er3+-doped DBR fiber laser for ultrasound detection,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2485–2492 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brändle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, and J. Patscheider, “Distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1758–1760 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Liu, T. Guo, A. C. Wong, H. Y. Tam, and S. He, “Highly sensitive bending sensor based on Er3+-doped DBR fiber laser,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17834–17840 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. O. Hadeler, E. Rønnekleiv, M. Ibsen, and R. I. Laming, “Polarimetric distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for simultaneous strain and temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38(10), 1953–1958 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Y. Shao, X. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, and S. He, “High-resolution strain and temperature sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1598–1600 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. N. Tan, Y. Zhang, L. Jin, and B. O. Guan, “Simultaneous strain and temperature fiber grating laser sensor based on radio-frequency measurement,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20650–20656 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. O. Hadeler, M. Ibsen, and M. N. Zervas, “Distributed-feedback fiber laser sensor for simultaneous strain and temperature measurements operating in the radio-frequency domain,” Appl. Opt. 40(19), 3169–3175 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Liu, Z. Yin, L. Zhang, L. Gao, X. Chen, and J. Cheng, “Multilongitudinal mode fiber laser for strain measurement,” Opt. Lett. 35(6), 835–837 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Z. Yin, L. Gao, S. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Wu, L. Chen, and X. Chen, “Fiber ring laser sensor for temperature measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(23), 3403–3408 (2010).
  13. L. Gao, L. Chen, L. Huang, S. Liu, Z. Yin, and X. Chen, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and load using a fiber laser sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 1513–1517 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Gao, S. Liu, Z. Yin, L. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Chen, “Fiber-optic vibration sensor based on beat frequency and frequency-modulation demodulation techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 18–20 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

L. Gao, L. Chen, L. Huang, S. Liu, Z. Yin, and X. Chen, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and load using a fiber laser sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 1513–1517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. O. Guan, L. Jin, Y. Zhang, and H. Y. Tam, “Polarimetric heterodyning fiber grating laser sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(8), 1097–1112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

H. Zhang, J. Luo, B. Liu, S. Wang, C. Jia, and X. Ma, “Polarimetric multilongitudinal-mode distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for strain measurement,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51(11), 2559–2563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Fu, X. Shu, C. Mou, L. Zhang, S. He, and I. Bennion, “Transversal loading sensor based on tunable beat frequency of a dual-wavelength fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 987–989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. Y. Shao, X. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, and S. He, “High-resolution strain and temperature sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1598–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brändle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, and J. Patscheider, “Distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1758–1760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

Bennion, I.

H. Fu, X. Shu, C. Mou, L. Zhang, S. He, and I. Bennion, “Transversal loading sensor based on tunable beat frequency of a dual-wavelength fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 987–989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bohnert, K.

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brändle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, and J. Patscheider, “Distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1758–1760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brändle, H.

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brändle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, and J. Patscheider, “Distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1758–1760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

L. Gao, L. Chen, L. Huang, S. Liu, Z. Yin, and X. Chen, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and load using a fiber laser sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 1513–1517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, S. Liu, Z. Yin, L. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Chen, “Fiber-optic vibration sensor based on beat frequency and frequency-modulation demodulation techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 18–20 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yin, L. Gao, S. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Wu, L. Chen, and X. Chen, “Fiber ring laser sensor for temperature measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(23), 3403–3408 (2010).

Chen, X.

L. Gao, L. Chen, L. Huang, S. Liu, Z. Yin, and X. Chen, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and load using a fiber laser sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 1513–1517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, S. Liu, Z. Yin, L. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Chen, “Fiber-optic vibration sensor based on beat frequency and frequency-modulation demodulation techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 18–20 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Liu, Z. Yin, L. Zhang, L. Gao, X. Chen, and J. Cheng, “Multilongitudinal mode fiber laser for strain measurement,” Opt. Lett. 35(6), 835–837 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yin, L. Gao, S. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Wu, L. Chen, and X. Chen, “Fiber ring laser sensor for temperature measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(23), 3403–3408 (2010).

Cheng, J.

Dong, X.

L. Y. Shao, X. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, and S. He, “High-resolution strain and temperature sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1598–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frank, A.

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brändle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, and J. Patscheider, “Distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1758–1760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fu, H.

H. Fu, X. Shu, C. Mou, L. Zhang, S. He, and I. Bennion, “Transversal loading sensor based on tunable beat frequency of a dual-wavelength fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 987–989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gao, L.

L. Gao, L. Chen, L. Huang, S. Liu, Z. Yin, and X. Chen, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and load using a fiber laser sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 1513–1517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, S. Liu, Z. Yin, L. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Chen, “Fiber-optic vibration sensor based on beat frequency and frequency-modulation demodulation techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 18–20 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Liu, Z. Yin, L. Zhang, L. Gao, X. Chen, and J. Cheng, “Multilongitudinal mode fiber laser for strain measurement,” Opt. Lett. 35(6), 835–837 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yin, L. Gao, S. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Wu, L. Chen, and X. Chen, “Fiber ring laser sensor for temperature measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(23), 3403–3408 (2010).

Guan, B. O.

Guo, T.

Hadeler, O.

Haroud, K.

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brändle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, and J. Patscheider, “Distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1758–1760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

W. Liu, T. Guo, A. C. Wong, H. Y. Tam, and S. He, “Highly sensitive bending sensor based on Er3+-doped DBR fiber laser,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17834–17840 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fu, X. Shu, C. Mou, L. Zhang, S. He, and I. Bennion, “Transversal loading sensor based on tunable beat frequency of a dual-wavelength fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 987–989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Shao, X. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, and S. He, “High-resolution strain and temperature sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1598–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

L. Gao, L. Chen, L. Huang, S. Liu, Z. Yin, and X. Chen, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and load using a fiber laser sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 1513–1517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

Jia, C.

H. Zhang, J. Luo, B. Liu, S. Wang, C. Jia, and X. Ma, “Polarimetric multilongitudinal-mode distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for strain measurement,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51(11), 2559–2563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jin, L.

Laming, R. I.

Liu, B.

H. Zhang, J. Luo, B. Liu, S. Wang, C. Jia, and X. Ma, “Polarimetric multilongitudinal-mode distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for strain measurement,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51(11), 2559–2563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

L. Gao, L. Chen, L. Huang, S. Liu, Z. Yin, and X. Chen, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and load using a fiber laser sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 1513–1517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, S. Liu, Z. Yin, L. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Chen, “Fiber-optic vibration sensor based on beat frequency and frequency-modulation demodulation techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 18–20 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Liu, Z. Yin, L. Zhang, L. Gao, X. Chen, and J. Cheng, “Multilongitudinal mode fiber laser for strain measurement,” Opt. Lett. 35(6), 835–837 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yin, L. Gao, S. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Wu, L. Chen, and X. Chen, “Fiber ring laser sensor for temperature measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(23), 3403–3408 (2010).

Liu, W.

Liu, W. S.

Lu, C.

Luo, J.

H. Zhang, J. Luo, B. Liu, S. Wang, C. Jia, and X. Ma, “Polarimetric multilongitudinal-mode distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for strain measurement,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51(11), 2559–2563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.

H. Zhang, J. Luo, B. Liu, S. Wang, C. Jia, and X. Ma, “Polarimetric multilongitudinal-mode distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for strain measurement,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51(11), 2559–2563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mou, C.

H. Fu, X. Shu, C. Mou, L. Zhang, S. He, and I. Bennion, “Transversal loading sensor based on tunable beat frequency of a dual-wavelength fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 987–989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Patscheider, J.

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brändle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, and J. Patscheider, “Distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1758–1760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, J. E.

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brändle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, and J. Patscheider, “Distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1758–1760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, C. V.

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brändle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, and J. Patscheider, “Distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1758–1760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rønnekleiv, E.

Shao, L. Y.

L. Y. Shao, X. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, and S. He, “High-resolution strain and temperature sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1598–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X.

H. Fu, X. Shu, C. Mou, L. Zhang, S. He, and I. Bennion, “Transversal loading sensor based on tunable beat frequency of a dual-wavelength fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 987–989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

Tan, Y. N.

Wang, S.

H. Zhang, J. Luo, B. Liu, S. Wang, C. Jia, and X. Ma, “Polarimetric multilongitudinal-mode distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for strain measurement,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51(11), 2559–2563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, A. C.

Wong, A. C. L.

Wu, F.

Yin, Z.

L. Gao, L. Chen, L. Huang, S. Liu, Z. Yin, and X. Chen, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and load using a fiber laser sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 1513–1517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, S. Liu, Z. Yin, L. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Chen, “Fiber-optic vibration sensor based on beat frequency and frequency-modulation demodulation techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 18–20 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Liu, Z. Yin, L. Zhang, L. Gao, X. Chen, and J. Cheng, “Multilongitudinal mode fiber laser for strain measurement,” Opt. Lett. 35(6), 835–837 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yin, L. Gao, S. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Wu, L. Chen, and X. Chen, “Fiber ring laser sensor for temperature measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(23), 3403–3408 (2010).

Zervas, M. N.

Zhang, A. P.

L. Y. Shao, X. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, and S. He, “High-resolution strain and temperature sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1598–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, J. Luo, B. Liu, S. Wang, C. Jia, and X. Ma, “Polarimetric multilongitudinal-mode distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for strain measurement,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51(11), 2559–2563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

L. Gao, S. Liu, Z. Yin, L. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Chen, “Fiber-optic vibration sensor based on beat frequency and frequency-modulation demodulation techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 18–20 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Liu, Z. Yin, L. Zhang, L. Gao, X. Chen, and J. Cheng, “Multilongitudinal mode fiber laser for strain measurement,” Opt. Lett. 35(6), 835–837 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yin, L. Gao, S. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Wu, L. Chen, and X. Chen, “Fiber ring laser sensor for temperature measurement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(23), 3403–3408 (2010).

H. Fu, X. Shu, C. Mou, L. Zhang, S. He, and I. Bennion, “Transversal loading sensor based on tunable beat frequency of a dual-wavelength fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 987–989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

L. Gao, S. Liu, Z. Yin, L. Zhang, L. Chen, and X. Chen, “Fiber-optic vibration sensor based on beat frequency and frequency-modulation demodulation techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(1), 18–20 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Fu, X. Shu, C. Mou, L. Zhang, S. He, and I. Bennion, “Transversal loading sensor based on tunable beat frequency of a dual-wavelength fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 987–989 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Frank, K. Bohnert, K. Haroud, H. Brändle, C. V. Poulsen, J. E. Pedersen, and J. Patscheider, “Distributed feedback fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(12), 1758–1760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Shao, X. Dong, A. P. Zhang, H. Y. Tam, and S. He, “High-resolution strain and temperature sensor based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1598–1600 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

L. Gao, L. Chen, L. Huang, S. Liu, Z. Yin, and X. Chen, “Simultaneous measurement of strain and load using a fiber laser sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 1513–1517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Zhang, J. Luo, B. Liu, S. Wang, C. Jia, and X. Ma, “Polarimetric multilongitudinal-mode distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser sensor for strain measurement,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51(11), 2559–2563 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the multimode fiber laser sensor system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Generation of LMBFs and PMBFs between multimodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical spectrum of the multimode fiber laser at different pump power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Frequency spectrum of the beat frequency signals from (a) 0 to 25MHz, and (b) 0 to 3000MHz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The responses of LMBF and PMBF to strain from 0με to 1150με.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The responses of LMBF and PMBF to temperature from 20°C to 120°C.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison between simultaneously applied strain-temperature and measured strain-temperature.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

v N L = Nc 2nl
v N P = Nc 2nl ± cpB 2 n 2 l = v N L ± v B
[ Δ v N L Δ v N P ]=[ k 11 k 12 k 21 k 22 ][ Δε ΔT ]=K[ Δε ΔT ]
[ Δε ΔT ]=[ 2.78με/kHz 2.69με/kHz 0.59 C o /kHz 0.39 C o /kHz ][ Δ v N L Δ v N P ]

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