Abstract

We present an analysis of factors influencing carrier transport and electroluminescence (EL) at 1.5 µm from erbium-doped silicon-rich silica (SiOx) layers. The effects of both the active layer thickness and the Si-excess content on the electrical excitation of erbium are studied. We demonstrate that when the thickness is decreased from a few hundred to tens of nanometers the conductivity is greatly enhanced. Carrier transport is well described in all cases by a Poole-Frenkel mechanism, while the thickness-dependent current density suggests an evolution of both density and distribution of trapping states induced by Si nanoinclusions. We ascribe this observation to stress-induced effects prevailing in thin films, which inhibit the agglomeration of Si atoms, resulting in a high density of sub-nm Si inclusions that induce traps much shallower than those generated by Si nanoclusters (Si-ncs) formed in thicker films. There is no direct correlation between high conductivity and optimized EL intensity at 1.5 µm. Our results suggest that the main excitation mechanism governing the EL signal is impact excitation, which gradually becomes more efficient as film thickness increases, thanks to the increased segregation of Si-ncs, which in turn allows more efficient injection of hot electrons into the oxide matrix. Optimization of the EL signal is thus found to be a compromise between conductivity and both number and degree of segregation of Si-ncs, all of which are governed by a combination of excess Si content and sample thickness. This material study has strong implications for many electrically-driven devices using Si-ncs or Si-excess mediated EL.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Valenta, N. Lalic, and J. Linnros, “Electroluminescence of single silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(9), 1459–1461 (2004).
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  4. G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, “Electroluminescence of silicon nanocrystals in MOS structures,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 1–5 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Timmerman, I. Izeddin, P. Stallinga, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Space-separated quantum cutting with silicon nanocrystals for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 105–109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Sgrignuoli, G. Paternoster, A. Marconi, P. Ingenhoven, A. Anopchenko, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Modeling of silicon nanocrystals based down-shifter for enhanced silicon solar cell performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 034303 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. N. Ha, S. Cueff, K. Dohnalová, M. T. Trinh, C. Labbé, R. Rizk, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Photon cutting for excitation of Er3+ ions in SiO2 sensitized by Si quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 84(24), 241308 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. J. Walters, P. G. Kik, J. D. Casperson, H. A. Atwater, R. Lindstedt, M. Giorgi, and G. Bourianoff, “Silicon optical nanocrystal memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2622–2624 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Mehonic, S. Cueff, M. Wojdak, S. Hudziak, O. Jambois, C. Labbé, B. Garrido, R. Rizk, and A. J. Kenyon, “Resistive switching in silicon suboxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074507 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. J. Kenyon, P. F. Trwoga, M. Federighi, and C. W. Pitt, “Optical properties of PECVD erbium-doped silicon-rich silica: evidence for energy transfer between silicon microclusters and erbium ions,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(21), L319–L324 (1994).
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  17. O. Savchyn, F. R. Ruhge, P. G. Kik, R. M. Todi, K. R. Coffey, H. Nukala, and H. Heinrich, “Luminescence-center-mediated excitation as the dominant Er sensitization mechanism in Er-doped silicon-rich SiO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195419 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  20. J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 783–796 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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  22. O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramirez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063102 (2012).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. O. Jambois, F. Gourbilleau, A. J. Kenyon, J. Montserrat, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Towards population inversion of electrically pumped Er ions sensitized by Si nanoclusters,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2230–2235 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. M. Miller, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Achieving optical gain in waveguide-confined nanocluster-sensitized erbium by pulsed excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063109 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. Jayatilleka, A. Nasrollahy-Shiraz, and A. J. Kenyon, “Electrically pumped silicon waveguide light sources,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24569–24576 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. S. Cueff, C. Labbé, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, X. Portier, and R. Rizk, “Thickness-dependent optimization of Er3+ light emission from silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 395 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. S. Cueff, C. Labbé, J. Cardin, J.-L. Doualan, L. Khomenkova, K. Hijazi, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, and R. Rizk, “Efficient energy transfer from Si-nanoclusters to Er ions in silica induced by substrate heating during deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 064302 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  37. A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Graded-size Si quantum dot ensembles for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181108 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  38. O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, P. Pellegrino, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Effect of the annealing treatments on the electroluminescence efficiency of SiO2 layers doped with Si and Er,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(4), 045103 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  42. F. Gourbilleau, R. Madelon, C. Dufour, and R. Rizk, “Fabrication and optical properties of Er-doped multilayers Si-rich SiO2/SiO2: size control, optimum Er –Si coupling and interaction distance monitoring,” Opt. Mater. 27(5), 868–875 (2005).
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2012 (5)

F. Sgrignuoli, G. Paternoster, A. Marconi, P. Ingenhoven, A. Anopchenko, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Modeling of silicon nanocrystals based down-shifter for enhanced silicon solar cell performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 034303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Mehonic, S. Cueff, M. Wojdak, S. Hudziak, O. Jambois, C. Labbé, B. Garrido, R. Rizk, and A. J. Kenyon, “Resistive switching in silicon suboxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramirez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, P. Pellegrino, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Effect of the annealing treatments on the electroluminescence efficiency of SiO2 layers doped with Si and Er,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(4), 045103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (8)

Z. Yuan, G. Pucker, A. Marconi, F. Sgrignuoli, A. Anopchenko, Y. Jestin, L. Ferrario, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystals as a photoluminescence down shifter for solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(4), 1224–1227 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Graded-size Si quantum dot ensembles for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, B. Dierre, J. Cardin, L. Khomenkova, F. Fabbri, T. Sekiguchi, and R. Rizk, “Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence comparative study of erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 051504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, K. Watanabe, B. Dierre, T. Sekiguchi, and R. Rizk, “Nature and role of various Si-based sensitizers for Er3+ ions in silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Adv. Mat. Res. 324, 81–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, X. Portier, and R. Rizk, “Thickness-dependent optimization of Er3+ light emission from silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 395 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Ha, S. Cueff, K. Dohnalová, M. T. Trinh, C. Labbé, R. Rizk, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Photon cutting for excitation of Er3+ ions in SiO2 sensitized by Si quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 84(24), 241308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystal light emitting device as a bidirectional optical transceiver,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(9), 095019 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Jayatilleka, A. Nasrollahy-Shiraz, and A. J. Kenyon, “Electrically pumped silicon waveguide light sources,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24569–24576 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

S. Savchyn, K. R. Coffey, and P. G. Kik, “Determination of optimum Si excess concentration in Er-doped Si-rich SiO2 for optical amplification at 1.54 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Miller, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Achieving optical gain in waveguide-confined nanocluster-sensitized erbium by pulsed excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Jambois, F. Gourbilleau, A. J. Kenyon, J. Montserrat, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Towards population inversion of electrically pumped Er ions sensitized by Si nanoclusters,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2230–2235 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, J. Cardin, J.-L. Doualan, L. Khomenkova, K. Hijazi, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, and R. Rizk, “Efficient energy transfer from Si-nanoclusters to Er ions in silica induced by substrate heating during deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 064302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, E. Moser, S. Prezioso, M. Wang, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, and P. Bellutti, “Low voltage onset of electroluminescence in nanocrystalline-Si/ SiO2 multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(3), 033104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “High power efficiency in Si-nc/SiO2 multilayer light emitting devices by bipolar direct tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

A. J. Kenyon, M. Wojdak, I. Ahmad, W. H. Loh, and C. J. Oton, “Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035318 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Timmerman, I. Izeddin, P. Stallinga, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Space-separated quantum cutting with silicon nanocrystals for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 105–109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

O. Savchyn, F. R. Ruhge, P. G. Kik, R. M. Todi, K. R. Coffey, H. Nukala, and H. Heinrich, “Luminescence-center-mediated excitation as the dominant Er sensitization mechanism in Er-doped silicon-rich SiO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 783–796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Priolo, C. D. Presti, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, I. Crupi, F. Iacona, G. Di Stefano, A. Piana, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Carrier-induced quenching processes on the erbium luminescence in silicon nanocluster devices,” Phys. Rev. B 73(11), 113302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 207401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Z. Lu, M. Alexe, R. Scholz, V. Talalaev, R. J. Zhang, and M. Zacharias, “Si nanocrystal based memories: effect of the nanocrystal density,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 014310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. Habermehl and R. T. Apodaca, “Dielectric breakdown and Poole-Frenkel field saturation in silicon oxynitride thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 072103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Gourbilleau, R. Madelon, C. Dufour, and R. Rizk, “Fabrication and optical properties of Er-doped multilayers Si-rich SiO2/SiO2: size control, optimum Er –Si coupling and interaction distance monitoring,” Opt. Mater. 27(5), 868–875 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

R. J. Walters, P. G. Kik, J. D. Casperson, H. A. Atwater, R. Lindstedt, M. Giorgi, and G. Bourianoff, “Silicon optical nanocrystal memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2622–2624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Valenta, N. Lalic, and J. Linnros, “Electroluminescence of single silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(9), 1459–1461 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and L. Dal Negro, “Modeling and perspectives of the Si nanocrystals–Er interaction for optical amplification,” Phys. Rev. B 67(24), 245301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Seo, M.-J. Kim, and J. Shin, “The Nd-nanocluster coupling strength and its effect in excitation/de-excitation of Nd3+ luminescence in Nd-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2778–2780 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 μm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, “Electroluminescence of silicon nanocrystals in MOS structures,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 1–5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 μm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. J. Kenyon, P. F. Trwoga, M. Federighi, and C. W. Pitt, “Optical properties of PECVD erbium-doped silicon-rich silica: evidence for energy transfer between silicon microclusters and erbium ions,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(21), L319–L324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

L. T. Canham, “Silicon quantum wire array fabrication by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 1046–1048 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

J. G. Simmons, “Poole-Frenkel effect and Schottky effect in metal-insulator-metal systems,” Phys. Rev. 155(3), 657–660 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1938 (1)

J. Frenkel, “On the theory of electrical breakdown of dielectrics and electronic semiconductors,” Tech. Phys. USSR 5, 685–687 (1938).

Ahmad, I.

A. J. Kenyon, M. Wojdak, I. Ahmad, W. H. Loh, and C. J. Oton, “Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035318 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alexe, M.

T. Z. Lu, M. Alexe, R. Scholz, V. Talalaev, R. J. Zhang, and M. Zacharias, “Si nanocrystal based memories: effect of the nanocrystal density,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 014310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anopchenko, A.

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J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
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A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramirez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063102 (2012).
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O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, P. Pellegrino, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Effect of the annealing treatments on the electroluminescence efficiency of SiO2 layers doped with Si and Er,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(4), 045103 (2012).
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Z. Yuan, G. Pucker, A. Marconi, F. Sgrignuoli, A. Anopchenko, Y. Jestin, L. Ferrario, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystals as a photoluminescence down shifter for solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(4), 1224–1227 (2011).
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A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystal light emitting device as a bidirectional optical transceiver,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(9), 095019 (2011).
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A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Graded-size Si quantum dot ensembles for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181108 (2011).
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A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “High power efficiency in Si-nc/SiO2 multilayer light emitting devices by bipolar direct tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221110 (2009).
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A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, E. Moser, S. Prezioso, M. Wang, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, and P. Bellutti, “Low voltage onset of electroluminescence in nanocrystalline-Si/ SiO2 multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(3), 033104 (2009).
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R. J. Walters, P. G. Kik, J. D. Casperson, H. A. Atwater, R. Lindstedt, M. Giorgi, and G. Bourianoff, “Silicon optical nanocrystal memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2622–2624 (2004).
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Bellutti, P.

A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Graded-size Si quantum dot ensembles for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181108 (2011).
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Z. Yuan, G. Pucker, A. Marconi, F. Sgrignuoli, A. Anopchenko, Y. Jestin, L. Ferrario, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystals as a photoluminescence down shifter for solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(4), 1224–1227 (2011).
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A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, E. Moser, S. Prezioso, M. Wang, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, and P. Bellutti, “Low voltage onset of electroluminescence in nanocrystalline-Si/ SiO2 multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(3), 033104 (2009).
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A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “High power efficiency in Si-nc/SiO2 multilayer light emitting devices by bipolar direct tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221110 (2009).
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A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramirez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063102 (2012).
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O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
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J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
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R. J. Walters, P. G. Kik, J. D. Casperson, H. A. Atwater, R. Lindstedt, M. Giorgi, and G. Bourianoff, “Silicon optical nanocrystal memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2622–2624 (2004).
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G. M. Miller, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Achieving optical gain in waveguide-confined nanocluster-sensitized erbium by pulsed excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063109 (2010).
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S. Cueff, C. Labbé, J. Cardin, J.-L. Doualan, L. Khomenkova, K. Hijazi, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, and R. Rizk, “Efficient energy transfer from Si-nanoclusters to Er ions in silica induced by substrate heating during deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 064302 (2010).
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Casperson, J. D.

R. J. Walters, P. G. Kik, J. D. Casperson, H. A. Atwater, R. Lindstedt, M. Giorgi, and G. Bourianoff, “Silicon optical nanocrystal memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2622–2624 (2004).
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J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 783–796 (2006).
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A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramirez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063102 (2012).
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O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, P. Pellegrino, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Effect of the annealing treatments on the electroluminescence efficiency of SiO2 layers doped with Si and Er,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(4), 045103 (2012).
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S. Cueff, C. Labbé, B. Dierre, J. Cardin, L. Khomenkova, F. Fabbri, T. Sekiguchi, and R. Rizk, “Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence comparative study of erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 051504 (2011).
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N. N. Ha, S. Cueff, K. Dohnalová, M. T. Trinh, C. Labbé, R. Rizk, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Photon cutting for excitation of Er3+ ions in SiO2 sensitized by Si quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 84(24), 241308 (2011).
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S. Cueff, C. Labbé, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, X. Portier, and R. Rizk, “Thickness-dependent optimization of Er3+ light emission from silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 395 (2011).
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S. Cueff, C. Labbé, K. Watanabe, B. Dierre, T. Sekiguchi, and R. Rizk, “Nature and role of various Si-based sensitizers for Er3+ ions in silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Adv. Mat. Res. 324, 81–84 (2011).
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S. Cueff, C. Labbé, J. Cardin, J.-L. Doualan, L. Khomenkova, K. Hijazi, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, and R. Rizk, “Efficient energy transfer from Si-nanoclusters to Er ions in silica induced by substrate heating during deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 064302 (2010).
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D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and L. Dal Negro, “Modeling and perspectives of the Si nanocrystals–Er interaction for optical amplification,” Phys. Rev. B 67(24), 245301 (2003).
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L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
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O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, P. Pellegrino, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Effect of the annealing treatments on the electroluminescence efficiency of SiO2 layers doped with Si and Er,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(4), 045103 (2012).
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B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
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F. Priolo, C. D. Presti, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, I. Crupi, F. Iacona, G. Di Stefano, A. Piana, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Carrier-induced quenching processes on the erbium luminescence in silicon nanocluster devices,” Phys. Rev. B 73(11), 113302 (2006).
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F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 μm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
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G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, “Electroluminescence of silicon nanocrystals in MOS structures,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 1–5 (2002).
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Dierre, B.

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, K. Watanabe, B. Dierre, T. Sekiguchi, and R. Rizk, “Nature and role of various Si-based sensitizers for Er3+ ions in silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Adv. Mat. Res. 324, 81–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, B. Dierre, J. Cardin, L. Khomenkova, F. Fabbri, T. Sekiguchi, and R. Rizk, “Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence comparative study of erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 051504 (2011).
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Dohnalová, K.

N. N. Ha, S. Cueff, K. Dohnalová, M. T. Trinh, C. Labbé, R. Rizk, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Photon cutting for excitation of Er3+ ions in SiO2 sensitized by Si quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 84(24), 241308 (2011).
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S. Cueff, C. Labbé, J. Cardin, J.-L. Doualan, L. Khomenkova, K. Hijazi, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, and R. Rizk, “Efficient energy transfer from Si-nanoclusters to Er ions in silica induced by substrate heating during deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 064302 (2010).
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F. Gourbilleau, R. Madelon, C. Dufour, and R. Rizk, “Fabrication and optical properties of Er-doped multilayers Si-rich SiO2/SiO2: size control, optimum Er –Si coupling and interaction distance monitoring,” Opt. Mater. 27(5), 868–875 (2005).
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S. Cueff, C. Labbé, B. Dierre, J. Cardin, L. Khomenkova, F. Fabbri, T. Sekiguchi, and R. Rizk, “Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence comparative study of erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 051504 (2011).
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Fallica, P. G.

F. Priolo, C. D. Presti, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, I. Crupi, F. Iacona, G. Di Stefano, A. Piana, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Carrier-induced quenching processes on the erbium luminescence in silicon nanocluster devices,” Phys. Rev. B 73(11), 113302 (2006).
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F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 μm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
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G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, “Electroluminescence of silicon nanocrystals in MOS structures,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 1–5 (2002).
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H. Krzyżanowska, K. S. Ni, Y. Fu, and P. M. Fauchet, “Electroluminescence from Er-doped SiO2/nc-Si multilayers under lateral carrier injection,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B. In press.

Fedeli, J. M.

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramirez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063102 (2012).
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J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
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Fedeli, J.-M.

O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, P. Pellegrino, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Effect of the annealing treatments on the electroluminescence efficiency of SiO2 layers doped with Si and Er,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(4), 045103 (2012).
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J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
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Ferrario, L.

Z. Yuan, G. Pucker, A. Marconi, F. Sgrignuoli, A. Anopchenko, Y. Jestin, L. Ferrario, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystals as a photoluminescence down shifter for solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(4), 1224–1227 (2011).
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Franzò, G.

F. Priolo, C. D. Presti, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, I. Crupi, F. Iacona, G. Di Stefano, A. Piana, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Carrier-induced quenching processes on the erbium luminescence in silicon nanocluster devices,” Phys. Rev. B 73(11), 113302 (2006).
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D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and L. Dal Negro, “Modeling and perspectives of the Si nanocrystals–Er interaction for optical amplification,” Phys. Rev. B 67(24), 245301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, “Electroluminescence of silicon nanocrystals in MOS structures,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 1–5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 μm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
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H. Krzyżanowska, K. S. Ni, Y. Fu, and P. M. Fauchet, “Electroluminescence from Er-doped SiO2/nc-Si multilayers under lateral carrier injection,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B. In press.

Fujii, M.

I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 207401 (2006).
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B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garrido, B.

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramirez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, P. Pellegrino, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Effect of the annealing treatments on the electroluminescence efficiency of SiO2 layers doped with Si and Er,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(4), 045103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mehonic, S. Cueff, M. Wojdak, S. Hudziak, O. Jambois, C. Labbé, B. Garrido, R. Rizk, and A. J. Kenyon, “Resistive switching in silicon suboxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, X. Portier, and R. Rizk, “Thickness-dependent optimization of Er3+ light emission from silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 395 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jambois, F. Gourbilleau, A. J. Kenyon, J. Montserrat, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Towards population inversion of electrically pumped Er ions sensitized by Si nanoclusters,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2230–2235 (2010).
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S. Cueff, C. Labbé, J. Cardin, J.-L. Doualan, L. Khomenkova, K. Hijazi, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, and R. Rizk, “Efficient energy transfer from Si-nanoclusters to Er ions in silica induced by substrate heating during deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 064302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giorgi, M.

R. J. Walters, P. G. Kik, J. D. Casperson, H. A. Atwater, R. Lindstedt, M. Giorgi, and G. Bourianoff, “Silicon optical nanocrystal memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2622–2624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gourbilleau, F.

O. Jambois, F. Gourbilleau, A. J. Kenyon, J. Montserrat, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Towards population inversion of electrically pumped Er ions sensitized by Si nanoclusters,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2230–2235 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Gourbilleau, R. Madelon, C. Dufour, and R. Rizk, “Fabrication and optical properties of Er-doped multilayers Si-rich SiO2/SiO2: size control, optimum Er –Si coupling and interaction distance monitoring,” Opt. Mater. 27(5), 868–875 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gregorkiewicz, T.

N. N. Ha, S. Cueff, K. Dohnalová, M. T. Trinh, C. Labbé, R. Rizk, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Photon cutting for excitation of Er3+ ions in SiO2 sensitized by Si quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 84(24), 241308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Timmerman, I. Izeddin, P. Stallinga, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Space-separated quantum cutting with silicon nanocrystals for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 105–109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 207401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ha, N. N.

N. N. Ha, S. Cueff, K. Dohnalová, M. T. Trinh, C. Labbé, R. Rizk, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Photon cutting for excitation of Er3+ ions in SiO2 sensitized by Si quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 84(24), 241308 (2011).
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S. Habermehl and R. T. Apodaca, “Dielectric breakdown and Poole-Frenkel field saturation in silicon oxynitride thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 072103 (2005).
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J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 783–796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 μm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, H.

O. Savchyn, F. R. Ruhge, P. G. Kik, R. M. Todi, K. R. Coffey, H. Nukala, and H. Heinrich, “Luminescence-center-mediated excitation as the dominant Er sensitization mechanism in Er-doped silicon-rich SiO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hijazi, K.

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, J. Cardin, J.-L. Doualan, L. Khomenkova, K. Hijazi, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, and R. Rizk, “Efficient energy transfer from Si-nanoclusters to Er ions in silica induced by substrate heating during deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 064302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hudziak, S.

A. Mehonic, S. Cueff, M. Wojdak, S. Hudziak, O. Jambois, C. Labbé, B. Garrido, R. Rizk, and A. J. Kenyon, “Resistive switching in silicon suboxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Iacona, F.

F. Priolo, C. D. Presti, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, I. Crupi, F. Iacona, G. Di Stefano, A. Piana, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Carrier-induced quenching processes on the erbium luminescence in silicon nanocluster devices,” Phys. Rev. B 73(11), 113302 (2006).
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D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and L. Dal Negro, “Modeling and perspectives of the Si nanocrystals–Er interaction for optical amplification,” Phys. Rev. B 67(24), 245301 (2003).
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G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, “Electroluminescence of silicon nanocrystals in MOS structures,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 1–5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 μm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ingenhoven, P.

F. Sgrignuoli, G. Paternoster, A. Marconi, P. Ingenhoven, A. Anopchenko, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Modeling of silicon nanocrystals based down-shifter for enhanced silicon solar cell performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 034303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Irrera, A.

F. Priolo, C. D. Presti, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, I. Crupi, F. Iacona, G. Di Stefano, A. Piana, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Carrier-induced quenching processes on the erbium luminescence in silicon nanocluster devices,” Phys. Rev. B 73(11), 113302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 μm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, “Electroluminescence of silicon nanocrystals in MOS structures,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 1–5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Izeddin, I.

D. Timmerman, I. Izeddin, P. Stallinga, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Space-separated quantum cutting with silicon nanocrystals for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 105–109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 207401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jambois, O.

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramirez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, P. Pellegrino, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Effect of the annealing treatments on the electroluminescence efficiency of SiO2 layers doped with Si and Er,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(4), 045103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Mehonic, S. Cueff, M. Wojdak, S. Hudziak, O. Jambois, C. Labbé, B. Garrido, R. Rizk, and A. J. Kenyon, “Resistive switching in silicon suboxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
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S. Cueff, C. Labbé, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, X. Portier, and R. Rizk, “Thickness-dependent optimization of Er3+ light emission from silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 395 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jambois, F. Gourbilleau, A. J. Kenyon, J. Montserrat, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Towards population inversion of electrically pumped Er ions sensitized by Si nanoclusters,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2230–2235 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, J. Cardin, J.-L. Doualan, L. Khomenkova, K. Hijazi, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, and R. Rizk, “Efficient energy transfer from Si-nanoclusters to Er ions in silica induced by substrate heating during deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 064302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jayatilleka, H.

Jestin, Y.

Z. Yuan, G. Pucker, A. Marconi, F. Sgrignuoli, A. Anopchenko, Y. Jestin, L. Ferrario, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystals as a photoluminescence down shifter for solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(4), 1224–1227 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jhe, J.-H.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 783–796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kanzawa, Y.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 μm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kenyon, A. J.

A. Mehonic, S. Cueff, M. Wojdak, S. Hudziak, O. Jambois, C. Labbé, B. Garrido, R. Rizk, and A. J. Kenyon, “Resistive switching in silicon suboxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074507 (2012).
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H. Jayatilleka, A. Nasrollahy-Shiraz, and A. J. Kenyon, “Electrically pumped silicon waveguide light sources,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24569–24576 (2011).
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O. Jambois, F. Gourbilleau, A. J. Kenyon, J. Montserrat, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Towards population inversion of electrically pumped Er ions sensitized by Si nanoclusters,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2230–2235 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kenyon, M. Wojdak, I. Ahmad, W. H. Loh, and C. J. Oton, “Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035318 (2008).
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A. J. Kenyon, P. F. Trwoga, M. Federighi, and C. W. Pitt, “Optical properties of PECVD erbium-doped silicon-rich silica: evidence for energy transfer between silicon microclusters and erbium ions,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(21), L319–L324 (1994).
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Khomenkova, L.

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, B. Dierre, J. Cardin, L. Khomenkova, F. Fabbri, T. Sekiguchi, and R. Rizk, “Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence comparative study of erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 051504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, J. Cardin, J.-L. Doualan, L. Khomenkova, K. Hijazi, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, and R. Rizk, “Efficient energy transfer from Si-nanoclusters to Er ions in silica induced by substrate heating during deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 064302 (2010).
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Kik, P. G.

S. Savchyn, K. R. Coffey, and P. G. Kik, “Determination of optimum Si excess concentration in Er-doped Si-rich SiO2 for optical amplification at 1.54 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201107 (2010).
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O. Savchyn, F. R. Ruhge, P. G. Kik, R. M. Todi, K. R. Coffey, H. Nukala, and H. Heinrich, “Luminescence-center-mediated excitation as the dominant Er sensitization mechanism in Er-doped silicon-rich SiO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Walters, P. G. Kik, J. D. Casperson, H. A. Atwater, R. Lindstedt, M. Giorgi, and G. Bourianoff, “Silicon optical nanocrystal memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2622–2624 (2004).
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Kim, M.-J.

S.-Y. Seo, M.-J. Kim, and J. Shin, “The Nd-nanocluster coupling strength and its effect in excitation/de-excitation of Nd3+ luminescence in Nd-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2778–2780 (2003).
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Krzyzanowska, H.

H. Krzyżanowska, K. S. Ni, Y. Fu, and P. M. Fauchet, “Electroluminescence from Er-doped SiO2/nc-Si multilayers under lateral carrier injection,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B. In press.

Labbé, C.

A. Mehonic, S. Cueff, M. Wojdak, S. Hudziak, O. Jambois, C. Labbé, B. Garrido, R. Rizk, and A. J. Kenyon, “Resistive switching in silicon suboxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Ha, S. Cueff, K. Dohnalová, M. T. Trinh, C. Labbé, R. Rizk, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Photon cutting for excitation of Er3+ ions in SiO2 sensitized by Si quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 84(24), 241308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, X. Portier, and R. Rizk, “Thickness-dependent optimization of Er3+ light emission from silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 395 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, B. Dierre, J. Cardin, L. Khomenkova, F. Fabbri, T. Sekiguchi, and R. Rizk, “Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence comparative study of erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 051504 (2011).
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S. Cueff, C. Labbé, K. Watanabe, B. Dierre, T. Sekiguchi, and R. Rizk, “Nature and role of various Si-based sensitizers for Er3+ ions in silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Adv. Mat. Res. 324, 81–84 (2011).
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S. Cueff, C. Labbé, J. Cardin, J.-L. Doualan, L. Khomenkova, K. Hijazi, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, and R. Rizk, “Efficient energy transfer from Si-nanoclusters to Er ions in silica induced by substrate heating during deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 064302 (2010).
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Lalic, N.

J. Valenta, N. Lalic, and J. Linnros, “Electroluminescence of single silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(9), 1459–1461 (2004).
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Lee, H.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 783–796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 783–796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lindstedt, R.

R. J. Walters, P. G. Kik, J. D. Casperson, H. A. Atwater, R. Lindstedt, M. Giorgi, and G. Bourianoff, “Silicon optical nanocrystal memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2622–2624 (2004).
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Linnros, J.

J. Valenta, N. Lalic, and J. Linnros, “Electroluminescence of single silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(9), 1459–1461 (2004).
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Loh, W. H.

A. J. Kenyon, M. Wojdak, I. Ahmad, W. H. Loh, and C. J. Oton, “Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035318 (2008).
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T. Z. Lu, M. Alexe, R. Scholz, V. Talalaev, R. J. Zhang, and M. Zacharias, “Si nanocrystal based memories: effect of the nanocrystal density,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 014310 (2006).
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Madelon, R.

F. Gourbilleau, R. Madelon, C. Dufour, and R. Rizk, “Fabrication and optical properties of Er-doped multilayers Si-rich SiO2/SiO2: size control, optimum Er –Si coupling and interaction distance monitoring,” Opt. Mater. 27(5), 868–875 (2005).
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Marconi, A.

O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, P. Pellegrino, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Effect of the annealing treatments on the electroluminescence efficiency of SiO2 layers doped with Si and Er,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(4), 045103 (2012).
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A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramirez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063102 (2012).
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J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Sgrignuoli, G. Paternoster, A. Marconi, P. Ingenhoven, A. Anopchenko, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Modeling of silicon nanocrystals based down-shifter for enhanced silicon solar cell performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 034303 (2012).
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A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystal light emitting device as a bidirectional optical transceiver,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(9), 095019 (2011).
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A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Graded-size Si quantum dot ensembles for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181108 (2011).
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Z. Yuan, G. Pucker, A. Marconi, F. Sgrignuoli, A. Anopchenko, Y. Jestin, L. Ferrario, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystals as a photoluminescence down shifter for solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(4), 1224–1227 (2011).
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A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, E. Moser, S. Prezioso, M. Wang, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, and P. Bellutti, “Low voltage onset of electroluminescence in nanocrystalline-Si/ SiO2 multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(3), 033104 (2009).
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A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “High power efficiency in Si-nc/SiO2 multilayer light emitting devices by bipolar direct tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221110 (2009).
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A. Mehonic, S. Cueff, M. Wojdak, S. Hudziak, O. Jambois, C. Labbé, B. Garrido, R. Rizk, and A. J. Kenyon, “Resistive switching in silicon suboxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Milesi, F.

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramirez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063102 (2012).
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G. M. Miller, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Achieving optical gain in waveguide-confined nanocluster-sensitized erbium by pulsed excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063109 (2010).
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Miritello, M.

G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, “Electroluminescence of silicon nanocrystals in MOS structures,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 1–5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 μm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Montserrat, J.

Moreira, E. C.

G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, “Electroluminescence of silicon nanocrystals in MOS structures,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 1–5 (2002).
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J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
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A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramirez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063102 (2012).
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O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, P. Pellegrino, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Effect of the annealing treatments on the electroluminescence efficiency of SiO2 layers doped with Si and Er,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(4), 045103 (2012).
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B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
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H. Krzyżanowska, K. S. Ni, Y. Fu, and P. M. Fauchet, “Electroluminescence from Er-doped SiO2/nc-Si multilayers under lateral carrier injection,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B. In press.

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O. Savchyn, F. R. Ruhge, P. G. Kik, R. M. Todi, K. R. Coffey, H. Nukala, and H. Heinrich, “Luminescence-center-mediated excitation as the dominant Er sensitization mechanism in Er-doped silicon-rich SiO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195419 (2007).
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A. J. Kenyon, M. Wojdak, I. Ahmad, W. H. Loh, and C. J. Oton, “Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035318 (2008).
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D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and L. Dal Negro, “Modeling and perspectives of the Si nanocrystals–Er interaction for optical amplification,” Phys. Rev. B 67(24), 245301 (2003).
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F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 μm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
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Park, N.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 783–796 (2006).
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F. Sgrignuoli, G. Paternoster, A. Marconi, P. Ingenhoven, A. Anopchenko, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Modeling of silicon nanocrystals based down-shifter for enhanced silicon solar cell performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 034303 (2012).
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Pavesi, L.

F. Sgrignuoli, G. Paternoster, A. Marconi, P. Ingenhoven, A. Anopchenko, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Modeling of silicon nanocrystals based down-shifter for enhanced silicon solar cell performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 034303 (2012).
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J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
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O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, P. Pellegrino, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Effect of the annealing treatments on the electroluminescence efficiency of SiO2 layers doped with Si and Er,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(4), 045103 (2012).
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A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramirez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063102 (2012).
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Z. Yuan, G. Pucker, A. Marconi, F. Sgrignuoli, A. Anopchenko, Y. Jestin, L. Ferrario, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystals as a photoluminescence down shifter for solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(4), 1224–1227 (2011).
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A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystal light emitting device as a bidirectional optical transceiver,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(9), 095019 (2011).
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A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Graded-size Si quantum dot ensembles for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181108 (2011).
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A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “High power efficiency in Si-nc/SiO2 multilayer light emitting devices by bipolar direct tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221110 (2009).
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A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, E. Moser, S. Prezioso, M. Wang, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, and P. Bellutti, “Low voltage onset of electroluminescence in nanocrystalline-Si/ SiO2 multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(3), 033104 (2009).
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B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
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L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
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Pellegrino, P.

O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, P. Pellegrino, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Effect of the annealing treatments on the electroluminescence efficiency of SiO2 layers doped with Si and Er,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(4), 045103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
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Piana, A.

F. Priolo, C. D. Presti, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, I. Crupi, F. Iacona, G. Di Stefano, A. Piana, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Carrier-induced quenching processes on the erbium luminescence in silicon nanocluster devices,” Phys. Rev. B 73(11), 113302 (2006).
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Pitt, C. W.

A. J. Kenyon, P. F. Trwoga, M. Federighi, and C. W. Pitt, “Optical properties of PECVD erbium-doped silicon-rich silica: evidence for energy transfer between silicon microclusters and erbium ions,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(21), L319–L324 (1994).
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Portier, X.

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, X. Portier, and R. Rizk, “Thickness-dependent optimization of Er3+ light emission from silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 395 (2011).
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Presti, C. D.

F. Priolo, C. D. Presti, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, I. Crupi, F. Iacona, G. Di Stefano, A. Piana, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Carrier-induced quenching processes on the erbium luminescence in silicon nanocluster devices,” Phys. Rev. B 73(11), 113302 (2006).
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Prezioso, S.

A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, E. Moser, S. Prezioso, M. Wang, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, and P. Bellutti, “Low voltage onset of electroluminescence in nanocrystalline-Si/ SiO2 multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(3), 033104 (2009).
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Priolo, F.

F. Priolo, C. D. Presti, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, I. Crupi, F. Iacona, G. Di Stefano, A. Piana, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Carrier-induced quenching processes on the erbium luminescence in silicon nanocluster devices,” Phys. Rev. B 73(11), 113302 (2006).
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D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and L. Dal Negro, “Modeling and perspectives of the Si nanocrystals–Er interaction for optical amplification,” Phys. Rev. B 67(24), 245301 (2003).
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G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, “Electroluminescence of silicon nanocrystals in MOS structures,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 1–5 (2002).
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F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 μm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramirez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063102 (2012).
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O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, P. Pellegrino, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Effect of the annealing treatments on the electroluminescence efficiency of SiO2 layers doped with Si and Er,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(4), 045103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pucker, G.

F. Sgrignuoli, G. Paternoster, A. Marconi, P. Ingenhoven, A. Anopchenko, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Modeling of silicon nanocrystals based down-shifter for enhanced silicon solar cell performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 034303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystal light emitting device as a bidirectional optical transceiver,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(9), 095019 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Graded-size Si quantum dot ensembles for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yuan, G. Pucker, A. Marconi, F. Sgrignuoli, A. Anopchenko, Y. Jestin, L. Ferrario, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystals as a photoluminescence down shifter for solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(4), 1224–1227 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, E. Moser, S. Prezioso, M. Wang, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, and P. Bellutti, “Low voltage onset of electroluminescence in nanocrystalline-Si/ SiO2 multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(3), 033104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “High power efficiency in Si-nc/SiO2 multilayer light emitting devices by bipolar direct tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221110 (2009).
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Ramirez, J. M.

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramirez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063102 (2012).
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Ramírez, J. M.

O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, P. Pellegrino, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Effect of the annealing treatments on the electroluminescence efficiency of SiO2 layers doped with Si and Er,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(4), 045103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
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Rizk, R.

A. Mehonic, S. Cueff, M. Wojdak, S. Hudziak, O. Jambois, C. Labbé, B. Garrido, R. Rizk, and A. J. Kenyon, “Resistive switching in silicon suboxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074507 (2012).
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S. Cueff, C. Labbé, B. Dierre, J. Cardin, L. Khomenkova, F. Fabbri, T. Sekiguchi, and R. Rizk, “Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence comparative study of erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 051504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, X. Portier, and R. Rizk, “Thickness-dependent optimization of Er3+ light emission from silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 395 (2011).
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N. N. Ha, S. Cueff, K. Dohnalová, M. T. Trinh, C. Labbé, R. Rizk, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Photon cutting for excitation of Er3+ ions in SiO2 sensitized by Si quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 84(24), 241308 (2011).
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S. Cueff, C. Labbé, K. Watanabe, B. Dierre, T. Sekiguchi, and R. Rizk, “Nature and role of various Si-based sensitizers for Er3+ ions in silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Adv. Mat. Res. 324, 81–84 (2011).
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O. Jambois, F. Gourbilleau, A. J. Kenyon, J. Montserrat, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Towards population inversion of electrically pumped Er ions sensitized by Si nanoclusters,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2230–2235 (2010).
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S. Cueff, C. Labbé, J. Cardin, J.-L. Doualan, L. Khomenkova, K. Hijazi, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, and R. Rizk, “Efficient energy transfer from Si-nanoclusters to Er ions in silica induced by substrate heating during deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 064302 (2010).
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O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
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B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
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F. Gourbilleau, R. Madelon, C. Dufour, and R. Rizk, “Fabrication and optical properties of Er-doped multilayers Si-rich SiO2/SiO2: size control, optimum Er –Si coupling and interaction distance monitoring,” Opt. Mater. 27(5), 868–875 (2005).
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Ruhge, F. R.

O. Savchyn, F. R. Ruhge, P. G. Kik, R. M. Todi, K. R. Coffey, H. Nukala, and H. Heinrich, “Luminescence-center-mediated excitation as the dominant Er sensitization mechanism in Er-doped silicon-rich SiO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanfilippo, D.

F. Priolo, C. D. Presti, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, I. Crupi, F. Iacona, G. Di Stefano, A. Piana, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Carrier-induced quenching processes on the erbium luminescence in silicon nanocluster devices,” Phys. Rev. B 73(11), 113302 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 μm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, “Electroluminescence of silicon nanocrystals in MOS structures,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 1–5 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Savchyn, O.

O. Savchyn, F. R. Ruhge, P. G. Kik, R. M. Todi, K. R. Coffey, H. Nukala, and H. Heinrich, “Luminescence-center-mediated excitation as the dominant Er sensitization mechanism in Er-doped silicon-rich SiO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195419 (2007).
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S. Savchyn, K. R. Coffey, and P. G. Kik, “Determination of optimum Si excess concentration in Er-doped Si-rich SiO2 for optical amplification at 1.54 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 201107 (2010).
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Scholz, R.

T. Z. Lu, M. Alexe, R. Scholz, V. Talalaev, R. J. Zhang, and M. Zacharias, “Si nanocrystal based memories: effect of the nanocrystal density,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 014310 (2006).
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Sekiguchi, T.

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, B. Dierre, J. Cardin, L. Khomenkova, F. Fabbri, T. Sekiguchi, and R. Rizk, “Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence comparative study of erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 051504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, K. Watanabe, B. Dierre, T. Sekiguchi, and R. Rizk, “Nature and role of various Si-based sensitizers for Er3+ ions in silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Adv. Mat. Res. 324, 81–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S.-Y.

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 783–796 (2006).
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S.-Y. Seo, M.-J. Kim, and J. Shin, “The Nd-nanocluster coupling strength and its effect in excitation/de-excitation of Nd3+ luminescence in Nd-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2778–2780 (2003).
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Sgrignuoli, F.

F. Sgrignuoli, G. Paternoster, A. Marconi, P. Ingenhoven, A. Anopchenko, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Modeling of silicon nanocrystals based down-shifter for enhanced silicon solar cell performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 034303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yuan, G. Pucker, A. Marconi, F. Sgrignuoli, A. Anopchenko, Y. Jestin, L. Ferrario, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystals as a photoluminescence down shifter for solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(4), 1224–1227 (2011).
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Shin, J.

S.-Y. Seo, M.-J. Kim, and J. Shin, “The Nd-nanocluster coupling strength and its effect in excitation/de-excitation of Nd3+ luminescence in Nd-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2778–2780 (2003).
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Shin, J. H.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 783–796 (2006).
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J. G. Simmons, “Poole-Frenkel effect and Schottky effect in metal-insulator-metal systems,” Phys. Rev. 155(3), 657–660 (1967).
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Stallinga, P.

D. Timmerman, I. Izeddin, P. Stallinga, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Space-separated quantum cutting with silicon nanocrystals for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 105–109 (2008).
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Talalaev, V.

T. Z. Lu, M. Alexe, R. Scholz, V. Talalaev, R. J. Zhang, and M. Zacharias, “Si nanocrystal based memories: effect of the nanocrystal density,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 014310 (2006).
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Tengattini, A.

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramirez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, P. Pellegrino, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Effect of the annealing treatments on the electroluminescence efficiency of SiO2 layers doped with Si and Er,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(4), 045103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Timmerman, D.

D. Timmerman, I. Izeddin, P. Stallinga, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Space-separated quantum cutting with silicon nanocrystals for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 105–109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Todi, R. M.

O. Savchyn, F. R. Ruhge, P. G. Kik, R. M. Todi, K. R. Coffey, H. Nukala, and H. Heinrich, “Luminescence-center-mediated excitation as the dominant Er sensitization mechanism in Er-doped silicon-rich SiO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trinh, M. T.

N. N. Ha, S. Cueff, K. Dohnalová, M. T. Trinh, C. Labbé, R. Rizk, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Photon cutting for excitation of Er3+ ions in SiO2 sensitized by Si quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 84(24), 241308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Trwoga, P. F.

A. J. Kenyon, P. F. Trwoga, M. Federighi, and C. W. Pitt, “Optical properties of PECVD erbium-doped silicon-rich silica: evidence for energy transfer between silicon microclusters and erbium ions,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(21), L319–L324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Valenta, J.

J. Valenta, N. Lalic, and J. Linnros, “Electroluminescence of single silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(9), 1459–1461 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walters, R. J.

R. J. Walters, P. G. Kik, J. D. Casperson, H. A. Atwater, R. Lindstedt, M. Giorgi, and G. Bourianoff, “Silicon optical nanocrystal memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2622–2624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Graded-size Si quantum dot ensembles for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “High power efficiency in Si-nc/SiO2 multilayer light emitting devices by bipolar direct tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, E. Moser, S. Prezioso, M. Wang, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, and P. Bellutti, “Low voltage onset of electroluminescence in nanocrystalline-Si/ SiO2 multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(3), 033104 (2009).
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Watanabe, K.

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, K. Watanabe, B. Dierre, T. Sekiguchi, and R. Rizk, “Nature and role of various Si-based sensitizers for Er3+ ions in silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Adv. Mat. Res. 324, 81–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wojdak, M.

A. Mehonic, S. Cueff, M. Wojdak, S. Hudziak, O. Jambois, C. Labbé, B. Garrido, R. Rizk, and A. J. Kenyon, “Resistive switching in silicon suboxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kenyon, M. Wojdak, I. Ahmad, W. H. Loh, and C. J. Oton, “Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035318 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 μm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yassievich, I. N.

N. N. Ha, S. Cueff, K. Dohnalová, M. T. Trinh, C. Labbé, R. Rizk, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Photon cutting for excitation of Er3+ ions in SiO2 sensitized by Si quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 84(24), 241308 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Timmerman, I. Izeddin, P. Stallinga, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Space-separated quantum cutting with silicon nanocrystals for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 105–109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 207401 (2006).
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M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 μm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z.

Z. Yuan, G. Pucker, A. Marconi, F. Sgrignuoli, A. Anopchenko, Y. Jestin, L. Ferrario, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystals as a photoluminescence down shifter for solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(4), 1224–1227 (2011).
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T. Z. Lu, M. Alexe, R. Scholz, V. Talalaev, R. J. Zhang, and M. Zacharias, “Si nanocrystal based memories: effect of the nanocrystal density,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 014310 (2006).
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T. Z. Lu, M. Alexe, R. Scholz, V. Talalaev, R. J. Zhang, and M. Zacharias, “Si nanocrystal based memories: effect of the nanocrystal density,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 014310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mat. Res. (1)

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, K. Watanabe, B. Dierre, T. Sekiguchi, and R. Rizk, “Nature and role of various Si-based sensitizers for Er3+ ions in silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Adv. Mat. Res. 324, 81–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “High power efficiency in Si-nc/SiO2 multilayer light emitting devices by bipolar direct tunneling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 221110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, M. Wang, G. Pucker, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Graded-size Si quantum dot ensembles for efficient light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181108 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

J. Valenta, N. Lalic, and J. Linnros, “Electroluminescence of single silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(9), 1459–1461 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Walters, P. G. Kik, J. D. Casperson, H. A. Atwater, R. Lindstedt, M. Giorgi, and G. Bourianoff, “Silicon optical nanocrystal memory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2622–2624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Seo, M.-J. Kim, and J. Shin, “The Nd-nanocluster coupling strength and its effect in excitation/de-excitation of Nd3+ luminescence in Nd-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2778–2780 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “1.54 μm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(9), 1198–1200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 μm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
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G. Franzò, A. Irrera, E. C. Moreira, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, P. G. Fallica, and F. Priolo, “Electroluminescence of silicon nanocrystals in MOS structures,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(1), 1–5 (2002).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, “Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 783–796 (2006).
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J. Appl. Phys. (8)

O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Anopchenko, A. Tengattini, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, J. M. Ramirez, O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, D. Navarro-Urrios, B. Garrido, F. Milesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, “Bipolar pulsed excitation of erbium-doped nanosilicon light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(6), 063102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, J. Cardin, J.-L. Doualan, L. Khomenkova, K. Hijazi, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, and R. Rizk, “Efficient energy transfer from Si-nanoclusters to Er ions in silica induced by substrate heating during deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 064302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Z. Lu, M. Alexe, R. Scholz, V. Talalaev, R. J. Zhang, and M. Zacharias, “Si nanocrystal based memories: effect of the nanocrystal density,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 014310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Mehonic, S. Cueff, M. Wojdak, S. Hudziak, O. Jambois, C. Labbé, B. Garrido, R. Rizk, and A. J. Kenyon, “Resistive switching in silicon suboxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Sgrignuoli, G. Paternoster, A. Marconi, P. Ingenhoven, A. Anopchenko, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Modeling of silicon nanocrystals based down-shifter for enhanced silicon solar cell performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 034303 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, E. Moser, S. Prezioso, M. Wang, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, and P. Bellutti, “Low voltage onset of electroluminescence in nanocrystalline-Si/ SiO2 multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(3), 033104 (2009).
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S. Cueff, C. Labbé, B. Dierre, J. Cardin, L. Khomenkova, F. Fabbri, T. Sekiguchi, and R. Rizk, “Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence comparative study of erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 051504 (2011).
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J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

A. J. Kenyon, P. F. Trwoga, M. Federighi, and C. W. Pitt, “Optical properties of PECVD erbium-doped silicon-rich silica: evidence for energy transfer between silicon microclusters and erbium ions,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(21), L319–L324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

O. Jambois, J. M. Ramírez, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, P. Pellegrino, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Effect of the annealing treatments on the electroluminescence efficiency of SiO2 layers doped with Si and Er,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(4), 045103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

H. Krzyżanowska, K. S. Ni, Y. Fu, and P. M. Fauchet, “Electroluminescence from Er-doped SiO2/nc-Si multilayers under lateral carrier injection,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B. In press.

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

S. Cueff, C. Labbé, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, X. Portier, and R. Rizk, “Thickness-dependent optimization of Er3+ light emission from silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 395 (2011).
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Nanotechnology (1)

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. Timmerman, I. Izeddin, P. Stallinga, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Space-separated quantum cutting with silicon nanocrystals for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 105–109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
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F. Gourbilleau, R. Madelon, C. Dufour, and R. Rizk, “Fabrication and optical properties of Er-doped multilayers Si-rich SiO2/SiO2: size control, optimum Er –Si coupling and interaction distance monitoring,” Opt. Mater. 27(5), 868–875 (2005).
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F. Priolo, C. D. Presti, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, I. Crupi, F. Iacona, G. Di Stefano, A. Piana, D. Sanfilippo, and P. G. Fallica, “Carrier-induced quenching processes on the erbium luminescence in silicon nanocluster devices,” Phys. Rev. B 73(11), 113302 (2006).
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N. N. Ha, S. Cueff, K. Dohnalová, M. T. Trinh, C. Labbé, R. Rizk, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Photon cutting for excitation of Er3+ ions in SiO2 sensitized by Si quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 84(24), 241308 (2011).
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O. Savchyn, F. R. Ruhge, P. G. Kik, R. M. Todi, K. R. Coffey, H. Nukala, and H. Heinrich, “Luminescence-center-mediated excitation as the dominant Er sensitization mechanism in Er-doped silicon-rich SiO2 films,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
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A. J. Kenyon, M. Wojdak, I. Ahmad, W. H. Loh, and C. J. Oton, “Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035318 (2008).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 207401 (2006).
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Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Marconi, A. Anopchenko, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystal light emitting device as a bidirectional optical transceiver,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(9), 095019 (2011).
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Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

Z. Yuan, G. Pucker, A. Marconi, F. Sgrignuoli, A. Anopchenko, Y. Jestin, L. Ferrario, P. Bellutti, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocrystals as a photoluminescence down shifter for solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(4), 1224–1227 (2011).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic cross-section view of the light emitting diode with an SiOx:Er active layer analyzed in this work.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Current density versus applied voltage for SiOx:Er layers of different thicknesses, ranging from 20 nm to 170 nm. Inset: Poole-Frenkel representation of conduction for layers of 20 nm and 170 nm. (b) Values of breakdown voltage and the corresponding maximum current density as a function of thickness.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparative evolutions of experimental and calculated values of the maximal current density flowing through active layers of LEDs of different thicknesses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic model explaining the different conduction properties between (a) thin films (<150 nm) and (b) thick films (>150 nm). Interface defects are likely to be present in both kinds of samples but are not displayed here for clarity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

EL versus applied voltage for different thicknesses of SiOx:Er LEDs containing 7 at.% excess Si. Inset: relative evolution of Si-ncs sensitized Er PL at 1.5 µm and the conductivity for the same range of thicknesses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Electroluminescence signal at 1.5 µm (normalized to film thickness) versus applied voltage for different thicknesses of SiOx:Er layers containing 18 at.% Si-excess. Inset: scheme of the combined influences of conductivity and Er3+ coupling on the resulting EL signal.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

External quantum efficiency for different thicknesses of SiOx:Er LEDs containing 7 at.% and 18 at.% excess Si.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

J V d al exp( 1 k B T [ e 3 V π ε r ε 0 d al ] )
ln( J E )[ 1 k B T e 3 π ε r ε 0 ] E 1 2
EQE= n emitted photons n injected electrons =A( e hν I EL I injection )

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