Abstract

The ionization of hydrogen by a chirped XUV pulse in the presence of a few cycle infrared laser pulse has been investigated. The electron momentum distribution has been obtained by treating the interaction of the atom with the XUV radiation at the first order of the time-dependent perturbation theory and describing the emitted electron through the Coulomb-Volkov wavefunction. The results of the calculations agree with the ones found by solving numerically the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. It has been found that depending on the delay between the pulses the combined effect of the XUV chirp and of the steering action on the infrared field brings about asymmetries in the electron momentum distribution. These asymmetries may give information on both the chirp and the XUV pulse duration.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Progr. Phys. 67,, 813–855 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Bouhal, R. Evans, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, and D. von der Linde, “Cross-correlation measurement of femtosecond noncollinear high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 950–956 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. LeBlanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801(R) (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature,  414, 509 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum Theory of Attosecond XUV Pulse Measurement by Laser Dressed Photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L.-Y. Peng, E. A. Pronin, and A. Starace, “Attosecond pulse carrier-envelope phase effects on ionized electron momentum and energy distributions: roles of frequency, intensity and an additional IR pulse,” New J. Phys. 10, 025030 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D.B. Milošević and F. Ehlotzky, “Coulomb and rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3124–3127 (1998);
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. L. Yudin, S. Patchkovskii, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Chirp-dependent attosecond interference in the Coulomb-Volkov continuum,” J. Phys B: At. Mol Opt. Phys 41, 045602 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Bauer and P. Koval, “Qprop: A Schrödinger-solver for intense laser-atom interaction,” Comp. Phys Commun. 174, 396–421 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Bivona, G. Bonanno, R. Burlon, and C. Leone, “Radiation controlled energy of photoelectrons produced by two-color short pulses,” Eur. Phys. J ST 160, 23–31 (2008).
  16. G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

L.-Y. Peng, E. A. Pronin, and A. Starace, “Attosecond pulse carrier-envelope phase effects on ionized electron momentum and energy distributions: roles of frequency, intensity and an additional IR pulse,” New J. Phys. 10, 025030 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Yudin, S. Patchkovskii, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Chirp-dependent attosecond interference in the Coulomb-Volkov continuum,” J. Phys B: At. Mol Opt. Phys 41, 045602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Bivona, G. Bonanno, R. Burlon, and C. Leone, “Radiation controlled energy of photoelectrons produced by two-color short pulses,” Eur. Phys. J ST 160, 23–31 (2008).

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

D. Bauer and P. Koval, “Qprop: A Schrödinger-solver for intense laser-atom interaction,” Comp. Phys Commun. 174, 396–421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Progr. Phys. 67,, 813–855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum Theory of Attosecond XUV Pulse Measurement by Laser Dressed Photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature,  414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. LeBlanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

D.B. Milošević and F. Ehlotzky, “Coulomb and rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3124–3127 (1998);
[CrossRef]

1997

Agostini, P.

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Progr. Phys. 67,, 813–855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. LeBlanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhal, R. Evans, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, and D. von der Linde, “Cross-correlation measurement of femtosecond noncollinear high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 950–956 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandrauk, A. D.

G. L. Yudin, S. Patchkovskii, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Chirp-dependent attosecond interference in the Coulomb-Volkov continuum,” J. Phys B: At. Mol Opt. Phys 41, 045602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, D.

D. Bauer and P. Koval, “Qprop: A Schrödinger-solver for intense laser-atom interaction,” Comp. Phys Commun. 174, 396–421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bivona, S.

S. Bivona, G. Bonanno, R. Burlon, and C. Leone, “Radiation controlled energy of photoelectrons produced by two-color short pulses,” Eur. Phys. J ST 160, 23–31 (2008).

Bonanno, G.

S. Bivona, G. Bonanno, R. Burlon, and C. Leone, “Radiation controlled energy of photoelectrons produced by two-color short pulses,” Eur. Phys. J ST 160, 23–31 (2008).

Bouhal, A.

Brabec, T.

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum Theory of Attosecond XUV Pulse Measurement by Laser Dressed Photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature,  414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. LeBlanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhal, R. Evans, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, and D. von der Linde, “Cross-correlation measurement of femtosecond noncollinear high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 950–956 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burlon, R.

S. Bivona, G. Bonanno, R. Burlon, and C. Leone, “Radiation controlled energy of photoelectrons produced by two-color short pulses,” Eur. Phys. J ST 160, 23–31 (2008).

Cheret, M.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. LeBlanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheriaux, G.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. LeBlanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Constantinescu, R. C.

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature,  414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiMauro, L. F.

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Progr. Phys. 67,, 813–855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature,  414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehlotzky, F.

D.B. Milošević and F. Ehlotzky, “Coulomb and rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3124–3127 (1998);
[CrossRef]

Evans, R.

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grasbon, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grillon, G.

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature,  414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature,  414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature,  414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitzler, M.

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum Theory of Attosecond XUV Pulse Measurement by Laser Dressed Photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koval, P.

D. Bauer and P. Koval, “Qprop: A Schrödinger-solver for intense laser-atom interaction,” Comp. Phys Commun. 174, 396–421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum Theory of Attosecond XUV Pulse Measurement by Laser Dressed Photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature,  414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LeBlanc, C.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. LeBlanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leone, C.

S. Bivona, G. Bonanno, R. Burlon, and C. Leone, “Radiation controlled energy of photoelectrons produced by two-color short pulses,” Eur. Phys. J ST 160, 23–31 (2008).

Mairesse, Y.

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Milosevic, N.

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum Theory of Attosecond XUV Pulse Measurement by Laser Dressed Photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature,  414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miloševic, D.B.

D.B. Milošević and F. Ehlotzky, “Coulomb and rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3124–3127 (1998);
[CrossRef]

Muller, H. G.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. LeBlanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhal, R. Evans, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, and D. von der Linde, “Cross-correlation measurement of femtosecond noncollinear high-order harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 950–956 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mullot, G.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. LeBlanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

Nisoli, M.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patchkovskii, S.

G. L. Yudin, S. Patchkovskii, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Chirp-dependent attosecond interference in the Coulomb-Volkov continuum,” J. Phys B: At. Mol Opt. Phys 41, 045602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paul, P. M.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. LeBlanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, G. G.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, L.-Y.

L.-Y. Peng, E. A. Pronin, and A. Starace, “Attosecond pulse carrier-envelope phase effects on ionized electron momentum and energy distributions: roles of frequency, intensity and an additional IR pulse,” New J. Phys. 10, 025030 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Priori, E.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pronin, E. A.

L.-Y. Peng, E. A. Pronin, and A. Starace, “Attosecond pulse carrier-envelope phase effects on ionized electron momentum and energy distributions: roles of frequency, intensity and an additional IR pulse,” New J. Phys. 10, 025030 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Quéré, F.

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature,  414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum Theory of Attosecond XUV Pulse Measurement by Laser Dressed Photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature,  414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starace, A.

L.-Y. Peng, E. A. Pronin, and A. Starace, “Attosecond pulse carrier-envelope phase effects on ionized electron momentum and energy distributions: roles of frequency, intensity and an additional IR pulse,” New J. Phys. 10, 025030 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Toma, E. S.

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. LeBlanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von der Linde, D.

Walther, H.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westerwalbesloh, Th.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yudin, G. L.

G. L. Yudin, S. Patchkovskii, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Chirp-dependent attosecond interference in the Coulomb-Volkov continuum,” J. Phys B: At. Mol Opt. Phys 41, 045602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comp. Phys Commun.

D. Bauer and P. Koval, “Qprop: A Schrödinger-solver for intense laser-atom interaction,” Comp. Phys Commun. 174, 396–421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J ST

S. Bivona, G. Bonanno, R. Burlon, and C. Leone, “Radiation controlled energy of photoelectrons produced by two-color short pulses,” Eur. Phys. J ST 160, 23–31 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys B: At. Mol Opt. Phys

G. L. Yudin, S. Patchkovskii, and A. D. Bandrauk, “Chirp-dependent attosecond interference in the Coulomb-Volkov continuum,” J. Phys B: At. Mol Opt. Phys 41, 045602 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature,  414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys.

L.-Y. Peng, E. A. Pronin, and A. Starace, “Attosecond pulse carrier-envelope phase effects on ionized electron momentum and energy distributions: roles of frequency, intensity and an additional IR pulse,” New J. Phys. 10, 025030 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

D.B. Milošević and F. Ehlotzky, “Coulomb and rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3124–3127 (1998);
[CrossRef]

Y. Mairesse and F. Quéré, “Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Toma, H. G. Muller, P. M. Paul, P. Breger, M. Cheret, P. Agostini, C. LeBlanc, G. Mullot, and G. Cheriaux, “Ponderomotive streaking of the ionization potential as a method for measuring pulse durations in the XUV domain with fs resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 061801(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Kitzler, N. Milosevic, A. Scrinzi, F. Krausz, and T. Brabec, “Quantum Theory of Attosecond XUV Pulse Measurement by Laser Dressed Photoionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173904 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Progr. Phys.

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, “The physics of attosecond light pulses,” Rep. Progr. Phys. 67,, 813–855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Momentum distribution P(qx, 0, qz) of photoelectrons emitted from H atom ionized by a single XUV pulse having τH = 150 asec FWHM, β = 3, central photon energy ωH = 90 eV and peak intensity IH = 1011 W / cm2, in the presence of a 6-cycle IR pulse with wavelength 750 nm and peak intensity IL = 2 · 1013 W/cm2. The peak of the XUV pulse is centered at (a) tH = 0 and (b) tH = TL/4, TL being the IR pulse period.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Differential ionization probability P(0, 0, qz) for electron ejection along the z-axis as a function of qz. IR and XUV pulses parameters as in Fig. 1a. The continuous green curve is obtained by integration of the TSDE, the red dashed curve by Eq. 1, the black dotted curve by Eq. 4

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Maximum of the transition probability P(0, 0, qz), as a function of the IR pulse peak intensity IL, obtained with (a) β = 3 and (b) β = 1.5, the other parameters being the same as in Fig. (1)a. Circle Eq. 1, triangle Eq. 4, square TDSE. In each panel top curves refer to the backward (qz < 0) peak, while bottom curves refer to forward (qz > 0) peak.

Equations (7)

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P ( q x , q y , q z ) = | d t u ^ z d q ( t ) E H ( t ) exp { i t τ L / 2 [ 1 2 [ q ( t ) ] 2 I P ] d t } | 2
E H ( t ) = E 0 H exp { 4 ln 2 ( 1 + β 2 ) τ H 2 ( t t H ) 2 } cos ( ω H ( t t H ) + δ ( t ) )
E L ( t ) = E L ( t ) u ^ z = E 0 L f ( t ) cos ( ω L t ) u ^ z
P ( q x , q y , q z ) = | d q ( t H ) E 0 H / 2 | 2 Π ( β , τ H )
= 1 i [ ( q + A L ( t H ) ) 2 / 2 ω H I P ] 2 a + i b E L ( t H ) q ( u ^ z d q ( t H ) ) u ^ z d q ( t H )
Π ( β , τ H ) = π exp { a [ ( q + A L ( t H ) ) 2 / 2 ω H I P ] 2 2 ( a 2 + b 2 ) } a 2 + b 2
b = [ q + A L ( t H ) ] E L ( t H ) / 2 + β a

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