Abstract

We demonstrate the first sub-100 μm silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs) that operate at >10 Gb/s, by exploiting low-dispersion slow-light in lattice-shifted photonic crystal waveguides (LSPCWs). We use two LSPCW-MZM structures, one with LSPCWs in both arms of the MZM, and the other with an LSPCW in only one of the arms. Using the first structure we demonstrate 10 Gb/s operation with a operating bandwidth of 12.5 nm, in a device with a phase-shifter length of only 50 μm. Using the second structure, owing to a larger group index as well as lower spectral noise, we demonstrate 40 Gb/s operation with a phase-shifter length of only 90 μm, which is more than an order-of-magnitude shorter than most 40 Gb/s MZMs.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (9)

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, H. Youfang, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal silicon optical modulators: carrier-injection and depletion at 10 Gb/s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(2), 210–220 (2012) (Invited Paper).
[CrossRef]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm V(π)L using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Gutierrez, A. Brimont, G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J. M. Fedeli, L. Vivien, J. Marti, and P. Sanchis, “Ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer silicon modulator for enhanced performance,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 9–14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y. K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10591–10596 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hosseini, X. C. Xu, H. Subbaraman, C. Y. Lin, S. Rahimi, and R. T. Chen, “Large optical spectral range dispersion engineered silicon-based photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12318–12325 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. L. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

2010 (5)

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, Y. K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. L. Kamocsai, C. M. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-compatible Si-ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer with internal bandwidth equalization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Chen, Y. H. Kuo, and J. E. Bowers, “25Gb/s hybrid silicon switch using a capacitively loaded traveling wave electrode,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1070–1075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, “Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 4866–4868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P.

Akagawa, T.

Akiyama, S.

Alic, N.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, H. Youfang, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alloatti, L.

Ang, K. W.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ayazi, A.

Baba, T.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beattie, J.

D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, Y. K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. L. Kamocsai, C. M. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-compatible Si-ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer with internal bandwidth equalization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

Bouville, D.

Bowers, J. E.

Brimont, A.

Carothers, D.

D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, Y. K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. L. Kamocsai, C. M. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-compatible Si-ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer with internal bandwidth equalization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Chen, H. W.

Chen, L.

Chen, R. T.

Chen, Y. K.

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y. K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, Y. K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. L. Kamocsai, C. M. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-compatible Si-ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer with internal bandwidth equalization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

de Sterke, C. M.

Ding, R.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Eich, M.

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, “Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 4866–4868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

Fédéli, J. M.

Franck, T.

Gardes, F. Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, H. Youfang, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Brimont, D. J. Thomson, P. Sanchis, J. Herrera, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High speed silicon electro-optical modulators enhanced via slow light propagation,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20876–20885 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, Y. K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. L. Kamocsai, C. M. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-compatible Si-ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer with internal bandwidth equalization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gomez-Iglesias, A.

Green, W. M. J.

Grosse, P.

Gutierrez, A. M.

Ha, S.

Hama, Y.

Hamachi, Y.

Harris, N. C.

Herrera, J.

Hill, C. M.

D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, Y. K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. L. Kamocsai, C. M. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-compatible Si-ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer with internal bandwidth equalization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hillerkuss, D.

Hirayama, N.

Hochberg, M.

Hodge, D.

Horikawa, T.

Hosseini, A.

Imai, M.

Ishikura, N.

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kamocsai, R. L.

D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, Y. K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. L. Kamocsai, C. M. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-compatible Si-ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer with internal bandwidth equalization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kampfrath, T.

Keil, U. D.

Kivshar, Y. S.

Komorowska, K.

Korn, D.

Krauss, T. F.

Kubo, S.

Kuipers, L. K.

Kuo, B. P. P.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, H. Youfang, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y. H.

Kwong, D. L.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P.

Lentine, A. L.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

Li, J.

Li, Y. L.

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. S. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13(8), 3129–3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, A. E. J.

Lin, C. Y.

Liow, T. Y.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. S.

Liu, Y.

Lo, G. Q.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

Marti, J.

Martí, J.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, H. Youfang, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Milesi, F.

Morse, M.

Myslivets, E.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, H. Youfang, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. C.

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal silicon optical modulators: carrier-injection and depletion at 10 Gb/s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(2), 210–220 (2012) (Invited Paper).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “10 Gb/s operation of photonic crystal silicon optical modulators,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13000–13007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noguchi, Y.

O’Faolain, L.

Okayama, H.

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pantouvaki, M.

Patel, S. S.

D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, Y. K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. L. Kamocsai, C. M. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-compatible Si-ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer with internal bandwidth equalization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, A. Y.

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, “Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 4866–4868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pinguet, T.

Pomerene, A.

D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, Y. K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. L. Kamocsai, C. M. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-compatible Si-ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer with internal bandwidth equalization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Radic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, H. Youfang, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rahimi, S.

Rasigade, G.

Rasras, M.

D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, Y. K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. L. Kamocsai, C. M. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-compatible Si-ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer with internal bandwidth equalization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, H. Youfang, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Brimont, D. J. Thomson, P. Sanchis, J. Herrera, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High speed silicon electro-optical modulators enhanced via slow light propagation,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20876–20885 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. S. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13(8), 3129–3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, Y.

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal silicon optical modulators: carrier-injection and depletion at 10 Gb/s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(2), 210–220 (2012) (Invited Paper).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “10 Gb/s operation of photonic crystal silicon optical modulators,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13000–13007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

Sanchis, P.

Sekaric, L.

Shinkawa, M.

Song, J. F.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spasenovic, M.

Streshinsky, M.

Subbaraman, H.

Sukhorukov, A. A.

Suzuki, K.

Takahashi, H.

Takahashi, M.

Teo, S. H. G.

Thomson, D. J.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, H. Youfang, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Brimont, D. J. Thomson, P. Sanchis, J. Herrera, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High speed silicon electro-optical modulators enhanced via slow light propagation,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20876–20885 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tu, K. Y.

D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, Y. K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. L. Kamocsai, C. M. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-compatible Si-ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer with internal bandwidth equalization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Usuki, T.

Van Campenhout, J.

Verheyen, P.

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

White, A. E.

D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, Y. K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. L. Kamocsai, C. M. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-compatible Si-ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer with internal bandwidth equalization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

White, T. P.

Xiong, Y. Z.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. C.

Youfang, H.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, H. Youfang, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

Yu, M. B.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Ziebell, M.

Zlatanovic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, H. Youfang, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zortman, W. A.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Y. Petrov and M. Eich, “Zero dispersion at small group velocities in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 4866–4868 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal silicon optical modulators: carrier-injection and depletion at 10 Gb/s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(2), 210–220 (2012) (Invited Paper).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. F. Song, Y. Z. Xiong, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, M. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, A. E. White, Y. K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. L. Kamocsai, C. M. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-compatible Si-ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer with internal bandwidth equalization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, H. Youfang, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (2)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (15)

H. W. Chen, Y. H. Kuo, and J. E. Bowers, “25Gb/s hybrid silicon switch using a capacitively loaded traveling wave electrode,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1070–1075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J. M. Fédéli, F. Milesi, P. Grosse, D. Bouville, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator,” Opt. Express 19(7), 5827–5832 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “10 Gb/s operation of photonic crystal silicon optical modulators,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13000–13007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Brimont, D. J. Thomson, P. Sanchis, J. Herrera, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High speed silicon electro-optical modulators enhanced via slow light propagation,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20876–20885 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rahimi, A. Hosseini, X. C. Xu, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Group-index independent coupling to band engineered SOI photonic crystal waveguide with large slow-down factor,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21832–21841 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, Y. Hama, K. Suzuki, and T. Baba, “Nonlinear enhancement in photonic crystal slow light waveguides fabricated using CMOS-compatible process,” Opt. Express 19(22), 22208–22218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Baba, M. Imai, T. Akagawa, M. Takahashi, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, H. Okayama, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “12.5-Gb/s operation with 0.29-V·cm V(π)L using silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based-on forward-biased pin diode,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2911–2923 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. S. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13(8), 3129–3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, “Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6227–6232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y. K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10591–10596 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hosseini, X. C. Xu, H. Subbaraman, C. Y. Lin, S. Rahimi, and R. T. Chen, “Large optical spectral range dispersion engineered silicon-based photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12318–12325 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. L. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

H. C. Nguyen, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “1.6 Vpp, 10 Gb/s Si photonic crystal optical modulators without RF termination,” in JSAP Spring Meeting, (Tokyo, Japan, 2012), pp. 18a-F14–18.

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