Abstract

We report the design, fabrication and characterization of a II-VI Zn0.51Cd0.49Se / Zn0.45Cd0.42Mg0.13Se-based quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) with a bound to quasi-bound transition centered at 8.7 µm. The good growth quality of the epitaxial layers was verified by x-ray diffraction measurements. Absorption and photocurrent measurements yield results consistent with conventional III-V QWIPs. Photocurrent measurements reveal an exponential decrease with temperature. In addition, we also observe more than 4 orders of magnitude increase in photocurrent with applied bias. By compensating the drop in temperature performance with an increase in applied bias, we achieve an operating temperature of up to 140K and a responsivity of 1-10 µA/W.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. S. D. Gunapala and S. V. Bandara, “Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Plane Arrays,” in Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells: Physics and Device Applications I, H.C. Liu, and F. Capasso, eds. (Academic Press, 2000), pp. 197–282.
  2. S. Krishna, D. Forman, S. Annamalai, P. Dowd, P. Varangis, T. Tumolillo, A. Gray, J. Zilko, K. Sun, M. Liu, J. Campbell, and D. Carothers, “Demonstration of a 320x256 two-color focal plane array using InAs/InGaAs quantum dots in well detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 193501 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Tsao, H. Lim, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “High operating temperature 320x256 middle-wavelength infrared focal plane array imaging based on an InAs/InGaAs/InAlAs/InP quantum dot infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 201109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. Munoz, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, C. Y. Song, and H. C. Liu, “Study of intersubband transitions of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for midinfrared device applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1103–1107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. O. Charles, A. Shen, K. Franz, C. Gmachl, Q. Zhang, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, and M. C. Tamargo, “Growth and characterization of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se asymmetric coupled quantum well structures for quantum cascade laser applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1171–1173 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, C. Y. Song, H. C. Liu, S. K. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, and M. Munoz, “Midinfrared intersubband absorption in ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131903 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. S. Li, A. Shen, W. O. Charles, Q. Zhang, and M. C. Tamargo, “Multiple intersubband absorption in wide band gap II-VI ZnxCd1-xSe multiple quantum wells with metastable zincblende MgSe barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Shen, H. Lu, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. C. Tamargo, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, S. K. Zhang, X. Zhou, R. R. Alfano, and H. C. Liu, “Intersubband absorption in CdSe/ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe self-assembled quantum dot multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071910 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, A. J. Hoffman, M. C. Tamargo, and C. Gmachl, “ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Yao, A. Alfaro-Martinez, K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “Room temperature and narrow intersubband electroluminescence from ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041113 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Sohel, X. Zhou, H. Lu, M. N. Perez-Paz, M. Tamargo, and M. Muñoz, “Optical characterization and evaluation of the conduction band offset for ZnCdSe/ZnMgSe quantum wells grown on InP(001) by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(3), 1209–1211 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. Zakharov, A. Rubio, X. Blase, M. L. Cohen, and S. G. Louie, “Quasiparticle band structures of six II-VI compounds: ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdS, CdSe, and CdTe,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(15), 10780–10787 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, and S. Scandolo, “Nonparabolicity and a sum rule associated with bound-to-bound and bound-to-continuum intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(12), 8663–8674 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. C. Liu, Z. R. Wasilewski, M. Buchanan, and H. Chu, “Segregation of Si δ doping in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum wells and the cause of the asymmetry in the current-voltage characteristics of intersubband infrared detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(6), 761–763 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. C. Larkins, H. Schneider, S. Ehret, J. Fleißner, B. Dischler, P. Koidl, and J. D. Ralston, “Influences of MBE growth processes on photovoltaic 3-5 µm intersubband photodetectors,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 41(4), 511–518 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Z. R. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and M. Buchanan, “Studies of Si segregation in GaAs using current-voltage characteristics of quantum well infrared photodetectors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12(2), 1273–1276 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Kim, A. Madhukar, Z. Ye, and J. C. Campbell, “High detectivity InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3277–3279 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Z. Ye, J. C. Campbell, Z. Chen, E. Kim, and A. Madhukar, “InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors with In0.15Ga0.85As strain-relief cap layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7462–7468 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Ershov, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, Z. R. Wasilewski, and V. Ryzhii, “Photoconductivity nonlinearity at high excitation power in quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(4), 414–416 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2011

Y. Yao, A. Alfaro-Martinez, K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “Room temperature and narrow intersubband electroluminescence from ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008

W. O. Charles, A. Shen, K. Franz, C. Gmachl, Q. Zhang, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, and M. C. Tamargo, “Growth and characterization of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se asymmetric coupled quantum well structures for quantum cascade laser applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1171–1173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Li, A. Shen, W. O. Charles, Q. Zhang, and M. C. Tamargo, “Multiple intersubband absorption in wide band gap II-VI ZnxCd1-xSe multiple quantum wells with metastable zincblende MgSe barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, A. J. Hoffman, M. C. Tamargo, and C. Gmachl, “ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Shen, H. Lu, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. C. Tamargo, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, S. K. Zhang, X. Zhou, R. R. Alfano, and H. C. Liu, “Intersubband absorption in CdSe/ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe self-assembled quantum dot multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsao, H. Lim, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “High operating temperature 320x256 middle-wavelength infrared focal plane array imaging based on an InAs/InGaAs/InAlAs/InP quantum dot infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 201109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. Munoz, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, C. Y. Song, and H. C. Liu, “Study of intersubband transitions of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for midinfrared device applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1103–1107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, C. Y. Song, H. C. Liu, S. K. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, and M. Munoz, “Midinfrared intersubband absorption in ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Krishna, D. Forman, S. Annamalai, P. Dowd, P. Varangis, T. Tumolillo, A. Gray, J. Zilko, K. Sun, M. Liu, J. Campbell, and D. Carothers, “Demonstration of a 320x256 two-color focal plane array using InAs/InGaAs quantum dots in well detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 193501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Sohel, X. Zhou, H. Lu, M. N. Perez-Paz, M. Tamargo, and M. Muñoz, “Optical characterization and evaluation of the conduction band offset for ZnCdSe/ZnMgSe quantum wells grown on InP(001) by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(3), 1209–1211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

E. Kim, A. Madhukar, Z. Ye, and J. C. Campbell, “High detectivity InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3277–3279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

Z. Ye, J. C. Campbell, Z. Chen, E. Kim, and A. Madhukar, “InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors with In0.15Ga0.85As strain-relief cap layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7462–7468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Ershov, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, Z. R. Wasilewski, and V. Ryzhii, “Photoconductivity nonlinearity at high excitation power in quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(4), 414–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

E. C. Larkins, H. Schneider, S. Ehret, J. Fleißner, B. Dischler, P. Koidl, and J. D. Ralston, “Influences of MBE growth processes on photovoltaic 3-5 µm intersubband photodetectors,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 41(4), 511–518 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. R. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and M. Buchanan, “Studies of Si segregation in GaAs using current-voltage characteristics of quantum well infrared photodetectors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12(2), 1273–1276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Zakharov, A. Rubio, X. Blase, M. L. Cohen, and S. G. Louie, “Quasiparticle band structures of six II-VI compounds: ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdS, CdSe, and CdTe,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(15), 10780–10787 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, and S. Scandolo, “Nonparabolicity and a sum rule associated with bound-to-bound and bound-to-continuum intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(12), 8663–8674 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

H. C. Liu, Z. R. Wasilewski, M. Buchanan, and H. Chu, “Segregation of Si δ doping in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum wells and the cause of the asymmetry in the current-voltage characteristics of intersubband infrared detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(6), 761–763 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

A. Shen, H. Lu, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. C. Tamargo, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, S. K. Zhang, X. Zhou, R. R. Alfano, and H. C. Liu, “Intersubband absorption in CdSe/ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe self-assembled quantum dot multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, C. Y. Song, H. C. Liu, S. K. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, and M. Munoz, “Midinfrared intersubband absorption in ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alfaro-Martinez, A.

Y. Yao, A. Alfaro-Martinez, K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “Room temperature and narrow intersubband electroluminescence from ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Annamalai, S.

S. Krishna, D. Forman, S. Annamalai, P. Dowd, P. Varangis, T. Tumolillo, A. Gray, J. Zilko, K. Sun, M. Liu, J. Campbell, and D. Carothers, “Demonstration of a 320x256 two-color focal plane array using InAs/InGaAs quantum dots in well detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 193501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blase, X.

O. Zakharov, A. Rubio, X. Blase, M. L. Cohen, and S. G. Louie, “Quasiparticle band structures of six II-VI compounds: ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdS, CdSe, and CdTe,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(15), 10780–10787 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchanan, M.

M. Ershov, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, Z. R. Wasilewski, and V. Ryzhii, “Photoconductivity nonlinearity at high excitation power in quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(4), 414–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. R. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and M. Buchanan, “Studies of Si segregation in GaAs using current-voltage characteristics of quantum well infrared photodetectors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12(2), 1273–1276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liu, Z. R. Wasilewski, M. Buchanan, and H. Chu, “Segregation of Si δ doping in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum wells and the cause of the asymmetry in the current-voltage characteristics of intersubband infrared detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(6), 761–763 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J.

S. Krishna, D. Forman, S. Annamalai, P. Dowd, P. Varangis, T. Tumolillo, A. Gray, J. Zilko, K. Sun, M. Liu, J. Campbell, and D. Carothers, “Demonstration of a 320x256 two-color focal plane array using InAs/InGaAs quantum dots in well detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 193501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

E. Kim, A. Madhukar, Z. Ye, and J. C. Campbell, “High detectivity InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3277–3279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ye, J. C. Campbell, Z. Chen, E. Kim, and A. Madhukar, “InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors with In0.15Ga0.85As strain-relief cap layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7462–7468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, and S. Scandolo, “Nonparabolicity and a sum rule associated with bound-to-bound and bound-to-continuum intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(12), 8663–8674 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carothers, D.

S. Krishna, D. Forman, S. Annamalai, P. Dowd, P. Varangis, T. Tumolillo, A. Gray, J. Zilko, K. Sun, M. Liu, J. Campbell, and D. Carothers, “Demonstration of a 320x256 two-color focal plane array using InAs/InGaAs quantum dots in well detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 193501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Charles, W.

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. Munoz, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, C. Y. Song, and H. C. Liu, “Study of intersubband transitions of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for midinfrared device applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1103–1107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Shen, H. Lu, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. C. Tamargo, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, S. K. Zhang, X. Zhou, R. R. Alfano, and H. C. Liu, “Intersubband absorption in CdSe/ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe self-assembled quantum dot multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Charles, W. O.

Y. Yao, A. Alfaro-Martinez, K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “Room temperature and narrow intersubband electroluminescence from ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, A. J. Hoffman, M. C. Tamargo, and C. Gmachl, “ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Li, A. Shen, W. O. Charles, Q. Zhang, and M. C. Tamargo, “Multiple intersubband absorption in wide band gap II-VI ZnxCd1-xSe multiple quantum wells with metastable zincblende MgSe barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. O. Charles, A. Shen, K. Franz, C. Gmachl, Q. Zhang, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, and M. C. Tamargo, “Growth and characterization of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se asymmetric coupled quantum well structures for quantum cascade laser applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1171–1173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Z. Ye, J. C. Campbell, Z. Chen, E. Kim, and A. Madhukar, “InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors with In0.15Ga0.85As strain-relief cap layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7462–7468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chu, H.

H. C. Liu, Z. R. Wasilewski, M. Buchanan, and H. Chu, “Segregation of Si δ doping in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum wells and the cause of the asymmetry in the current-voltage characteristics of intersubband infrared detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(6), 761–763 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, M. L.

O. Zakharov, A. Rubio, X. Blase, M. L. Cohen, and S. G. Louie, “Quasiparticle band structures of six II-VI compounds: ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdS, CdSe, and CdTe,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(15), 10780–10787 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dischler, B.

E. C. Larkins, H. Schneider, S. Ehret, J. Fleißner, B. Dischler, P. Koidl, and J. D. Ralston, “Influences of MBE growth processes on photovoltaic 3-5 µm intersubband photodetectors,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 41(4), 511–518 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dowd, P.

S. Krishna, D. Forman, S. Annamalai, P. Dowd, P. Varangis, T. Tumolillo, A. Gray, J. Zilko, K. Sun, M. Liu, J. Campbell, and D. Carothers, “Demonstration of a 320x256 two-color focal plane array using InAs/InGaAs quantum dots in well detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 193501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ehret, S.

E. C. Larkins, H. Schneider, S. Ehret, J. Fleißner, B. Dischler, P. Koidl, and J. D. Ralston, “Influences of MBE growth processes on photovoltaic 3-5 µm intersubband photodetectors,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 41(4), 511–518 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ershov, M.

M. Ershov, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, Z. R. Wasilewski, and V. Ryzhii, “Photoconductivity nonlinearity at high excitation power in quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(4), 414–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, and S. Scandolo, “Nonparabolicity and a sum rule associated with bound-to-bound and bound-to-continuum intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(12), 8663–8674 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleißner, J.

E. C. Larkins, H. Schneider, S. Ehret, J. Fleißner, B. Dischler, P. Koidl, and J. D. Ralston, “Influences of MBE growth processes on photovoltaic 3-5 µm intersubband photodetectors,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 41(4), 511–518 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Forman, D.

S. Krishna, D. Forman, S. Annamalai, P. Dowd, P. Varangis, T. Tumolillo, A. Gray, J. Zilko, K. Sun, M. Liu, J. Campbell, and D. Carothers, “Demonstration of a 320x256 two-color focal plane array using InAs/InGaAs quantum dots in well detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 193501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Franz, K.

W. O. Charles, A. Shen, K. Franz, C. Gmachl, Q. Zhang, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, and M. C. Tamargo, “Growth and characterization of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se asymmetric coupled quantum well structures for quantum cascade laser applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1171–1173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Franz, K. J.

Y. Yao, A. Alfaro-Martinez, K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “Room temperature and narrow intersubband electroluminescence from ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, A. J. Hoffman, M. C. Tamargo, and C. Gmachl, “ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. Munoz, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, C. Y. Song, and H. C. Liu, “Study of intersubband transitions of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for midinfrared device applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1103–1107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Shen, H. Lu, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. C. Tamargo, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, S. K. Zhang, X. Zhou, R. R. Alfano, and H. C. Liu, “Intersubband absorption in CdSe/ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe self-assembled quantum dot multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

W. O. Charles, A. Shen, K. Franz, C. Gmachl, Q. Zhang, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, and M. C. Tamargo, “Growth and characterization of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se asymmetric coupled quantum well structures for quantum cascade laser applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1171–1173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, A. J. Hoffman, M. C. Tamargo, and C. Gmachl, “ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. Munoz, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, C. Y. Song, and H. C. Liu, “Study of intersubband transitions of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for midinfrared device applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1103–1107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Shen, H. Lu, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. C. Tamargo, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, S. K. Zhang, X. Zhou, R. R. Alfano, and H. C. Liu, “Intersubband absorption in CdSe/ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe self-assembled quantum dot multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C. F.

Y. Yao, A. Alfaro-Martinez, K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “Room temperature and narrow intersubband electroluminescence from ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Y.

W. O. Charles, A. Shen, K. Franz, C. Gmachl, Q. Zhang, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, and M. C. Tamargo, “Growth and characterization of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se asymmetric coupled quantum well structures for quantum cascade laser applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1171–1173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. Munoz, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, C. Y. Song, and H. C. Liu, “Study of intersubband transitions of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for midinfrared device applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1103–1107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gray, A.

S. Krishna, D. Forman, S. Annamalai, P. Dowd, P. Varangis, T. Tumolillo, A. Gray, J. Zilko, K. Sun, M. Liu, J. Campbell, and D. Carothers, “Demonstration of a 320x256 two-color focal plane array using InAs/InGaAs quantum dots in well detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 193501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, A. J.

K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, A. J. Hoffman, M. C. Tamargo, and C. Gmachl, “ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E.

E. Kim, A. Madhukar, Z. Ye, and J. C. Campbell, “High detectivity InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3277–3279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ye, J. C. Campbell, Z. Chen, E. Kim, and A. Madhukar, “InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors with In0.15Ga0.85As strain-relief cap layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7462–7468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koidl, P.

E. C. Larkins, H. Schneider, S. Ehret, J. Fleißner, B. Dischler, P. Koidl, and J. D. Ralston, “Influences of MBE growth processes on photovoltaic 3-5 µm intersubband photodetectors,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 41(4), 511–518 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krishna, S.

S. Krishna, D. Forman, S. Annamalai, P. Dowd, P. Varangis, T. Tumolillo, A. Gray, J. Zilko, K. Sun, M. Liu, J. Campbell, and D. Carothers, “Demonstration of a 320x256 two-color focal plane array using InAs/InGaAs quantum dots in well detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 193501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Larkins, E. C.

E. C. Larkins, H. Schneider, S. Ehret, J. Fleißner, B. Dischler, P. Koidl, and J. D. Ralston, “Influences of MBE growth processes on photovoltaic 3-5 µm intersubband photodetectors,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 41(4), 511–518 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, B. S.

B. S. Li, A. Shen, W. O. Charles, Q. Zhang, and M. C. Tamargo, “Multiple intersubband absorption in wide band gap II-VI ZnxCd1-xSe multiple quantum wells with metastable zincblende MgSe barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lim, H.

S. Tsao, H. Lim, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “High operating temperature 320x256 middle-wavelength infrared focal plane array imaging based on an InAs/InGaAs/InAlAs/InP quantum dot infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 201109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. C.

A. Shen, H. Lu, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. C. Tamargo, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, S. K. Zhang, X. Zhou, R. R. Alfano, and H. C. Liu, “Intersubband absorption in CdSe/ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe self-assembled quantum dot multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. Munoz, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, C. Y. Song, and H. C. Liu, “Study of intersubband transitions of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for midinfrared device applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1103–1107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, C. Y. Song, H. C. Liu, S. K. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, and M. Munoz, “Midinfrared intersubband absorption in ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ershov, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, Z. R. Wasilewski, and V. Ryzhii, “Photoconductivity nonlinearity at high excitation power in quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(4), 414–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. R. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and M. Buchanan, “Studies of Si segregation in GaAs using current-voltage characteristics of quantum well infrared photodetectors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12(2), 1273–1276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liu, Z. R. Wasilewski, M. Buchanan, and H. Chu, “Segregation of Si δ doping in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum wells and the cause of the asymmetry in the current-voltage characteristics of intersubband infrared detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(6), 761–763 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

S. Krishna, D. Forman, S. Annamalai, P. Dowd, P. Varangis, T. Tumolillo, A. Gray, J. Zilko, K. Sun, M. Liu, J. Campbell, and D. Carothers, “Demonstration of a 320x256 two-color focal plane array using InAs/InGaAs quantum dots in well detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 193501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Louie, S. G.

O. Zakharov, A. Rubio, X. Blase, M. L. Cohen, and S. G. Louie, “Quasiparticle band structures of six II-VI compounds: ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdS, CdSe, and CdTe,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(15), 10780–10787 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, H.

A. Shen, H. Lu, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. C. Tamargo, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, S. K. Zhang, X. Zhou, R. R. Alfano, and H. C. Liu, “Intersubband absorption in CdSe/ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe self-assembled quantum dot multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. Munoz, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, C. Y. Song, and H. C. Liu, “Study of intersubband transitions of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for midinfrared device applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1103–1107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, C. Y. Song, H. C. Liu, S. K. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, and M. Munoz, “Midinfrared intersubband absorption in ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Sohel, X. Zhou, H. Lu, M. N. Perez-Paz, M. Tamargo, and M. Muñoz, “Optical characterization and evaluation of the conduction band offset for ZnCdSe/ZnMgSe quantum wells grown on InP(001) by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(3), 1209–1211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Madhukar, A.

E. Kim, A. Madhukar, Z. Ye, and J. C. Campbell, “High detectivity InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3277–3279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ye, J. C. Campbell, Z. Chen, E. Kim, and A. Madhukar, “InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors with In0.15Ga0.85As strain-relief cap layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7462–7468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, M.

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. Munoz, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, C. Y. Song, and H. C. Liu, “Study of intersubband transitions of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for midinfrared device applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1103–1107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, C. Y. Song, H. C. Liu, S. K. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, and M. Munoz, “Midinfrared intersubband absorption in ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, M.

M. Sohel, X. Zhou, H. Lu, M. N. Perez-Paz, M. Tamargo, and M. Muñoz, “Optical characterization and evaluation of the conduction band offset for ZnCdSe/ZnMgSe quantum wells grown on InP(001) by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(3), 1209–1211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neumark, G. F.

W. O. Charles, A. Shen, K. Franz, C. Gmachl, Q. Zhang, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, and M. C. Tamargo, “Growth and characterization of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se asymmetric coupled quantum well structures for quantum cascade laser applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1171–1173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. Munoz, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, C. Y. Song, and H. C. Liu, “Study of intersubband transitions of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for midinfrared device applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1103–1107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Paz, M. N.

M. Sohel, X. Zhou, H. Lu, M. N. Perez-Paz, M. Tamargo, and M. Muñoz, “Optical characterization and evaluation of the conduction band offset for ZnCdSe/ZnMgSe quantum wells grown on InP(001) by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(3), 1209–1211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ralston, J. D.

E. C. Larkins, H. Schneider, S. Ehret, J. Fleißner, B. Dischler, P. Koidl, and J. D. Ralston, “Influences of MBE growth processes on photovoltaic 3-5 µm intersubband photodetectors,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 41(4), 511–518 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

S. Tsao, H. Lim, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “High operating temperature 320x256 middle-wavelength infrared focal plane array imaging based on an InAs/InGaAs/InAlAs/InP quantum dot infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 201109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rubio, A.

O. Zakharov, A. Rubio, X. Blase, M. L. Cohen, and S. G. Louie, “Quasiparticle band structures of six II-VI compounds: ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdS, CdSe, and CdTe,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(15), 10780–10787 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryzhii, V.

M. Ershov, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, Z. R. Wasilewski, and V. Ryzhii, “Photoconductivity nonlinearity at high excitation power in quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(4), 414–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scandolo, S.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, and S. Scandolo, “Nonparabolicity and a sum rule associated with bound-to-bound and bound-to-continuum intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(12), 8663–8674 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, H.

E. C. Larkins, H. Schneider, S. Ehret, J. Fleißner, B. Dischler, P. Koidl, and J. D. Ralston, “Influences of MBE growth processes on photovoltaic 3-5 µm intersubband photodetectors,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 41(4), 511–518 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shen, A.

Y. Yao, A. Alfaro-Martinez, K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “Room temperature and narrow intersubband electroluminescence from ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, A. J. Hoffman, M. C. Tamargo, and C. Gmachl, “ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Li, A. Shen, W. O. Charles, Q. Zhang, and M. C. Tamargo, “Multiple intersubband absorption in wide band gap II-VI ZnxCd1-xSe multiple quantum wells with metastable zincblende MgSe barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. O. Charles, A. Shen, K. Franz, C. Gmachl, Q. Zhang, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, and M. C. Tamargo, “Growth and characterization of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se asymmetric coupled quantum well structures for quantum cascade laser applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1171–1173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Shen, H. Lu, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. C. Tamargo, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, S. K. Zhang, X. Zhou, R. R. Alfano, and H. C. Liu, “Intersubband absorption in CdSe/ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe self-assembled quantum dot multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. Munoz, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, C. Y. Song, and H. C. Liu, “Study of intersubband transitions of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for midinfrared device applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1103–1107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, C. Y. Song, H. C. Liu, S. K. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, and M. Munoz, “Midinfrared intersubband absorption in ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, and S. Scandolo, “Nonparabolicity and a sum rule associated with bound-to-bound and bound-to-continuum intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(12), 8663–8674 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sohel, M.

M. Sohel, X. Zhou, H. Lu, M. N. Perez-Paz, M. Tamargo, and M. Muñoz, “Optical characterization and evaluation of the conduction band offset for ZnCdSe/ZnMgSe quantum wells grown on InP(001) by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(3), 1209–1211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, C. Y.

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. Munoz, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, C. Y. Song, and H. C. Liu, “Study of intersubband transitions of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for midinfrared device applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1103–1107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, C. Y. Song, H. C. Liu, S. K. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, and M. Munoz, “Midinfrared intersubband absorption in ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, K.

S. Krishna, D. Forman, S. Annamalai, P. Dowd, P. Varangis, T. Tumolillo, A. Gray, J. Zilko, K. Sun, M. Liu, J. Campbell, and D. Carothers, “Demonstration of a 320x256 two-color focal plane array using InAs/InGaAs quantum dots in well detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 193501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamargo, M.

M. Sohel, X. Zhou, H. Lu, M. N. Perez-Paz, M. Tamargo, and M. Muñoz, “Optical characterization and evaluation of the conduction band offset for ZnCdSe/ZnMgSe quantum wells grown on InP(001) by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(3), 1209–1211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamargo, M. C.

Y. Yao, A. Alfaro-Martinez, K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “Room temperature and narrow intersubband electroluminescence from ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, A. J. Hoffman, M. C. Tamargo, and C. Gmachl, “ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. O. Charles, A. Shen, K. Franz, C. Gmachl, Q. Zhang, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, and M. C. Tamargo, “Growth and characterization of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se asymmetric coupled quantum well structures for quantum cascade laser applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1171–1173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Li, A. Shen, W. O. Charles, Q. Zhang, and M. C. Tamargo, “Multiple intersubband absorption in wide band gap II-VI ZnxCd1-xSe multiple quantum wells with metastable zincblende MgSe barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Shen, H. Lu, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. C. Tamargo, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, S. K. Zhang, X. Zhou, R. R. Alfano, and H. C. Liu, “Intersubband absorption in CdSe/ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe self-assembled quantum dot multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. Munoz, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, C. Y. Song, and H. C. Liu, “Study of intersubband transitions of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for midinfrared device applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1103–1107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, C. Y. Song, H. C. Liu, S. K. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, and M. Munoz, “Midinfrared intersubband absorption in ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, S.

S. Tsao, H. Lim, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “High operating temperature 320x256 middle-wavelength infrared focal plane array imaging based on an InAs/InGaAs/InAlAs/InP quantum dot infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 201109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tumolillo, T.

S. Krishna, D. Forman, S. Annamalai, P. Dowd, P. Varangis, T. Tumolillo, A. Gray, J. Zilko, K. Sun, M. Liu, J. Campbell, and D. Carothers, “Demonstration of a 320x256 two-color focal plane array using InAs/InGaAs quantum dots in well detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 193501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Varangis, P.

S. Krishna, D. Forman, S. Annamalai, P. Dowd, P. Varangis, T. Tumolillo, A. Gray, J. Zilko, K. Sun, M. Liu, J. Campbell, and D. Carothers, “Demonstration of a 320x256 two-color focal plane array using InAs/InGaAs quantum dots in well detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 193501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wasilewski, Z. R.

M. Ershov, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, Z. R. Wasilewski, and V. Ryzhii, “Photoconductivity nonlinearity at high excitation power in quantum well infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(4), 414–416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. R. Wasilewski, H. C. Liu, and M. Buchanan, “Studies of Si segregation in GaAs using current-voltage characteristics of quantum well infrared photodetectors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12(2), 1273–1276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Liu, Z. R. Wasilewski, M. Buchanan, and H. Chu, “Segregation of Si δ doping in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum wells and the cause of the asymmetry in the current-voltage characteristics of intersubband infrared detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(6), 761–763 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, A. Alfaro-Martinez, K. J. Franz, W. O. Charles, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, and C. F. Gmachl, “Room temperature and narrow intersubband electroluminescence from ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe quantum cascade laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Z.

E. Kim, A. Madhukar, Z. Ye, and J. C. Campbell, “High detectivity InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3277–3279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ye, J. C. Campbell, Z. Chen, E. Kim, and A. Madhukar, “InAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors with In0.15Ga0.85As strain-relief cap layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(12), 7462–7468 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yokomizo, I.

A. Shen, H. Lu, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. C. Tamargo, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, S. K. Zhang, X. Zhou, R. R. Alfano, and H. C. Liu, “Intersubband absorption in CdSe/ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe self-assembled quantum dot multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. Munoz, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, C. Y. Song, and H. C. Liu, “Study of intersubband transitions of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for midinfrared device applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 1103–1107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zakharov, O.

O. Zakharov, A. Rubio, X. Blase, M. L. Cohen, and S. G. Louie, “Quasiparticle band structures of six II-VI compounds: ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdS, CdSe, and CdTe,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(15), 10780–10787 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

B. S. Li, A. Shen, W. O. Charles, Q. Zhang, and M. C. Tamargo, “Multiple intersubband absorption in wide band gap II-VI ZnxCd1-xSe multiple quantum wells with metastable zincblende MgSe barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. O. Charles, A. Shen, K. Franz, C. Gmachl, Q. Zhang, Y. Gong, G. F. Neumark, and M. C. Tamargo, “Growth and characterization of ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se asymmetric coupled quantum well structures for quantum cascade laser applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1171–1173 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. K.

A. Shen, H. Lu, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. C. Tamargo, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, S. K. Zhang, X. Zhou, R. R. Alfano, and H. C. Liu, “Intersubband absorption in CdSe/ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe self-assembled quantum dot multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Lu, A. Shen, M. C. Tamargo, C. Y. Song, H. C. Liu, S. K. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, and M. Munoz, “Midinfrared intersubband absorption in ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx’Cdy’Mg1-x’-y’Se multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

S. Tsao, H. Lim, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “High operating temperature 320x256 middle-wavelength infrared focal plane array imaging based on an InAs/InGaAs/InAlAs/InP quantum dot infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 201109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

A. Shen, H. Lu, W. Charles, I. Yokomizo, M. C. Tamargo, K. J. Franz, C. Gmachl, S. K. Zhang, X. Zhou, R. R. Alfano, and H. C. Liu, “Intersubband absorption in CdSe/ZnxCdyMg1-x-ySe self-assembled quantum dot multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Sohel, X. Zhou, H. Lu, M. N. Perez-Paz, M. Tamargo, and M. Muñoz, “Optical characterization and evaluation of the conduction band offset for ZnCdSe/ZnMgSe quantum wells grown on InP(001) by molecular-beam epitaxy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(3), 1209–1211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zilko, J.

S. Krishna, D. Forman, S. Annamalai, P. Dowd, P. Varangis, T. Tumolillo, A. Gray, J. Zilko, K. Sun, M. Liu, J. Campbell, and D. Carothers, “Demonstration of a 320x256 two-color focal plane array using InAs/InGaAs quantum dots in well detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 193501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

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