Abstract

We propose a novel grating coupler design which is inherently reflectionless by focusing the reflected light away from the entrance waveguide. The design rules for this reflectionless grating coupler are explained and the grating coupler design is investigated by means of 3D FDTD simulations for the case of a Silicon-on-Insulator based platform.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets. “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7):949–955, 2002.
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens. “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible Silicon-on-Insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17):18278–83, 2010.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. Dobbelaere. “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 99:1–12, 2010.
  4. L. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Zhu, Y. T. Li, Z. C. Fan, W. H. Han, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu. “A novel highly efficient grating coupler with large filling factor used for optoelectronic integration,” Chinese Physics B 19: 124214, 2010.
  5. X. Chen and H. K. Tsang. “Polarization-independent grating couplers for Silicon-on-Insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6):796–798, 2011.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. X. Chen and H. K. Tsang. “Nanoholes grating couplers for coupling Between Silicon-on-Insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3):184–190, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl. “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19):1461–1463, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, L. Zavargo-Peche, and R. Halir. “Efficient fiber-to-chip grating coupler for micrometric SOI rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(14): 15189, 2010.
  9. N. Na, H. Frish, I. Hsieh, O. Harel, R. George, A. Barkai, and H. Rong, and Others. “Efficient broadband silicon-on-insulator grating coupler with low backreflection,” Opt. Lett. 36(11):2101–2103, 2011.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets. “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23):2749–51, 2004.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets. “Compact focusing grating couplers for Silicon-on-Insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23):1919–1921, 2007.
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson. “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3):687–702, 2010.
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (4)

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl. “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19):1461–1463, 2010.
[CrossRef]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens. “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible Silicon-on-Insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17):18278–83, 2010.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. Dobbelaere. “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 99:1–12, 2010.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson. “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3):687–702, 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang. “Nanoholes grating couplers for coupling Between Silicon-on-Insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3):184–190, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets. “Compact focusing grating couplers for Silicon-on-Insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23):1919–1921, 2007.
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets. “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7):949–955, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Absil, P.

Alonso-Ramos, C.

C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, L. Zavargo-Peche, and R. Halir. “Efficient fiber-to-chip grating coupler for micrometric SOI rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(14): 15189, 2010.

Baets, R.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets. “Compact focusing grating couplers for Silicon-on-Insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23):1919–1921, 2007.
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets. “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23):2749–51, 2004.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets. “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7):949–955, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Barkai, A.

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson. “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3):687–702, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets. “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23):2749–51, 2004.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets. “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7):949–955, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens. “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible Silicon-on-Insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17):18278–83, 2010.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets. “Compact focusing grating couplers for Silicon-on-Insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23):1919–1921, 2007.
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets. “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7):949–955, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl. “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19):1461–1463, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, L. Zavargo-Peche, and R. Halir. “Efficient fiber-to-chip grating coupler for micrometric SOI rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(14): 15189, 2010.

Chen, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl. “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19):1461–1463, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang. “Polarization-independent grating couplers for Silicon-on-Insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6):796–798, 2011.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang. “Nanoholes grating couplers for coupling Between Silicon-on-Insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3):184–190, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. K.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl. “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19):1461–1463, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Claes, T.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets. “Compact focusing grating couplers for Silicon-on-Insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23):1919–1921, 2007.
[CrossRef]

De Mesel, K.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets. “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7):949–955, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Dobbelaere, P.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. Dobbelaere. “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 99:1–12, 2010.

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl. “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19):1461–1463, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z. C.

L. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Zhu, Y. T. Li, Z. C. Fan, W. H. Han, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu. “A novel highly efficient grating coupler with large filling factor used for optoelectronic integration,” Chinese Physics B 19: 124214, 2010.

Frish, H.

George, R.

Gloeckner, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. Dobbelaere. “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 99:1–12, 2010.

Halir, R.

C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, L. Zavargo-Peche, and R. Halir. “Efficient fiber-to-chip grating coupler for micrometric SOI rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(14): 15189, 2010.

Han, W. H.

L. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Zhu, Y. T. Li, Z. C. Fan, W. H. Han, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu. “A novel highly efficient grating coupler with large filling factor used for optoelectronic integration,” Chinese Physics B 19: 124214, 2010.

Harel, O.

Hsieh, I.

Ibanescu, M.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson. “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3):687–702, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson. “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3):687–702, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson. “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3):687–702, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets. “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7):949–955, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Lepage, G.

Li, Y. T.

L. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Zhu, Y. T. Li, Z. C. Fan, W. H. Han, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu. “A novel highly efficient grating coupler with large filling factor used for optoelectronic integration,” Chinese Physics B 19: 124214, 2010.

Li, Z. Y.

L. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Zhu, Y. T. Li, Z. C. Fan, W. H. Han, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu. “A novel highly efficient grating coupler with large filling factor used for optoelectronic integration,” Chinese Physics B 19: 124214, 2010.

Masini, G.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. Dobbelaere. “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 99:1–12, 2010.

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. Dobbelaere. “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 99:1–12, 2010.

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets. “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7):949–955, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Molina-Fernández, I.

C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, L. Zavargo-Peche, and R. Halir. “Efficient fiber-to-chip grating coupler for micrometric SOI rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(14): 15189, 2010.

Na, N.

Narasimha, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. Dobbelaere. “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 99:1–12, 2010.

O’Faolain, L.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets. “Compact focusing grating couplers for Silicon-on-Insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23):1919–1921, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Ortega-Moñux, A.

C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, L. Zavargo-Peche, and R. Halir. “Efficient fiber-to-chip grating coupler for micrometric SOI rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(14): 15189, 2010.

Oskooi, A. F.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson. “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3):687–702, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Pinguet, T.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. Dobbelaere. “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 99:1–12, 2010.

Roelkens, G.

Rong, H.

Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson. “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3):687–702, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Sahni, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. Dobbelaere. “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 99:1–12, 2010.

Scheerlinck, S.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets. “Compact focusing grating couplers for Silicon-on-Insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23):1919–1921, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Schrauwen, J.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets. “Compact focusing grating couplers for Silicon-on-Insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23):1919–1921, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Selvaraja, S.

Taillaert, D.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets. “Compact focusing grating couplers for Silicon-on-Insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23):1919–1921, 2007.
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets. “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23):2749–51, 2004.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets. “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7):949–955, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang. “Polarization-independent grating couplers for Silicon-on-Insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6):796–798, 2011.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang. “Nanoholes grating couplers for coupling Between Silicon-on-Insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3):184–190, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Van Daele, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets. “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7):949–955, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Van Laere, F.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets. “Compact focusing grating couplers for Silicon-on-Insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23):1919–1921, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens. “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible Silicon-on-Insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17):18278–83, 2010.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets. “Compact focusing grating couplers for Silicon-on-Insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23):1919–1921, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Verheyen, P.

Vermeulen, D.

Verstuyft, S.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets. “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7):949–955, 2002.
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. Z.

L. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Zhu, Y. T. Li, Z. C. Fan, W. H. Han, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu. “A novel highly efficient grating coupler with large filling factor used for optoelectronic integration,” Chinese Physics B 19: 124214, 2010.

Yu, Y. D.

L. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Zhu, Y. T. Li, Z. C. Fan, W. H. Han, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu. “A novel highly efficient grating coupler with large filling factor used for optoelectronic integration,” Chinese Physics B 19: 124214, 2010.

Zavargo-Peche, L.

C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, L. Zavargo-Peche, and R. Halir. “Efficient fiber-to-chip grating coupler for micrometric SOI rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(14): 15189, 2010.

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Zhu, Y. T. Li, Z. C. Fan, W. H. Han, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu. “A novel highly efficient grating coupler with large filling factor used for optoelectronic integration,” Chinese Physics B 19: 124214, 2010.

Zhu, Y.

L. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Zhu, Y. T. Li, Z. C. Fan, W. H. Han, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu. “A novel highly efficient grating coupler with large filling factor used for optoelectronic integration,” Chinese Physics B 19: 124214, 2010.

Chinese Physics B (1)

L. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, Y. Zhu, Y. T. Li, Z. C. Fan, W. H. Han, Y. D. Yu, and J. Z. Yu. “A novel highly efficient grating coupler with large filling factor used for optoelectronic integration,” Chinese Physics B 19: 124214, 2010.

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson. “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3):687–702, 2010.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets. “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7):949–955, 2002.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. Dobbelaere. “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 99:1–12, 2010.

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang. “Nanoholes grating couplers for coupling Between Silicon-on-Insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3):184–190, 2009.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, Y. K. Chen, and L. L. Buhl. “Wide bandwidth silicon nitride grating coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19):1461–1463, 2010.
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets. “Compact focusing grating couplers for Silicon-on-Insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(23):1919–1921, 2007.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, L. Zavargo-Peche, and R. Halir. “Efficient fiber-to-chip grating coupler for micrometric SOI rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(14): 15189, 2010.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens. “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible Silicon-on-Insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17):18278–83, 2010.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MPG (9553 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (6020 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Focusing grating coupler geometry parameters. The light (yellow arrows) is refracted and reflected at the first grating ellipse Eq0. τ and η are the tangent and normal line respectively of ellipse Eq0 at point (r0, δ0).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflection from curved grating couplers for different waveguide angles σ. The k-diagram is drawn for σ = 0° (a), σ = 45° (b) and σ = cos 1 ( n c sin ϕ n s ) (c) which corresponds to both the optimal reflection waveguide angle and second order reflection angle. (K⃗ = reciprocal lattice vector) The entrance waveguide is optimized for low reflection (d).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The reflection angle θ0 as a function of δ0 for ϕ = 15° (a) and the optimal entrance waveguide angle σ and corresponding θ0 as a function of ϕ (b) for λ0 = 1.55μm. Simulated coupling efficiency (c) for different waveguide angles σ (etch of 70nm, ϕ = 15°).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

3D FDTD simulations showing (a) the refocusing of the reflection using an over-saturated electrical field ( Media 1) and (b) waveguide coupling when excited from the fiber ( Media 2) (σ = 90°, ϕ = 15°)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflection spectra for shallow (a) and fully etched (b) grating couplers, each time for different values of the waveguide angle σ and fiber tilt angle ϕ.

Equations (4)

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q λ 0 = r n s r n c cos δ sin ϕ
r = q λ 0 n s 1 n c sin ϕ cos δ n s = a ( 1 e 2 ) 1 e cos δ
θ 0 = β δ 0 = π 2 + tan 1 ( n c sin ϕ n c sin δ 0 cot δ 0 ) δ 0
q λ 0 = r 0 n s + d n g r cos δ n c sin ϕ

Metrics