Abstract

we report on significant mode splitting in plasmonic resonators induced by intracavity resonance. In contrast to traditional dielectric resonators where only picometer range of splitting was achieved, splitting over several hundred nanometers can be obtained without using ultrahigh quality resonators. We show that by appropriately choosing the coupling length, minute reflection is sufficient to establish intracavity resonance, which effectively lifts the degeneracy of the counterpropagating modes in the resonator. The mode splitting provides two self-referenced channels enabling simultaneous monitoring of the position and the polarizability of nano-scatterers in the resonator.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Liu, G. Fang, H. Zhao, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Plasmon flow control at gap waveguide junctions using square ring resonators,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(5), 055103 (2010).
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  23. J. A. Roden and S. D. Gedney, “Convolution PML (CPML): An efficient FDTD implementation of the CFS-PML for arbitrary media,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 27(5), 334–339 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Avelin, R. Sharma, I. Hänninen, and A. H. Sihvola, “Polarizability analysis of cubical and square-shaped dielectric scatterers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(3), 451–457 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Pannipitiya, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, H. T. Hattori, and G. P. Agrawal, “Improved transmission model for metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides with stub structure,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6191–6204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, G. Fang, H. Zhao, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Plasmon flow control at gap waveguide junctions using square ring resonators,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(5), 055103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Weller, F. C. Liu, R. Dahint, and M. Himmelhaus, “Whispering gallery mode biosensors in the low Q limit,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 561–567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

A. Hosseini and Y. Massoud, “Nanoscale surface plasmon based resonator using rectangular geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Plasmonic subwavelength waveguides: next to zero losses at sharp bends,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1186–1188 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 013817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8), 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

J. Avelin, R. Sharma, I. Hänninen, and A. H. Sihvola, “Polarizability analysis of cubical and square-shaped dielectric scatterers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(3), 451–457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

G.-X. Fan and Q. H. Liu, “An FDTD algorithm with perfectly matched layers for general dispersive media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 48(5), 637–646 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Roden and S. D. Gedney, “Convolution PML (CPML): An efficient FDTD implementation of the CFS-PML for arbitrary media,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 27(5), 334–339 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. D. Pryamikov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Rayleigh scattering in high-Q microspheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(6), 1051–1057 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54(3), R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

Alexander, R. W.

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avelin, J.

J. Avelin, R. Sharma, I. Hänninen, and A. H. Sihvola, “Polarizability analysis of cubical and square-shaped dielectric scatterers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(3), 451–457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R. J.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D.-R.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahint, R.

A. Weller, F. C. Liu, R. Dahint, and M. Himmelhaus, “Whispering gallery mode biosensors in the low Q limit,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 561–567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, G.-X.

G.-X. Fan and Q. H. Liu, “An FDTD algorithm with perfectly matched layers for general dispersive media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 48(5), 637–646 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fang, G.

J. Liu, G. Fang, H. Zhao, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Plasmon flow control at gap waveguide junctions using square ring resonators,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(5), 055103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, G. Fang, H. Zhao, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Surface plasmon reflector based on serial stub structure,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20134–20139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flagan, R. C.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gedney, S. D.

J. A. Roden and S. D. Gedney, “Convolution PML (CPML): An efficient FDTD implementation of the CFS-PML for arbitrary media,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 27(5), 334–339 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goh, K. W.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 013817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Gramotnev, D. K.

Hänninen, I.

J. Avelin, R. Sharma, I. Hänninen, and A. H. Sihvola, “Polarizability analysis of cubical and square-shaped dielectric scatterers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(3), 451–457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54(3), R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haroche, S.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54(3), R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hattori, H. T.

He, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Herchak, S.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Himmelhaus, M.

A. Weller, F. C. Liu, R. Dahint, and M. Himmelhaus, “Whispering gallery mode biosensors in the low Q limit,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 561–567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, A.

A. Hosseini and Y. Massoud, “Nanoscale surface plasmon based resonator using rectangular geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

Kim, J.-H.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimble, H. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 013817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 013817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8), 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Modal coupling in traveling-wave resonators,” Opt. Lett. 27(19), 1669–1671 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laluet, J.-Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54(3), R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F. C.

A. Weller, F. C. Liu, R. Dahint, and M. Himmelhaus, “Whispering gallery mode biosensors in the low Q limit,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 561–567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, G. Fang, H. Zhao, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Plasmon flow control at gap waveguide junctions using square ring resonators,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(5), 055103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, G. Fang, H. Zhao, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Surface plasmon reflector based on serial stub structure,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20134–20139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Q. H.

G.-X. Fan and Q. H. Liu, “An FDTD algorithm with perfectly matched layers for general dispersive media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 48(5), 637–646 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

J. Liu, G. Fang, H. Zhao, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Plasmon flow control at gap waveguide junctions using square ring resonators,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(5), 055103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, G. Fang, H. Zhao, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Surface plasmon reflector based on serial stub structure,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20134–20139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, L. L.

Lu, T.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Lu, L. Yang, R. V. A. van Loon, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “On-chip green silica upconversion microlaser,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 482–484 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massoud, Y.

A. Hosseini and Y. Massoud, “Nanoscale surface plasmon based resonator using rectangular geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ordal, M. A.

Ozdemir, S. K.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pannipitiya, A.

Pile, D. F. P.

Polman, A.

Premaratne, M.

Pryamikov, A. D.

Querry, M. R.

Raimond, J.-M.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54(3), R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roden, J. A.

J. A. Roden and S. D. Gedney, “Convolution PML (CPML): An efficient FDTD implementation of the CFS-PML for arbitrary media,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 27(5), 334–339 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rukhlenko, I. D.

Sandoghdar, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54(3), R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, R.

J. Avelin, R. Sharma, I. Hänninen, and A. H. Sihvola, “Polarizability analysis of cubical and square-shaped dielectric scatterers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(3), 451–457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sihvola, A. H.

J. Avelin, R. Sharma, I. Hänninen, and A. H. Sihvola, “Polarizability analysis of cubical and square-shaped dielectric scatterers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(3), 451–457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 013817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8), 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Modal coupling in traveling-wave resonators,” Opt. Lett. 27(19), 1669–1671 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treussart, F.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54(3), R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Lu, L. Yang, R. V. A. van Loon, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “On-chip green silica upconversion microlaser,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 482–484 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 013817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8), 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Modal coupling in traveling-wave resonators,” Opt. Lett. 27(19), 1669–1671 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Loon, R. V. A.

Veronis, G.

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weller, A.

A. Weller, F. C. Liu, R. Dahint, and M. Himmelhaus, “Whispering gallery mode biosensors in the low Q limit,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 561–567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wilcut, E.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 013817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y.-F.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Lu, L. Yang, R. V. A. van Loon, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “On-chip green silica upconversion microlaser,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 482–484 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

J. Liu, G. Fang, H. Zhao, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Plasmon flow control at gap waveguide junctions using square ring resonators,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(5), 055103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, G. Fang, H. Zhao, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Surface plasmon reflector based on serial stub structure,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20134–20139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

J. Liu, G. Fang, H. Zhao, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Plasmon flow control at gap waveguide junctions using square ring resonators,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(5), 055103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, G. Fang, H. Zhao, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Surface plasmon reflector based on serial stub structure,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20134–20139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Weller, F. C. Liu, R. Dahint, and M. Himmelhaus, “Whispering gallery mode biosensors in the low Q limit,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 561–567 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Hosseini and Y. Massoud, “Nanoscale surface plasmon based resonator using rectangular geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (2)

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J. Avelin, R. Sharma, I. Hänninen, and A. H. Sihvola, “Polarizability analysis of cubical and square-shaped dielectric scatterers,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 49(3), 451–457 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Liu, G. Fang, H. Zhao, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Plasmon flow control at gap waveguide junctions using square ring resonators,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(5), 055103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. A. Roden and S. D. Gedney, “Convolution PML (CPML): An efficient FDTD implementation of the CFS-PML for arbitrary media,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 27(5), 334–339 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods (1)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 46–49 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71(1), 013817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54(3), R1777–R1780 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-nonlinearity optical parametric oscillation in an ultrahigh-Q toroid microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8), 083904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

T. Lu, H. Lee, T. Chen, S. Herchak, J.-H. Kim, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “High sensitivity nanoparticle detection using optical microcavities,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(15), 5976–5979 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, 1984).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plasmonic resonator with various geometries considered in this study.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The external quality factor as functions of the coupling length and gap width.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modal evolution of the plasmonic waveguide side-coupled to a rectangular resonator under condition Qex = Qin. The full vectorial computation result is in close agreement with that obtained by the coupled mode theory.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time-average Poynting vector in plasmonic rectangular resonator. (a) Standing wave resonance, which is composed of two counterpropagating traveling waves on resonance. (b) Traveling wave resonance.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Time-average Poynting vector around the bent corner, where the red arrow represents the real optical path and the blue arrow represents the presumed path. The effective acceleration of the phase front is represented by δφc. (b) The shift of the resonant wavelength and the total accumulated optical phase in a round trip.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Mode splitting of plasmonic resonators with rectangular, triangular, and parallelogram shapes. The dashed lines refer to the transmittance and the dotted lines refer to the reflectance. (b)-(e) The instantaneous distribution of the magnetic field intensity for straight, 120°, 90° and 60° bent waveguides, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The spatial distribution of the time-averaged magnetic field intensity |Hy|2 for various geometries at resonant condition.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Schematic diagram of a nano-object in the rectangular ring cavity. (b) Spectrum shift of the nano-object with fixed normalized polarizability αs = 0.18 at various positions in the resonator. (c) Spectrum shift of the nano-object located at z = 0 with various polarizabilities. Note that the position and the polarizability can be determined simultaneously and independently, when the polarizability and the position are both variables, as shown in the contour map of (b) and (c).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T( ω )= (ω - ω 0 ) 2 + ( ω 0 /2Q ex ω 0 /2Q in ) 2 (ω - ω 0 ) 2 + ( ω 0 /2Q ex + ω 0 /2Q in ) 2
d a cw dt =i (ω - ω 0 ) a cw +( 1 τ in + 1 τ ex ) a cw +β a ccw +κ s + d a ccw dt =i (ω - ω 0 ) a ccw +( 1 τ in + 1 τ ex ) a ccw +β a cw
T(ω)= | β 2 (ω - ω 0 ) 2 +i(2/ τ in )(ω - ω 0 ) (ω - ω 0 ) 2 -i2 (ω - ω 0 )(2/ τ in )+ (2/ τ in ) 2 + β 2 | 2 R(ω)= | i(2/ τ in )β (ω - ω 0 ) 2 -i2 (ω - ω 0 )(2/ τ in )+ (2/ τ in ) 2 + β 2 | 2

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