Abstract

Si nanocone arrays are formed on Si(100) by Ar+ ion sputtering combined with metal ion co-deposition. The aspect ratio of Si cone is found to increases steadily with increasing sample temperature, but decreases slowly with increasing ion dose. Furthermore, the height and base diameter of Si cone increase monotonously with increasing dose at a constant temperature. The absorptivity increases in general with increasing aspect ratio and height. A close to unity and all-solar-spectrum absorption by the nanostructured Si is finally achieved, with the absorbance for λ = 350 to 1100 nm being higher than 96%, and that for λ = 1100 to 2000 nm higher than 92%. Photocurrents for different Si samples are also investigated.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. T. H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
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  2. C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. G. Kim, J. M. Warrender, and M. J. Aziz, “Strong sub-band-gap infrared absorption in silicon supersaturated with sulfur,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241902 (2006).
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  4. K. Peng, X. Wang, and S. T. Lee, “Silicon nanowire array photoelectrochemical solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Tabbal, T. Kim, D. N. Woolf, B. Shin, and M. J. Aziz, “Fabrication and sub-band-gap absorption of single-crystal Si supersaturated with Se by pulsed laser mixing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(3), 589–594 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. J. Tsai, J. Y. Wang, J. J. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Absorption enhancement of an amorphous Si solar cell through surface plasmon-induced scattering with metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18(S2), A207–A220 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light Trapping in Silicon Nanowire Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
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  9. J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of Optical Absorption in Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
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  11. O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of Light Scattering in Nanowire Materials for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Ozaydin, A. S. Ozcan, Y. Y. Wang, K. F. Ludwig, H. Zhou, R. L. Headrick, and D. P. Siddons, “Real-time x-ray studies of Mo-seeded Si nanodot formation during ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(16), 163104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Zhou, S. Facsko, M. Lu, and W. Möller, “Nanopatterning of Si surfaces by normal incident ion erosion: influence of metal incorporation on surface morphology evolution,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 104315 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. J. A. Sánchez-García, L. Vázquez, R. Gago, A. Redondo-Cubero, J. M. Albella, and Z. S. Czigány, “Tuning the surface morphology in self-organized ion beam nanopatterning of Si(001) via metal incorporation: from holes to dots,” Nanotechnology 19(35), 355306 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. Macko, F. Frost, B. Ziberi, D. F. Förster, and T. Michely, “Is keV ion-induced pattern formation on Si(001) caused by metal impurities?” Nanotechnology 21(8), 085301 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. S. Lai, L. Chen, X. N. Fu, J. Sun, Z. F. Ying, J. D. Wu, and N. Xu, “Effects of the experimental conditions on the growth of crystalline ZnSe nano-needles by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 102(2), 477–483 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. M. Bradley and J. M. E. Harper, “Theory of ripple topography induced by ion bombardment,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6(4), 2390–2395 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. C. Bost and J. E. Mahan, “Optical properties of semiconducting iron disilicide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(7), 2696–2703 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Oživold, V. Boháč, V. Gašparík, G. Leggieri, Š. Luby, A. Luches, E. Majková, and P. Mrafko, “The optical band gap of semiconducting iron disilicide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 263(1), 92–98 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. Lange, W. Henrion, F. Fenske, T. Zettler, J. Schumann, and S. Teichert, “Optical Interband Properties of Some Semiconducting Silicides,” Phys. Status Solidi B 194(1), 231–240 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  29. V. Bellani, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, and V. V. Nemoshkalenko, “Theory and experiment on the optical properties of CrSi2.,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 46(15), 9380–9389 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat Commun 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

J. Zhou, M. Hildebrandt, and M. Lu, “Self-organized antireflecting nano-cone arrays on Si (100) induced by ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, S. Facsko, M. Lu, and W. Möller, “Nanopatterning of Si surfaces by normal incident ion erosion: influence of metal incorporation on surface morphology evolution,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 104315 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lai, L. Chen, X. N. Fu, J. Sun, Z. F. Ying, J. D. Wu, and N. Xu, “Effects of the experimental conditions on the growth of crystalline ZnSe nano-needles by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 102(2), 477–483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, S. H. Sun, J. Xu, L. Zhao, H. C. Sun, J. Li, W. W. Mu, L. Xu, and K. J. Chen, “Broadband antireflection and absorption enhancement by forming nano-patterned Si structures for solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S5), A1051–A1056 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

M. Tabbal, T. Kim, D. N. Woolf, B. Shin, and M. J. Aziz, “Fabrication and sub-band-gap absorption of single-crystal Si supersaturated with Se by pulsed laser mixing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(3), 589–594 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Tsai, J. Y. Wang, J. J. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Absorption enhancement of an amorphous Si solar cell through surface plasmon-induced scattering with metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18(S2), A207–A220 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Macko, F. Frost, B. Ziberi, D. F. Förster, and T. Michely, “Is keV ion-induced pattern formation on Si(001) caused by metal impurities?” Nanotechnology 21(8), 085301 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou and M. Lu, “Mechanism of Fe impurity motivated ion-nanopatterning of Si (100) surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 125404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light Trapping in Silicon Nanowire Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. Shang, X. L. Ma, C. P. Liu, I. Bello, and S. T. Lee, “Arrays of Si cones prepared by ion beams: growth mechanisms,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(2), 309–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

H. S. Seo, X. P. Li, H. D. Um, B. Y. Yoo, J. H. Kim, K. P. Kim, Y. W. Cho, and J. H. Lee, “Fabrication of precisely controlled silicon wire and cone arrays by electrochemical etching,” Mater. Lett. 63(29), 2567–2569 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ziberi, M. Cornejo, F. Frost, and B. Rauschenbach, “Highly ordered nanopatterns on Ge and Si surfaces by ion beam sputtering,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(22), 224003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

J. A. Sánchez-García, L. Vázquez, R. Gago, A. Redondo-Cubero, J. M. Albella, and Z. S. Czigány, “Tuning the surface morphology in self-organized ion beam nanopatterning of Si(001) via metal incorporation: from holes to dots,” Nanotechnology 19(35), 355306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of Light Scattering in Nanowire Materials for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Peng, X. Wang, and S. T. Lee, “Silicon nanowire array photoelectrochemical solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of Optical Absorption in Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. Yu, K. J. Chen, J. Song, J. Xu, W. Li, H. M. Li, M. Wang, X. F. Li, and X. F. Huang, “Self-assembled Si Quantum-Ring Structures on a Si Substrate by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Based on a Growth-Etching Competition Mechanism,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(12), 1577–1581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. G. Kim, J. M. Warrender, and M. J. Aziz, “Strong sub-band-gap infrared absorption in silicon supersaturated with sulfur,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. Ozaydin, A. S. Ozcan, Y. Y. Wang, K. F. Ludwig, H. Zhou, R. L. Headrick, and D. P. Siddons, “Real-time x-ray studies of Mo-seeded Si nanodot formation during ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(16), 163104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Erlebacher, M. J. Aziz, E. Chason, M. B. Sinclair, and J. A. Floro, “Spontaneous Pattern Formation on Ion Bombarded Si(001),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2330–2333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Lange, W. Henrion, F. Fenske, T. Zettler, J. Schumann, and S. Teichert, “Optical Interband Properties of Some Semiconducting Silicides,” Phys. Status Solidi B 194(1), 231–240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Oživold, V. Boháč, V. Gašparík, G. Leggieri, Š. Luby, A. Luches, E. Majková, and P. Mrafko, “The optical band gap of semiconducting iron disilicide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 263(1), 92–98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

V. Bellani, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, and V. V. Nemoshkalenko, “Theory and experiment on the optical properties of CrSi2.,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 46(15), 9380–9389 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

R. M. Bradley and J. M. E. Harper, “Theory of ripple topography induced by ion bombardment,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6(4), 2390–2395 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. C. Bost and J. E. Mahan, “Optical properties of semiconducting iron disilicide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(7), 2696–2703 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Albella, J. M.

J. A. Sánchez-García, L. Vázquez, R. Gago, A. Redondo-Cubero, J. M. Albella, and Z. S. Czigány, “Tuning the surface morphology in self-organized ion beam nanopatterning of Si(001) via metal incorporation: from holes to dots,” Nanotechnology 19(35), 355306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Algra, R. E.

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of Light Scattering in Nanowire Materials for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersen, O. K.

V. Bellani, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, and V. V. Nemoshkalenko, “Theory and experiment on the optical properties of CrSi2.,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 46(15), 9380–9389 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonov, V. N.

V. Bellani, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, and V. V. Nemoshkalenko, “Theory and experiment on the optical properties of CrSi2.,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 46(15), 9380–9389 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aziz, M. J.

M. Tabbal, T. Kim, D. N. Woolf, B. Shin, and M. J. Aziz, “Fabrication and sub-band-gap absorption of single-crystal Si supersaturated with Se by pulsed laser mixing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(3), 589–594 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Kim, J. M. Warrender, and M. J. Aziz, “Strong sub-band-gap infrared absorption in silicon supersaturated with sulfur,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Erlebacher, M. J. Aziz, E. Chason, M. B. Sinclair, and J. A. Floro, “Spontaneous Pattern Formation on Ion Bombarded Si(001),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2330–2333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bakkers, E. P. A. M.

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of Light Scattering in Nanowire Materials for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellani, V.

V. Bellani, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, and V. V. Nemoshkalenko, “Theory and experiment on the optical properties of CrSi2.,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 46(15), 9380–9389 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bello, I.

N. G. Shang, X. L. Ma, C. P. Liu, I. Bello, and S. T. Lee, “Arrays of Si cones prepared by ion beams: growth mechanisms,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(2), 309–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bohác, V.

M. Oživold, V. Boháč, V. Gašparík, G. Leggieri, Š. Luby, A. Luches, E. Majková, and P. Mrafko, “The optical band gap of semiconducting iron disilicide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 263(1), 92–98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Borghesi, A.

V. Bellani, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, and V. V. Nemoshkalenko, “Theory and experiment on the optical properties of CrSi2.,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 46(15), 9380–9389 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bost, M. C.

M. C. Bost and J. E. Mahan, “Optical properties of semiconducting iron disilicide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(7), 2696–2703 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, R. M.

R. M. Bradley and J. M. E. Harper, “Theory of ripple topography induced by ion bombardment,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6(4), 2390–2395 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Burkhard, G. F.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carey, J. E.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chason, E.

J. Erlebacher, M. J. Aziz, E. Chason, M. B. Sinclair, and J. A. Floro, “Spontaneous Pattern Formation on Ion Bombarded Si(001),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2330–2333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of Optical Absorption in Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K. J.

Y. Liu, S. H. Sun, J. Xu, L. Zhao, H. C. Sun, J. Li, W. W. Mu, L. Xu, and K. J. Chen, “Broadband antireflection and absorption enhancement by forming nano-patterned Si structures for solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S5), A1051–A1056 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. Yu, K. J. Chen, J. Song, J. Xu, W. Li, H. M. Li, M. Wang, X. F. Li, and X. F. Huang, “Self-assembled Si Quantum-Ring Structures on a Si Substrate by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Based on a Growth-Etching Competition Mechanism,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(12), 1577–1581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

J. S. Lai, L. Chen, X. N. Fu, J. Sun, Z. F. Ying, J. D. Wu, and N. Xu, “Effects of the experimental conditions on the growth of crystalline ZnSe nano-needles by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 102(2), 477–483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y. W.

H. S. Seo, X. P. Li, H. D. Um, B. Y. Yoo, J. H. Kim, K. P. Kim, Y. W. Cho, and J. H. Lee, “Fabrication of precisely controlled silicon wire and cone arrays by electrochemical etching,” Mater. Lett. 63(29), 2567–2569 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Connor, S. T.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornejo, M.

B. Ziberi, M. Cornejo, F. Frost, and B. Rauschenbach, “Highly ordered nanopatterns on Ge and Si surfaces by ion beam sputtering,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(22), 224003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crouch, C. H.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czigány, Z. S.

J. A. Sánchez-García, L. Vázquez, R. Gago, A. Redondo-Cubero, J. M. Albella, and Z. S. Czigány, “Tuning the surface morphology in self-organized ion beam nanopatterning of Si(001) via metal incorporation: from holes to dots,” Nanotechnology 19(35), 355306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deliwala, S.

T. H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erlebacher, J.

J. Erlebacher, M. J. Aziz, E. Chason, M. B. Sinclair, and J. A. Floro, “Spontaneous Pattern Formation on Ion Bombarded Si(001),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2330–2333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Facsko, S.

J. Zhou, S. Facsko, M. Lu, and W. Möller, “Nanopatterning of Si surfaces by normal incident ion erosion: influence of metal incorporation on surface morphology evolution,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 104315 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrell, R. M.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fenske, F.

H. Lange, W. Henrion, F. Fenske, T. Zettler, J. Schumann, and S. Teichert, “Optical Interband Properties of Some Semiconducting Silicides,” Phys. Status Solidi B 194(1), 231–240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, R. J.

T. H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Floro, J. A.

J. Erlebacher, M. J. Aziz, E. Chason, M. B. Sinclair, and J. A. Floro, “Spontaneous Pattern Formation on Ion Bombarded Si(001),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2330–2333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Förster, D. F.

S. Macko, F. Frost, B. Ziberi, D. F. Förster, and T. Michely, “Is keV ion-induced pattern formation on Si(001) caused by metal impurities?” Nanotechnology 21(8), 085301 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frost, F.

S. Macko, F. Frost, B. Ziberi, D. F. Förster, and T. Michely, “Is keV ion-induced pattern formation on Si(001) caused by metal impurities?” Nanotechnology 21(8), 085301 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ziberi, M. Cornejo, F. Frost, and B. Rauschenbach, “Highly ordered nanopatterns on Ge and Si surfaces by ion beam sputtering,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(22), 224003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, X. N.

J. S. Lai, L. Chen, X. N. Fu, J. Sun, Z. F. Ying, J. D. Wu, and N. Xu, “Effects of the experimental conditions on the growth of crystalline ZnSe nano-needles by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 102(2), 477–483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gago, R.

J. A. Sánchez-García, L. Vázquez, R. Gago, A. Redondo-Cubero, J. M. Albella, and Z. S. Czigány, “Tuning the surface morphology in self-organized ion beam nanopatterning of Si(001) via metal incorporation: from holes to dots,” Nanotechnology 19(35), 355306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garnett, E.

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light Trapping in Silicon Nanowire Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gašparík, V.

M. Oživold, V. Boháč, V. Gašparík, G. Leggieri, Š. Luby, A. Luches, E. Majková, and P. Mrafko, “The optical band gap of semiconducting iron disilicide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 263(1), 92–98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gothoskar, P.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guizzetti, G.

V. Bellani, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, and V. V. Nemoshkalenko, “Theory and experiment on the optical properties of CrSi2.,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 46(15), 9380–9389 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harper, J. M. E.

R. M. Bradley and J. M. E. Harper, “Theory of ripple topography induced by ion bombardment,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6(4), 2390–2395 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Headrick, R. L.

G. Ozaydin, A. S. Ozcan, Y. Y. Wang, K. F. Ludwig, H. Zhou, R. L. Headrick, and D. P. Siddons, “Real-time x-ray studies of Mo-seeded Si nanodot formation during ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(16), 163104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henrion, W.

H. Lange, W. Henrion, F. Fenske, T. Zettler, J. Schumann, and S. Teichert, “Optical Interband Properties of Some Semiconducting Silicides,” Phys. Status Solidi B 194(1), 231–240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Her, T. H.

T. H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hildebrandt, M.

J. Zhou, M. Hildebrandt, and M. Lu, “Self-organized antireflecting nano-cone arrays on Si (100) induced by ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, L.

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of Optical Absorption in Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J. J.

Huang, X. F.

L. W. Yu, K. J. Chen, J. Song, J. Xu, W. Li, H. M. Li, M. Wang, X. F. Li, and X. F. Huang, “Self-assembled Si Quantum-Ring Structures on a Si Substrate by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Based on a Growth-Etching Competition Mechanism,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(12), 1577–1581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, O.

V. Bellani, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, and V. V. Nemoshkalenko, “Theory and experiment on the optical properties of CrSi2.,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 46(15), 9380–9389 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karger, A.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kiang, Y. W.

Kim, J. H.

H. S. Seo, X. P. Li, H. D. Um, B. Y. Yoo, J. H. Kim, K. P. Kim, Y. W. Cho, and J. H. Lee, “Fabrication of precisely controlled silicon wire and cone arrays by electrochemical etching,” Mater. Lett. 63(29), 2567–2569 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. P.

H. S. Seo, X. P. Li, H. D. Um, B. Y. Yoo, J. H. Kim, K. P. Kim, Y. W. Cho, and J. H. Lee, “Fabrication of precisely controlled silicon wire and cone arrays by electrochemical etching,” Mater. Lett. 63(29), 2567–2569 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.

M. Tabbal, T. Kim, D. N. Woolf, B. Shin, and M. J. Aziz, “Fabrication and sub-band-gap absorption of single-crystal Si supersaturated with Se by pulsed laser mixing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(3), 589–594 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. G.

T. G. Kim, J. M. Warrender, and M. J. Aziz, “Strong sub-band-gap infrared absorption in silicon supersaturated with sulfur,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of Light Scattering in Nanowire Materials for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, J. S.

J. S. Lai, L. Chen, X. N. Fu, J. Sun, Z. F. Ying, J. D. Wu, and N. Xu, “Effects of the experimental conditions on the growth of crystalline ZnSe nano-needles by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 102(2), 477–483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lange, H.

H. Lange, W. Henrion, F. Fenske, T. Zettler, J. Schumann, and S. Teichert, “Optical Interband Properties of Some Semiconducting Silicides,” Phys. Status Solidi B 194(1), 231–240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

H. S. Seo, X. P. Li, H. D. Um, B. Y. Yoo, J. H. Kim, K. P. Kim, Y. W. Cho, and J. H. Lee, “Fabrication of precisely controlled silicon wire and cone arrays by electrochemical etching,” Mater. Lett. 63(29), 2567–2569 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. T.

N. G. Shang, X. L. Ma, C. P. Liu, I. Bello, and S. T. Lee, “Arrays of Si cones prepared by ion beams: growth mechanisms,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(2), 309–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Peng, X. Wang, and S. T. Lee, “Silicon nanowire array photoelectrochemical solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leggieri, G.

M. Oživold, V. Boháč, V. Gašparík, G. Leggieri, Š. Luby, A. Luches, E. Majková, and P. Mrafko, “The optical band gap of semiconducting iron disilicide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 263(1), 92–98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Levinson, J. A.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. M.

L. W. Yu, K. J. Chen, J. Song, J. Xu, W. Li, H. M. Li, M. Wang, X. F. Li, and X. F. Huang, “Self-assembled Si Quantum-Ring Structures on a Si Substrate by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Based on a Growth-Etching Competition Mechanism,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(12), 1577–1581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Li, W.

L. W. Yu, K. J. Chen, J. Song, J. Xu, W. Li, H. M. Li, M. Wang, X. F. Li, and X. F. Huang, “Self-assembled Si Quantum-Ring Structures on a Si Substrate by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Based on a Growth-Etching Competition Mechanism,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(12), 1577–1581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. F.

L. W. Yu, K. J. Chen, J. Song, J. Xu, W. Li, H. M. Li, M. Wang, X. F. Li, and X. F. Huang, “Self-assembled Si Quantum-Ring Structures on a Si Substrate by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Based on a Growth-Etching Competition Mechanism,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(12), 1577–1581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. P.

H. S. Seo, X. P. Li, H. D. Um, B. Y. Yoo, J. H. Kim, K. P. Kim, Y. W. Cho, and J. H. Lee, “Fabrication of precisely controlled silicon wire and cone arrays by electrochemical etching,” Mater. Lett. 63(29), 2567–2569 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. P.

N. G. Shang, X. L. Ma, C. P. Liu, I. Bello, and S. T. Lee, “Arrays of Si cones prepared by ion beams: growth mechanisms,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(2), 309–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Lu, M.

J. Zhou, S. Facsko, M. Lu, and W. Möller, “Nanopatterning of Si surfaces by normal incident ion erosion: influence of metal incorporation on surface morphology evolution,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 104315 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, M. Hildebrandt, and M. Lu, “Self-organized antireflecting nano-cone arrays on Si (100) induced by ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou and M. Lu, “Mechanism of Fe impurity motivated ion-nanopatterning of Si (100) surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 125404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luby, Š.

M. Oživold, V. Boháč, V. Gašparík, G. Leggieri, Š. Luby, A. Luches, E. Majková, and P. Mrafko, “The optical band gap of semiconducting iron disilicide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 263(1), 92–98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Luches, A.

M. Oživold, V. Boháč, V. Gašparík, G. Leggieri, Š. Luby, A. Luches, E. Majková, and P. Mrafko, “The optical band gap of semiconducting iron disilicide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 263(1), 92–98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ludwig, K. F.

G. Ozaydin, A. S. Ozcan, Y. Y. Wang, K. F. Ludwig, H. Zhou, R. L. Headrick, and D. P. Siddons, “Real-time x-ray studies of Mo-seeded Si nanodot formation during ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(16), 163104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X. L.

N. G. Shang, X. L. Ma, C. P. Liu, I. Bello, and S. T. Lee, “Arrays of Si cones prepared by ion beams: growth mechanisms,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(2), 309–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Macko, S.

S. Macko, F. Frost, B. Ziberi, D. F. Förster, and T. Michely, “Is keV ion-induced pattern formation on Si(001) caused by metal impurities?” Nanotechnology 21(8), 085301 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahan, J. E.

M. C. Bost and J. E. Mahan, “Optical properties of semiconducting iron disilicide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(7), 2696–2703 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Majková, E.

M. Oživold, V. Boháč, V. Gašparík, G. Leggieri, Š. Luby, A. Luches, E. Majková, and P. Mrafko, “The optical band gap of semiconducting iron disilicide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 263(1), 92–98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marabelli, F.

V. Bellani, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, and V. V. Nemoshkalenko, “Theory and experiment on the optical properties of CrSi2.,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 46(15), 9380–9389 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michely, T.

S. Macko, F. Frost, B. Ziberi, D. F. Förster, and T. Michely, “Is keV ion-induced pattern formation on Si(001) caused by metal impurities?” Nanotechnology 21(8), 085301 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Möller, W.

J. Zhou, S. Facsko, M. Lu, and W. Möller, “Nanopatterning of Si surfaces by normal incident ion erosion: influence of metal incorporation on surface morphology evolution,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 104315 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mrafko, P.

M. Oživold, V. Boháč, V. Gašparík, G. Leggieri, Š. Luby, A. Luches, E. Majková, and P. Mrafko, “The optical band gap of semiconducting iron disilicide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 263(1), 92–98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mu, W. W.

Muskens, O. L.

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of Light Scattering in Nanowire Materials for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nava, F.

V. Bellani, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, and V. V. Nemoshkalenko, “Theory and experiment on the optical properties of CrSi2.,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 46(15), 9380–9389 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemoshkalenko, V. V.

V. Bellani, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, and V. V. Nemoshkalenko, “Theory and experiment on the optical properties of CrSi2.,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 46(15), 9380–9389 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozaydin, G.

G. Ozaydin, A. S. Ozcan, Y. Y. Wang, K. F. Ludwig, H. Zhou, R. L. Headrick, and D. P. Siddons, “Real-time x-ray studies of Mo-seeded Si nanodot formation during ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(16), 163104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ozcan, A. S.

G. Ozaydin, A. S. Ozcan, Y. Y. Wang, K. F. Ludwig, H. Zhou, R. L. Headrick, and D. P. Siddons, “Real-time x-ray studies of Mo-seeded Si nanodot formation during ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(16), 163104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oživold, M.

M. Oživold, V. Boháč, V. Gašparík, G. Leggieri, Š. Luby, A. Luches, E. Majková, and P. Mrafko, “The optical band gap of semiconducting iron disilicide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 263(1), 92–98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Peng, K.

K. Peng, X. Wang, and S. T. Lee, “Silicon nanowire array photoelectrochemical solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Piaggi, A.

V. Bellani, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, and V. V. Nemoshkalenko, “Theory and experiment on the optical properties of CrSi2.,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 46(15), 9380–9389 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat Commun 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenbach, B.

B. Ziberi, M. Cornejo, F. Frost, and B. Rauschenbach, “Highly ordered nanopatterns on Ge and Si surfaces by ion beam sputtering,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(22), 224003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Redondo-Cubero, A.

J. A. Sánchez-García, L. Vázquez, R. Gago, A. Redondo-Cubero, J. M. Albella, and Z. S. Czigány, “Tuning the surface morphology in self-organized ion beam nanopatterning of Si(001) via metal incorporation: from holes to dots,” Nanotechnology 19(35), 355306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivas, J. G.

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of Light Scattering in Nanowire Materials for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sánchez-García, J. A.

J. A. Sánchez-García, L. Vázquez, R. Gago, A. Redondo-Cubero, J. M. Albella, and Z. S. Czigány, “Tuning the surface morphology in self-organized ion beam nanopatterning of Si(001) via metal incorporation: from holes to dots,” Nanotechnology 19(35), 355306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schumann, J.

H. Lange, W. Henrion, F. Fenske, T. Zettler, J. Schumann, and S. Teichert, “Optical Interband Properties of Some Semiconducting Silicides,” Phys. Status Solidi B 194(1), 231–240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seo, H. S.

H. S. Seo, X. P. Li, H. D. Um, B. Y. Yoo, J. H. Kim, K. P. Kim, Y. W. Cho, and J. H. Lee, “Fabrication of precisely controlled silicon wire and cone arrays by electrochemical etching,” Mater. Lett. 63(29), 2567–2569 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shang, N. G.

N. G. Shang, X. L. Ma, C. P. Liu, I. Bello, and S. T. Lee, “Arrays of Si cones prepared by ion beams: growth mechanisms,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(2), 309–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shin, B.

M. Tabbal, T. Kim, D. N. Woolf, B. Shin, and M. J. Aziz, “Fabrication and sub-band-gap absorption of single-crystal Si supersaturated with Se by pulsed laser mixing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(3), 589–594 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Siddons, D. P.

G. Ozaydin, A. S. Ozcan, Y. Y. Wang, K. F. Ludwig, H. Zhou, R. L. Headrick, and D. P. Siddons, “Real-time x-ray studies of Mo-seeded Si nanodot formation during ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(16), 163104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, M. B.

J. Erlebacher, M. J. Aziz, E. Chason, M. B. Sinclair, and J. A. Floro, “Spontaneous Pattern Formation on Ion Bombarded Si(001),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2330–2333 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

L. W. Yu, K. J. Chen, J. Song, J. Xu, W. Li, H. M. Li, M. Wang, X. F. Li, and X. F. Huang, “Self-assembled Si Quantum-Ring Structures on a Si Substrate by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Based on a Growth-Etching Competition Mechanism,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(12), 1577–1581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, P.

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat Commun 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, H. C.

Sun, J.

J. S. Lai, L. Chen, X. N. Fu, J. Sun, Z. F. Ying, J. D. Wu, and N. Xu, “Effects of the experimental conditions on the growth of crystalline ZnSe nano-needles by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 102(2), 477–483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S. H.

Tabbal, M.

M. Tabbal, T. Kim, D. N. Woolf, B. Shin, and M. J. Aziz, “Fabrication and sub-band-gap absorption of single-crystal Si supersaturated with Se by pulsed laser mixing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(3), 589–594 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Teichert, S.

H. Lange, W. Henrion, F. Fenske, T. Zettler, J. Schumann, and S. Teichert, “Optical Interband Properties of Some Semiconducting Silicides,” Phys. Status Solidi B 194(1), 231–240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, F. J.

Um, H. D.

H. S. Seo, X. P. Li, H. D. Um, B. Y. Yoo, J. H. Kim, K. P. Kim, Y. W. Cho, and J. H. Lee, “Fabrication of precisely controlled silicon wire and cone arrays by electrochemical etching,” Mater. Lett. 63(29), 2567–2569 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vázquez, L.

J. A. Sánchez-García, L. Vázquez, R. Gago, A. Redondo-Cubero, J. M. Albella, and Z. S. Czigány, “Tuning the surface morphology in self-organized ion beam nanopatterning of Si(001) via metal incorporation: from holes to dots,” Nanotechnology 19(35), 355306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verschuuren, M. A.

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat Commun 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J. Y.

Wang, M.

L. W. Yu, K. J. Chen, J. Song, J. Xu, W. Li, H. M. Li, M. Wang, X. F. Li, and X. F. Huang, “Self-assembled Si Quantum-Ring Structures on a Si Substrate by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Based on a Growth-Etching Competition Mechanism,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(12), 1577–1581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

K. Peng, X. Wang, and S. T. Lee, “Silicon nanowire array photoelectrochemical solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. Y.

G. Ozaydin, A. S. Ozcan, Y. Y. Wang, K. F. Ludwig, H. Zhou, R. L. Headrick, and D. P. Siddons, “Real-time x-ray studies of Mo-seeded Si nanodot formation during ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(16), 163104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Warrender, J. M.

T. G. Kim, J. M. Warrender, and M. J. Aziz, “Strong sub-band-gap infrared absorption in silicon supersaturated with sulfur,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Woolf, D. N.

M. Tabbal, T. Kim, D. N. Woolf, B. Shin, and M. J. Aziz, “Fabrication and sub-band-gap absorption of single-crystal Si supersaturated with Se by pulsed laser mixing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(3), 589–594 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

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[CrossRef]

T. H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. D.

J. S. Lai, L. Chen, X. N. Fu, J. Sun, Z. F. Ying, J. D. Wu, and N. Xu, “Effects of the experimental conditions on the growth of crystalline ZnSe nano-needles by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 102(2), 477–483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Y. Liu, S. H. Sun, J. Xu, L. Zhao, H. C. Sun, J. Li, W. W. Mu, L. Xu, and K. J. Chen, “Broadband antireflection and absorption enhancement by forming nano-patterned Si structures for solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S5), A1051–A1056 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. Yu, K. J. Chen, J. Song, J. Xu, W. Li, H. M. Li, M. Wang, X. F. Li, and X. F. Huang, “Self-assembled Si Quantum-Ring Structures on a Si Substrate by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Based on a Growth-Etching Competition Mechanism,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(12), 1577–1581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Xu, N.

J. S. Lai, L. Chen, X. N. Fu, J. Sun, Z. F. Ying, J. D. Wu, and N. Xu, “Effects of the experimental conditions on the growth of crystalline ZnSe nano-needles by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 102(2), 477–483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Yang, P.

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light Trapping in Silicon Nanowire Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. S. Lai, L. Chen, X. N. Fu, J. Sun, Z. F. Ying, J. D. Wu, and N. Xu, “Effects of the experimental conditions on the growth of crystalline ZnSe nano-needles by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 102(2), 477–483 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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H. S. Seo, X. P. Li, H. D. Um, B. Y. Yoo, J. H. Kim, K. P. Kim, Y. W. Cho, and J. H. Lee, “Fabrication of precisely controlled silicon wire and cone arrays by electrochemical etching,” Mater. Lett. 63(29), 2567–2569 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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L. W. Yu, K. J. Chen, J. Song, J. Xu, W. Li, H. M. Li, M. Wang, X. F. Li, and X. F. Huang, “Self-assembled Si Quantum-Ring Structures on a Si Substrate by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Based on a Growth-Etching Competition Mechanism,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(12), 1577–1581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zettler, T.

H. Lange, W. Henrion, F. Fenske, T. Zettler, J. Schumann, and S. Teichert, “Optical Interband Properties of Some Semiconducting Silicides,” Phys. Status Solidi B 194(1), 231–240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Liu, S. H. Sun, J. Xu, L. Zhao, H. C. Sun, J. Li, W. W. Mu, L. Xu, and K. J. Chen, “Broadband antireflection and absorption enhancement by forming nano-patterned Si structures for solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S5), A1051–A1056 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H.

G. Ozaydin, A. S. Ozcan, Y. Y. Wang, K. F. Ludwig, H. Zhou, R. L. Headrick, and D. P. Siddons, “Real-time x-ray studies of Mo-seeded Si nanodot formation during ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(16), 163104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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J. Zhou, S. Facsko, M. Lu, and W. Möller, “Nanopatterning of Si surfaces by normal incident ion erosion: influence of metal incorporation on surface morphology evolution,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 104315 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, M. Hildebrandt, and M. Lu, “Self-organized antireflecting nano-cone arrays on Si (100) induced by ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053513 (2011).
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J. Zhou and M. Lu, “Mechanism of Fe impurity motivated ion-nanopatterning of Si (100) surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 125404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Macko, F. Frost, B. Ziberi, D. F. Förster, and T. Michely, “Is keV ion-induced pattern formation on Si(001) caused by metal impurities?” Nanotechnology 21(8), 085301 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ziberi, M. Cornejo, F. Frost, and B. Rauschenbach, “Highly ordered nanopatterns on Ge and Si surfaces by ion beam sputtering,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(22), 224003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

L. W. Yu, K. J. Chen, J. Song, J. Xu, W. Li, H. M. Li, M. Wang, X. F. Li, and X. F. Huang, “Self-assembled Si Quantum-Ring Structures on a Si Substrate by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Based on a Growth-Etching Competition Mechanism,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(12), 1577–1581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

G. Ozaydin, A. S. Ozcan, Y. Y. Wang, K. F. Ludwig, H. Zhou, R. L. Headrick, and D. P. Siddons, “Real-time x-ray studies of Mo-seeded Si nanodot formation during ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(16), 163104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Her, R. J. Finlay, C. Wu, S. Deliwala, and E. Mazur, “Microstructuring of silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1673–1675 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850–1852 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Kim, J. M. Warrender, and M. J. Aziz, “Strong sub-band-gap infrared absorption in silicon supersaturated with sulfur,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Peng, X. Wang, and S. T. Lee, “Silicon nanowire array photoelectrochemical solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (2)

M. Tabbal, T. Kim, D. N. Woolf, B. Shin, and M. J. Aziz, “Fabrication and sub-band-gap absorption of single-crystal Si supersaturated with Se by pulsed laser mixing,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(3), 589–594 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lai, L. Chen, X. N. Fu, J. Sun, Z. F. Ying, J. D. Wu, and N. Xu, “Effects of the experimental conditions on the growth of crystalline ZnSe nano-needles by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 102(2), 477–483 (2011).
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J. Zhou, S. Facsko, M. Lu, and W. Möller, “Nanopatterning of Si surfaces by normal incident ion erosion: influence of metal incorporation on surface morphology evolution,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 104315 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, M. Hildebrandt, and M. Lu, “Self-organized antireflecting nano-cone arrays on Si (100) induced by ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

B. Ziberi, M. Cornejo, F. Frost, and B. Rauschenbach, “Highly ordered nanopatterns on Ge and Si surfaces by ion beam sputtering,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(22), 224003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Mater. Lett. (1)

H. S. Seo, X. P. Li, H. D. Um, B. Y. Yoo, J. H. Kim, K. P. Kim, Y. W. Cho, and J. H. Lee, “Fabrication of precisely controlled silicon wire and cone arrays by electrochemical etching,” Mater. Lett. 63(29), 2567–2569 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (4)

E. Garnett and P. Yang, “Light Trapping in Silicon Nanowire Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of Optical Absorption in Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
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Nanotechnology (2)

J. A. Sánchez-García, L. Vázquez, R. Gago, A. Redondo-Cubero, J. M. Albella, and Z. S. Czigány, “Tuning the surface morphology in self-organized ion beam nanopatterning of Si(001) via metal incorporation: from holes to dots,” Nanotechnology 19(35), 355306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Macko, F. Frost, B. Ziberi, D. F. Förster, and T. Michely, “Is keV ion-induced pattern formation on Si(001) caused by metal impurities?” Nanotechnology 21(8), 085301 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat Commun (1)

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat Commun 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Zhou and M. Lu, “Mechanism of Fe impurity motivated ion-nanopatterning of Si (100) surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 82(12), 125404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

V. Bellani, G. Guizzetti, F. Marabelli, A. Piaggi, A. Borghesi, F. Nava, V. N. Antonov, O. Jepsen, O. K. Andersen, and V. V. Nemoshkalenko, “Theory and experiment on the optical properties of CrSi2.,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 46(15), 9380–9389 (1992).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Erlebacher, M. J. Aziz, E. Chason, M. B. Sinclair, and J. A. Floro, “Spontaneous Pattern Formation on Ion Bombarded Si(001),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2330–2333 (1999).
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Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

N. G. Shang, X. L. Ma, C. P. Liu, I. Bello, and S. T. Lee, “Arrays of Si cones prepared by ion beams: growth mechanisms,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(2), 309–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

H. Lange, W. Henrion, F. Fenske, T. Zettler, J. Schumann, and S. Teichert, “Optical Interband Properties of Some Semiconducting Silicides,” Phys. Status Solidi B 194(1), 231–240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. Oživold, V. Boháč, V. Gašparík, G. Leggieri, Š. Luby, A. Luches, E. Majková, and P. Mrafko, “The optical band gap of semiconducting iron disilicide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 263(1), 92–98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A bird-eye view SEM image (a) and a side view one (b) of Si nanocone arrays induced by Ar+ ion sputtering with ϕ = 0.56 × 1019 ions/cm2 at 800°C. H and D indicate height and base diameter of a nanocone, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

H and D versus T (ϕ = 0.56 × 1019 ions/cm2). The inset shows AR versus T.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

H and D versus ϕ (T = 800°C). The inset shows AR versus ϕ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface atomic concentration of the TS versus ϕ (T = 800°C) as measured by XPS.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectance, transmittance and absorbance of the TS’s for T = 200-800°C (ϕ = 0.56 × 1019 ions/cm2) (a-c). Absorbance of the TS’s for ϕ = 1.1-1.7 × 1019 ions/cm2 (T = 800°C) (d).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photocurrent enhancement for planar Si, TS1 and TS2 under AM1.5 solar simulated illumination (a) and 1550 nm IR one (b)

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