Abstract

Interferograms from a dual-comb spectrometer are continuously corrected and averaged in real-time. The algorithm is implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) development board. The chosen approach and the algorithm are described. Measurements with high signal-to-noise ratio, resolution and bandwidth are shown to demonstrate the accuracy of the optical referencing and the processing algorithm with 24 hours of averaging time, reaching a signal to noise ratio of 10,750,000 (>21 bits) in the interferogram and 316,000 in the spectrum at 100 MHz resolution. An interferogram where signal dominates the noise over the full delay range imposed by the 100 MHz repetition rate is reported for the first time.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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2012 (2)

2010 (4)

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kray, F. Spöler, T. Hellerer, and H. Kurz, “Electronically controlled coherent linear optical sampling for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(10), 9976–9990 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent dual-comb spectroscopy at high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 043817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-D. Deschênes, P. Giaccarri, and J. Genest, “Optical referencing technique with CW lasers as intermediate oscillators for continuous full delay range frequency comb interferometry,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23358–23370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

S.-J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Ultrahigh scanning speed optical coherence tomography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 8B), L878–L880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Baumann, E.

Bernhardt, B.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brehm, M.

Carrier, J.-R.

Charlebois, M.

Coddington, I.

Deschênes, J.-D.

Genest, J.

Giaccari, P.

Giaccarri, P.

Gilbert, S.

Giorgetta, F. R.

Gohle, C.

Guelachvili, G.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hellerer, T.

Holzwarth, R.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Keilmann, C. Gohle, and R. Holzwarth, “Time-domain mid-infrared frequency-comb spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 29(13), 1542–1544 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacquet, P.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jacquey, M.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

Kobayashi, Y.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kourogi, M.

S.-J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Ultrahigh scanning speed optical coherence tomography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 8B), L878–L880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kray, S.

Kurz, H.

Lee, S.-J.

S.-J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Ultrahigh scanning speed optical coherence tomography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 8B), L878–L880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Michaud-Belleau, V.

Newbury, N. R.

Nì Allen, C.

Nicholson, J. W.

Ohtsu, M.

S.-J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Ultrahigh scanning speed optical coherence tomography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 8B), L878–L880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ozawa, A.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Picqué, N.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Potvin, S.

Roy, J.

Saucier, P.

Schiller, S.

Schliesser, A.

Spöler, F.

Swann, W.

Swann, W. C.

Tremblay, P.

Udem, T.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van der Weide, D.

Verret, L.-S.

Widiyatmoko, B.

S.-J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Ultrahigh scanning speed optical coherence tomography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 8B), L878–L880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zolot, A. M.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S.-J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Ultrahigh scanning speed optical coherence tomography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 8B), L878–L880 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent dual-comb spectroscopy at high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 043817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

A. Poisson, T. Ideguchi, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. Hänsch, “Adaptive dual-comb spectroscopy with free-running lasers and resolved comb lines,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations, OSA Technical Digest paper CW1J.1, (2012).

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy”, arXiv:1201.4177v1 (2012).

C. Mohr, A. Romann, A. Ruehl, I. Hartl, and M. Fermann, “Fourier transform spectrometry using a single cavity length modulated mode-locked fiber laser,” in Fiber Laser Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper FWA2.

A. Ambardar, “Digital signal processing: a modern introduction” Thomson, p.294 (2007).

P. Jacquet, J. Mandon, B. Bernhardt, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Frequency comb Fourier transform spectroscopy with kHz optical resolution,” in Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper FMB2.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. Solid lines = optical fiber, dashed lines = electrical cable, WDM = Wavelength division multiplexer, PC = Polarization controller, D = Balanced detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Software architecture to acquire, post-correct and average in real-time the dual-comb interferograms.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Acquired IGMs from the setup described in Fig. 2. (a) Single-shot (blue) measurement and (red) averaged IGMs chirped by 200 m of SMF fiber. (b) Averaged IGMs, dechirped numerically to retrieve the impulse response of the sample.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectrum of the 24 hour measurement. (a) Full spectrum on a logarithmic scale. (b) Transmittance of the C2H2 and HCN cells. The baseline was normalized by fitting. (c) Zoom between 1527 nm and 1530.5 nm of the cells transmittance. Difference in the width between HCN and C2H2 lines is attributable to the pressure in the two cells.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Rayleigh backscattering in the stretching fiber leaves signal at all optical delays in the interferogram. (Red) Fourier transform of a section away from ZPD reveals a signal 40 dB below the level of the main signal (Blue).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

10 second measurement of a silica microsphere. (a) IGM in linear scale. (b) Magnitude of the IGM in logarithm scale. (c) Transmittance zoomed between 1565.92 nm and 1566.12 nm.

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