Abstract

We investigate experimentally metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal (MISIM) waveguides that are fabricated by using fully standard CMOS technology. They are hybrid plasmonic waveguides, and they have a feature that their insulator is replaceable with functional material. We explain a fabrication process for them and discuss fabrication results based on 8-inch silicon-on-insulator wafers. We measured the propagation characteristics of the MISIM waveguides that were actually fabricated to be connected to Si photonic waveguides through symmetric and asymmetric couplers. When incident light from an optical source has transverse electric (TE) polarization and its wavelength is 1318 or 1554 nm, their propagation losses are between 0.2 and 0.3 dB/μm. Excess losses due to the symmetric couplers are around 0.5 dB, which are smaller than those due to the asymmetric couplers. Additional measurement results indicate that the MISIM waveguide supports a TE-polarized hybrid plasmonic mode. Finally, we explain a process of removing the insulator without affecting the remaining MISIM structure to fabricate ~30-nm-wide nanochannels which may be filled with functional material.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

2011

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Nanoplasmonic power splitters based on the horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Summers and R. J. Ram, “Thermal and optical characterization of resonant coupling between surface plasmon polariton and semiconductor waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181118 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Sorger, N. Pholchai, E. Cubukcu, R. F. Oulton, P. Kolchin, C. Borschel, M. Gnauck, C. Ronning, and X. Zhang, “Strongly enhanced molecular fluorescence inside a nanoscale waveguide gap,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4907–4911 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-S. Kwon, “Metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal waveguides compatible with standard CMOS technology,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8379–8393 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8888–8902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. L. Brongersma and V. M. Shalaev, “Applied physics. The case for plasmonics,” Science 328(5977), 440–441 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon-plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Charkravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Han, A. Y. Elezzabi, and V. Van, “Experimental realization of subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides on a silicon platform,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 502–504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wu, Z. Han, and V. Van, “Conductor-gap-silicon plasmonic waveguides and passive components at subwavelength scale,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11728–11736 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

A. Witvrouw, B. Du Bois, P. De Moor, A. Verbist, C. Van Hoof, H. Bender, and K. Baert, “A comparison between wet HF etching and vapor HF etching for sacrificial oxide removal,” Proc. SPIE 4174, 130–141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. Buhler, F.-P. Steiner, and H. Baltes, “Silicon dioxide sacrificial layer etching in surface micromachining,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 7(1), R1–R13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Apostolopoulos, D.

Apuzzo, A.

R. Salas-Montiel, A. Apuzzo, C. Delacour, Z. Sedaghat, A. Bruyant, P. Grosse, A. Chelnokov, G. Lerondel, and S. Blaize, “Quantitative analysis and near-field observation of strong coupling between plasmonic nanogap and silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Avramopoulos, H.

Awada, C.

Baert, K.

A. Witvrouw, B. Du Bois, P. De Moor, A. Verbist, C. Van Hoof, H. Bender, and K. Baert, “A comparison between wet HF etching and vapor HF etching for sacrificial oxide removal,” Proc. SPIE 4174, 130–141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baltes, H.

J. Buhler, F.-P. Steiner, and H. Baltes, “Silicon dioxide sacrificial layer etching in surface micromachining,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 7(1), R1–R13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baus, M.

Bender, H.

A. Witvrouw, B. Du Bois, P. De Moor, A. Verbist, C. Van Hoof, H. Bender, and K. Baert, “A comparison between wet HF etching and vapor HF etching for sacrificial oxide removal,” Proc. SPIE 4174, 130–141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blaize, S.

R. Salas-Montiel, A. Apuzzo, C. Delacour, Z. Sedaghat, A. Bruyant, P. Grosse, A. Chelnokov, G. Lerondel, and S. Blaize, “Quantitative analysis and near-field observation of strong coupling between plasmonic nanogap and silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Borschel, C.

V. J. Sorger, N. Pholchai, E. Cubukcu, R. F. Oulton, P. Kolchin, C. Borschel, M. Gnauck, C. Ronning, and X. Zhang, “Strongly enhanced molecular fluorescence inside a nanoscale waveguide gap,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4907–4911 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boutami, S.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Brongersma, M. L.

M. L. Brongersma and V. M. Shalaev, “Applied physics. The case for plasmonics,” Science 328(5977), 440–441 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruyant, A.

R. Salas-Montiel, A. Apuzzo, C. Delacour, Z. Sedaghat, A. Bruyant, P. Grosse, A. Chelnokov, G. Lerondel, and S. Blaize, “Quantitative analysis and near-field observation of strong coupling between plasmonic nanogap and silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Buhler, J.

J. Buhler, F.-P. Steiner, and H. Baltes, “Silicon dioxide sacrificial layer etching in surface micromachining,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 7(1), R1–R13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Charkravarty, S.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Charkravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Charra, F.

Chelnokov, A.

R. Salas-Montiel, A. Apuzzo, C. Delacour, Z. Sedaghat, A. Bruyant, P. Grosse, A. Chelnokov, G. Lerondel, and S. Blaize, “Quantitative analysis and near-field observation of strong coupling between plasmonic nanogap and silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Charkravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coello, V.

Cubukcu, E.

V. J. Sorger, N. Pholchai, E. Cubukcu, R. F. Oulton, P. Kolchin, C. Borschel, M. Gnauck, C. Ronning, and X. Zhang, “Strongly enhanced molecular fluorescence inside a nanoscale waveguide gap,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4907–4911 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Lamaestre, R. E.

De Moor, P.

A. Witvrouw, B. Du Bois, P. De Moor, A. Verbist, C. Van Hoof, H. Bender, and K. Baert, “A comparison between wet HF etching and vapor HF etching for sacrificial oxide removal,” Proc. SPIE 4174, 130–141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Delacour, C.

R. Salas-Montiel, A. Apuzzo, C. Delacour, Z. Sedaghat, A. Bruyant, P. Grosse, A. Chelnokov, G. Lerondel, and S. Blaize, “Quantitative analysis and near-field observation of strong coupling between plasmonic nanogap and silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

Desiatov, B.

C. L. C. Smith, B. Desiatov, I. Goykmann, I. Fernandez-Cuesta, U. Levy, and A. Kristensen, “Plasmonic V-groove waveguides with Bragg grating filters via nanoimprint lithography,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5696–5706 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon-plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douillard, L.

Du Bois, B.

A. Witvrouw, B. Du Bois, P. De Moor, A. Verbist, C. Van Hoof, H. Bender, and K. Baert, “A comparison between wet HF etching and vapor HF etching for sacrificial oxide removal,” Proc. SPIE 4174, 130–141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elezzabi, A. Y.

Fernandez-Cuesta, I.

Garcia, C.

Giannoulis, G.

Gnauck, M.

V. J. Sorger, N. Pholchai, E. Cubukcu, R. F. Oulton, P. Kolchin, C. Borschel, M. Gnauck, C. Ronning, and X. Zhang, “Strongly enhanced molecular fluorescence inside a nanoscale waveguide gap,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4907–4911 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goykhman, I.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon-plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goykmann, I.

Grosse, P.

R. Salas-Montiel, A. Apuzzo, C. Delacour, Z. Sedaghat, A. Bruyant, P. Grosse, A. Chelnokov, G. Lerondel, and S. Blaize, “Quantitative analysis and near-field observation of strong coupling between plasmonic nanogap and silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.

Hassan, K.

Jen, A. K.-Y.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Charkravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kalavrouziotis, D.

Karl, M.

Kolchin, P.

V. J. Sorger, N. Pholchai, E. Cubukcu, R. F. Oulton, P. Kolchin, C. Borschel, M. Gnauck, C. Ronning, and X. Zhang, “Strongly enhanced molecular fluorescence inside a nanoscale waveguide gap,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4907–4911 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kriezis, E. E.

Kristensen, A.

Kumar, A.

Kwon, M.-S.

Kwong, D. L.

S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8888–8902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Nanoplasmonic power splitters based on the horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Charkravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laluet, J.-Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. S.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Charkravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. S.

Lerondel, G.

R. Salas-Montiel, A. Apuzzo, C. Delacour, Z. Sedaghat, A. Bruyant, P. Grosse, A. Chelnokov, G. Lerondel, and S. Blaize, “Quantitative analysis and near-field observation of strong coupling between plasmonic nanogap and silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Levy, U.

C. L. C. Smith, B. Desiatov, I. Goykmann, I. Fernandez-Cuesta, U. Levy, and A. Kristensen, “Plasmonic V-groove waveguides with Bragg grating filters via nanoimprint lithography,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5696–5706 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon-plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Charkravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liow, T. Y.

Lo, G. Q.

S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8888–8902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Nanoplasmonic power splitters based on the horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Charkravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Markey, L.

Oulton, R. F.

V. J. Sorger, N. Pholchai, E. Cubukcu, R. F. Oulton, P. Kolchin, C. Borschel, M. Gnauck, C. Ronning, and X. Zhang, “Strongly enhanced molecular fluorescence inside a nanoscale waveguide gap,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4907–4911 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papaioannou, S.

Pholchai, N.

V. J. Sorger, N. Pholchai, E. Cubukcu, R. F. Oulton, P. Kolchin, C. Borschel, M. Gnauck, C. Ronning, and X. Zhang, “Strongly enhanced molecular fluorescence inside a nanoscale waveguide gap,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4907–4911 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitilakis, A.

Pleros, N.

Radko, I. P.

Ram, R. J.

J. A. Summers and R. J. Ram, “Thermal and optical characterization of resonant coupling between surface plasmon polariton and semiconductor waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181118 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ronning, C.

V. J. Sorger, N. Pholchai, E. Cubukcu, R. F. Oulton, P. Kolchin, C. Borschel, M. Gnauck, C. Ronning, and X. Zhang, “Strongly enhanced molecular fluorescence inside a nanoscale waveguide gap,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4907–4911 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salas-Montiel, R.

R. Salas-Montiel, A. Apuzzo, C. Delacour, Z. Sedaghat, A. Bruyant, P. Grosse, A. Chelnokov, G. Lerondel, and S. Blaize, “Quantitative analysis and near-field observation of strong coupling between plasmonic nanogap and silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sedaghat, Z.

R. Salas-Montiel, A. Apuzzo, C. Delacour, Z. Sedaghat, A. Bruyant, P. Grosse, A. Chelnokov, G. Lerondel, and S. Blaize, “Quantitative analysis and near-field observation of strong coupling between plasmonic nanogap and silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

M. L. Brongersma and V. M. Shalaev, “Applied physics. The case for plasmonics,” Science 328(5977), 440–441 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, C. L. C.

Sorger, V. J.

V. J. Sorger, N. Pholchai, E. Cubukcu, R. F. Oulton, P. Kolchin, C. Borschel, M. Gnauck, C. Ronning, and X. Zhang, “Strongly enhanced molecular fluorescence inside a nanoscale waveguide gap,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4907–4911 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner, F.-P.

J. Buhler, F.-P. Steiner, and H. Baltes, “Silicon dioxide sacrificial layer etching in surface micromachining,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 7(1), R1–R13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Summers, J. A.

J. A. Summers and R. J. Ram, “Thermal and optical characterization of resonant coupling between surface plasmon polariton and semiconductor waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181118 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tekin, T.

Tsilipakos, O.

Van, V.

Van Hoof, C.

A. Witvrouw, B. Du Bois, P. De Moor, A. Verbist, C. Van Hoof, H. Bender, and K. Baert, “A comparison between wet HF etching and vapor HF etching for sacrificial oxide removal,” Proc. SPIE 4174, 130–141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Verbist, A.

A. Witvrouw, B. Du Bois, P. De Moor, A. Verbist, C. Van Hoof, H. Bender, and K. Baert, “A comparison between wet HF etching and vapor HF etching for sacrificial oxide removal,” Proc. SPIE 4174, 130–141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vyrsokinos, K.

Wang, X.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Charkravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J.-C.

Witvrouw, A.

A. Witvrouw, B. Du Bois, P. De Moor, A. Verbist, C. Van Hoof, H. Bender, and K. Baert, “A comparison between wet HF etching and vapor HF etching for sacrificial oxide removal,” Proc. SPIE 4174, 130–141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

Zhang, X.

V. J. Sorger, N. Pholchai, E. Cubukcu, R. F. Oulton, P. Kolchin, C. Borschel, M. Gnauck, C. Ronning, and X. Zhang, “Strongly enhanced molecular fluorescence inside a nanoscale waveguide gap,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4907–4911 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, S.

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Nanoplasmonic power splitters based on the horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhu, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon-based horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides for on-chip integration,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8888–8902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, and U. Levy, “Experimental demonstration of locally oxidized hybrid silicon-plasmonic waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 141106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Summers and R. J. Ram, “Thermal and optical characterization of resonant coupling between surface plasmon polariton and semiconductor waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181118 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Nanoplasmonic power splitters based on the horizontal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031112 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Salas-Montiel, A. Apuzzo, C. Delacour, Z. Sedaghat, A. Bruyant, P. Grosse, A. Chelnokov, G. Lerondel, and S. Blaize, “Quantitative analysis and near-field observation of strong coupling between plasmonic nanogap and silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Charkravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng.

J. Buhler, F.-P. Steiner, and H. Baltes, “Silicon dioxide sacrificial layer etching in surface micromachining,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 7(1), R1–R13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

V. J. Sorger, N. Pholchai, E. Cubukcu, R. F. Oulton, P. Kolchin, C. Borschel, M. Gnauck, C. Ronning, and X. Zhang, “Strongly enhanced molecular fluorescence inside a nanoscale waveguide gap,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4907–4911 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

M. Wu, Z. Han, and V. Van, “Conductor-gap-silicon plasmonic waveguides and passive components at subwavelength scale,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11728–11736 (2010).
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M.-S. Kwon, “Metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal waveguides compatible with standard CMOS technology,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8379–8393 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. C. Smith, B. Desiatov, I. Goykmann, I. Fernandez-Cuesta, U. Levy, and A. Kristensen, “Plasmonic V-groove waveguides with Bragg grating filters via nanoimprint lithography,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5696–5706 (2012).
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D. Kalavrouziotis, S. Papaioannou, G. Giannoulis, D. Apostolopoulos, K. Hassan, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, M. Karl, T. Tekin, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, E. E. Kriezis, H. Avramopoulos, K. Vyrsokinos, and N. Pleros, “0.48Tb/s (12x40Gb/s) WDM transmission and high-quality thermo-optic switching in dielectric loaded plasmonics,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7655–7662 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

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Refractive Index Database, http://refractiveindex.info .

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-sectional structure of the realized MISIM waveguide. (b) Intensity profile of the MISIM waveguide mode which was calculated by using FIMMWAVE from Photon Design.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photograph of the whole wafer. (b) Schematic diagrams of the fabricated combinations of the waveguides. The MISIM waveguide is connected to the 450-nm-wide Si photonic waveguides via the symmetric [top] or asymmetric [bottom] couplers. The reference waveguide is also connected to the 450-nm-wide Si photonic waveguides via the symmetric couplers [middle]. The 450-nm-wide Si photonic waveguides are connected to the 5-μm-wide Si waveguides. (c) SEM image of the MISIM waveguide with the symmetric couplers. (d) SEM image of the MISIM waveguide with the asymmetric couplers. (e) SEM image of the cross-section of the MISIM waveguide. Platinum over the MISIM waveguide was formed to prepare the cross-section by using focused ion beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured values of ILMS vs. lM for (a) wS = ~160 nm, (c) wS = ~190 nm, and (e) wS = ~220 nm. They are represented by the square symbols with error bars. In these figures, the red dashed lines were obtained from the linear fitting, and the blue solid curves were obtained from the fitting based on Eq. (1). The measured values of ILR are compared with those of ILMS for (b) wS = ~160 nm, (d) wS = ~190 nm, and (f) wS = ~220 nm. They are represented by the red circle symbols with error bars. The results in the figures were measured at λ = 1554 nm for TE polarization.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured values of ILMS vs. lM for (a) wS = ~160 nm, (c) wS = ~190 nm, and (e) wS = ~220 nm. The measured values of ILR are compared with those of ILMS for (b) wS = ~160 nm, (d) wS = ~190 nm, and (f) wS = ~220 nm. The results in the figures were measured at λ = 1318 nm for TE polarization. The explanation of the symbols and lines in the figures are the same as in Fig. 3. Each red horizontal line corresponds to the average of the values of ILR.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Insertion losses at λ = 1554 nm for TM polarization. The measured values of ILMS and ILR are shown in (a), (b), and (c), respectively, for wS = ~160 nm, ~190 nm, and ~220 nm. The values of ILMS are represented by the square symbols with error bars, and those of ILR are represented by the red circle symbols with error bars. Each red horizontal line corresponds to the average of the values of ILR.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Measured values of Lt vs. lt for wS = ~190 nm. The black square (red circle) symbols with error bars represent the excess losses due to the symmetric (asymmetric) couplers. (b) Calculated values of Lt vs. lt for wS = ~190 nm. The black square (red circle) symbols represent the excess losses due to the symmetric (asymmetric) couplers. (c) Measured values of Lt vs. lt for wS = ~160 nm (the green triangle symbols with error bars) and ~220 nm (the blue inverted triangle symbols with error bars).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Top and (b) cross-sectional SEM images of the MISIM waveguides resulted from immersion in the mixture of BOE and glycerol for 2 minutes. (c) Top and (d) cross-sectional SEM images of the MISIM waveguides resulted from immersion for 1 minute.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated values of β ¯ M a and αM b for the Different Values of εCu at λ = 1554 nm

Tables Icon

Table 2 Resultant Values of the Fitting Parameters at λ = 1554 nm

Tables Icon

Table 3 Calculated Values of β ¯ M a and αM b for the Different Values of εCu at λ = 1318 nm

Tables Icon

Table 4 Resultant Values of the Fitting Parameters at λ = 1318 nm

Equations (1)

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IL MS = T S2 2 T t 2 exp[( α S2 l S2 + α S1 l S1 + α M l M )] | 1 R S2 T t 2 exp[j2( β S2 l S2 + β S1 l S1 + β M l M +ϕ)]exp[( α S2 l S2 + α S1 l S1 + α M l M )] | 2 .

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