Abstract

CdZnO/ZnO quantum well (QW) samples are grown on GaN and ZnO templates with plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under different conditions of substrate temperature, Cd effusion cell temperature, and O2 flow rate for emission characteristics comparison. It is found that the Cd incorporation on the ZnO template is generally lower, when compared with that on the GaN template, such that the O2 flow rate needs to be reduced for stoichiometric CdZnO/ZnO QW growth on the ZnO template. Besides the wurtzite (wt) CdZnO structure, the rock-salt (rs) CdZnO structure exists in the CdZnO well layers when the total Cd content is high. The rs structure may dominate over the wt structure in photoluminescence intensity when the total Cd content is high. In either group of samples on the GaN and ZnO templates, the emission efficiency first increases and then decreases with increasing total Cd content. The low emission efficiency at low (high) Cd content is attributed to the weaker quantum confinement (the poorer crystal quality) of the QWs. The emission efficiencies of the QW samples on the GaN template are generally higher than those on the ZnO template. The carrier localization behavior in a CdZnO/ZnO QW, grown on either GaN or ZnO template, is significantly weaker than that in an InGaN/GaN QW. The strength of the quantum-confined Stark effect generally increases with increasing Cd content in either group of samples on the GaN and ZnO templates.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

S. Y. Ting, H. S. Chen, W. M. Chang, J. J. Huang, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “MBE-grown CdZnO/ZnO multiple quantum-well light-emitting diode on MOCVD-grown p-type GaN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(11), 909–911 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakamura, J. Temmyo, E. Muñoz, and A. Hierro, “Green electroluminescence from ZnCdO multiple quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by remote-plasma-enhanced metal–organic chemical vapor deposition,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 23(15), 1052–1054 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Azarov, T. C. Zhang, B. G. Svensson, and A. Y. Kuznetsov, “Cd diffusion and thermal stability of CdZnO/ZnO heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 111903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Blumstengel, S. Sadofev, H. Kirmse, and F. Henneberger, “Extreme low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO-based quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031907 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Yang, L. M. Wong, S. J. Wang, H. D. Sun, C. H. Ge, A. Y. S. Lee, and H. Gong, “Photoluminescence characteristics of ZnCdO/ZnO single quantum well grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. Yamamoto, M. Adachi, T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, A. Nakamura, and J. Temmyo, “Synthesis and characterization of ZnCdO/ZnO multiple quantum wells by remote-plasma-enhanced MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(9), 1496–1499 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Yang, B. Liu, R. Chen, L. M. Wong, S. J. Wang, and H. D. Sun, “Pulsed laser deposition of high-quality ZnCdO epilayers and ZnCdO/ZnO single quantum well on sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061911 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhang, P. Chen, Y. Zhang, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Effect of rapid thermal annealing on photoluminescence and crystal structures of CdZnO films,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(12-13), 1908–1911 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, Z. Yang, Z. Zuo, J. H. Lim, and J. L. Liu, “Thermal stability of CdZnO thin films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256(14), 4734–4737 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, Z. Yang, Z. Zuo, J. Y. Kong, and J. L. Liu, “Study of rapid thermal annealing effect on CdZnO thin films grown on Si substrate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(3), C3D13, D16 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “ZnCdO/ZnO – a new heterosystem for green-wavelength semiconductor lasing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 233–242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, Z. Yang, J. Y. Kong, and J. L. Liu, “Blue electroluminescence from ZnO based heterojunction diodes with CdZnO active layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 232117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Zhu, G. D. Chen, H. Ye, A. Walsh, C. Y. Moon, and S. H. Wei, “Electronic structure and phase stability of MgO, ZnO, CdO, and related ternary alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77(24), 245209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, X. J. Wang, W. M. Chen, I. A. Buyanova, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, B. Hertog, A. V. Thompson, W. V. Schoenfeld, Y. L. Wang, and F. Ren, “Migration and luminescence enhancement effects of deuterium in ZnO/ZnCdO quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 032103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, X. J. Wang, G. Pozina, W. M. Chen, W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, and B. Hertog, “Effects of hydrogen on the optical properties of ZnCdO/ZnO quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261912 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Z. Q. Fang, B. Claflin, D. C. Look, L. L. Kerr, and X. Li, “Electron and hole traps in N-doped ZnO grown on p-type Si by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 023714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Sun, J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. M. Bian, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, W. F. Liu, and G. T. Du, “Realization of ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO homojunction with n-ZnO/p-ZnO:As/GaAs structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, S. P. Lau, K. Pita, H. Y. Yang, and T. P. Chen, “Room temperature deposition of p-type arsenic doped ZnO polycrystalline films by laser-assist filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 094905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Guo, A. Allenic, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, Y. Che, Z. D. Hu, and B. Liu, “Microstructure and properties of epitaxial antimony-doped p-type ZnO films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 242108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Sadofev, P. Schäfer, Y. H. Fan, S. Blumstengel, F. Henneberger, D. Schulz, and D. Klimm, “Radical-source molecular beam epitaxy of ZnMgO and ZnCdO alloys on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201923 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Sadofev, S. Kalusniak, J. Puls, P. Schäfer, S. Blumstengel, and F. Henneberger, “Visible-wavelength laser action of ZnCdO/(Zn,Mg)O multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Thompson, C. Boutwell, J. W. Mares, W. V. Schoenfeld, A. Osinsky, B. Hertog, J. Q. Xie, S. J. Pearton, and D. P. Norton, “Thermal stability of CdZnO/ZnO multi-quantum-wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Sasaki, S. Shibakawa, Y. Kawakami, K. Nishizuka, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Equation for internal quantum efficiency and its temperature dependence of luminescence, and application to InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8719–8723 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Vaithinathan, B. T. Lee, C. W. Chang, K. Asokan, and S. S. Kim, “Characterization of As-doped, p-type ZnO by x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 112103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Lu, Z. Z. Ye, G. D. Yuan, Y. J. Zeng, F. Zhuge, L. P. Zhu, B. H. Zhao, and S. B. Zhang, “Electrical characterization of ZnO-based homojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 053501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kang, S. H. Lim, J. W. Kim, H. W. Chang, G. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, Y. Li, J. S. Lee, J. K. Lee, M. A. Nastasi, S. A. Crooker, and Q. X. Jia, “Exciton localization and Stokes’ shift in Zn1−xCdxO thin films depending on chemical composition,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 70–73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Cui, J. Puls, S. Rogaschewski, P. Schäfer, and F. Henneberger, “Visible band-gap ZnCdO heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chen, S. Jang, F. Rena, S. Rawal, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, and A. Osinsky, “Thermal stability of Ti/Al/Pt/Au and Ti/Au Ohmic contacts on n-type ZnCdO,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(2), 746–752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Wang, I. A. Buyanova, W. M. Chen, M. Izadifard, S. Rawal, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, and A. Dabiran, “Band gap properties of Zn1−xCdxO alloys grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Ishihara, A. Nakamura, S. Shigemori, T. Aoki, and J. Temmyo, “Zn1−xCdxO systems with visible band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091914 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kang, B. D. Ahn, J. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, S. H. Lim, H. W. Chang, and S. Y. Lee, “Structural, electrical, and optical properties of p-type ZnO thin films with Ag dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 202108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Xiu, L. J. Mandalapu, Z. Yang, J. L. Li, G. F. Liu, and J. A. Yarmoff, “Bi-induced acceptor states in ZnO by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 052103 (2006).
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L. J. Mandalapu, Z. Yang, F. X. Xiu, D. T. Zhao, and J. L. Liu, “Homojunction photodiodes based on Sb-doped p-type ZnO for ultraviolet detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092103 (2006).
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2005

S. Jang, J. J. Chen, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, J. Lopata, and W. S. Hobson, “Formation of p-n homojunctions in n-ZnO bulk single crystals by diffusion from a Zn3P2 source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 222113 (2005).
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A. Krtschil, A. Dadgar, N. Oleynik, J. Blasing, A. Diez, and A. Krost, “Local p-type conductivity in zinc oxide dual-doped with nitrogen and arsenic,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 262105 (2005).
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2004

J. G. Lu, Z. Z. Ye, F. Zhuge, Y. J. Zeng, B. H. Zhao, and L. P. Zhu, “p-type conduction in N–Al co-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3134–3135 (2004).
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D. C. Look, G. M. Renlund, R. H. Burgener, and J. R. Sizelove, “As-doped p-type ZnO produced by an evaporation/sputtering process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5269–5271 (2004).
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Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J. R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K.-J. Ma, S.-C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C.-C. Pan, and J.-I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
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2003

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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X. Li, Y. Yan, T. A. Gessert, C. DeHart, C. L. Perkins, D. Young, and T. J. Coutts, “p-Type ZnO thin films formed by CVD reaction of diethylzinc and NO gas,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 6(4), C56–C58 (2003).
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2002

K. Sakurai, T. Takagi, T. Kubo, D. Kajita, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, S. Fujita, and S. Fujita, “Spatial composition fluctuations in blue-luminescent ZnCdO semiconductor films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 237-239, 514–517 (2002).
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2000

T. Makino, C. H. Chia, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura, and H. Koinumac, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in lattice-matched (Cd,Zn)O/(Mg,Zn)O multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1632–1634 (2000).
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Y. R. Ryu, S. Zhu, D. C. Look, J. M. Wrobel, H. M. Jeong, and H. W. White, “Synthesis of p-type ZnO films,” J. Cryst. Growth 216(1-4), 330–334 (2000).
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Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
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1998

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
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T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
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1976

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S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
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K. Yamamoto, M. Adachi, T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, A. Nakamura, and J. Temmyo, “Synthesis and characterization of ZnCdO/ZnO multiple quantum wells by remote-plasma-enhanced MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(9), 1496–1499 (2010).
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Ahn, B. D.

H. S. Kang, B. D. Ahn, J. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, S. H. Lim, H. W. Chang, and S. Y. Lee, “Structural, electrical, and optical properties of p-type ZnO thin films with Ag dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 202108 (2006).
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Akasaki, I.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
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Allenic, A.

W. Guo, A. Allenic, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, Y. Che, Z. D. Hu, and B. Liu, “Microstructure and properties of epitaxial antimony-doped p-type ZnO films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 242108 (2007).
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Amano, H.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
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J. Ishihara, A. Nakamura, S. Shigemori, T. Aoki, and J. Temmyo, “Zn1−xCdxO systems with visible band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091914 (2006).
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Asokan, K.

V. Vaithinathan, B. T. Lee, C. W. Chang, K. Asokan, and S. S. Kim, “Characterization of As-doped, p-type ZnO by x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 112103 (2006).
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A. Y. Azarov, T. C. Zhang, B. G. Svensson, and A. Y. Kuznetsov, “Cd diffusion and thermal stability of CdZnO/ZnO heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 111903 (2011).
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J. C. Sun, J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. M. Bian, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, W. F. Liu, and G. T. Du, “Realization of ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO homojunction with n-ZnO/p-ZnO:As/GaAs structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121128 (2007).
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Blasing, J.

A. Krtschil, A. Dadgar, N. Oleynik, J. Blasing, A. Diez, and A. Krost, “Local p-type conductivity in zinc oxide dual-doped with nitrogen and arsenic,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 262105 (2005).
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Blumstengel, S.

S. Blumstengel, S. Sadofev, H. Kirmse, and F. Henneberger, “Extreme low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO-based quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031907 (2011).
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S. Sadofev, P. Schäfer, Y. H. Fan, S. Blumstengel, F. Henneberger, D. Schulz, and D. Klimm, “Radical-source molecular beam epitaxy of ZnMgO and ZnCdO alloys on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201923 (2007).
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S. Sadofev, S. Kalusniak, J. Puls, P. Schäfer, S. Blumstengel, and F. Henneberger, “Visible-wavelength laser action of ZnCdO/(Zn,Mg)O multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231103 (2007).
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S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Cui, J. Puls, S. Rogaschewski, P. Schäfer, and F. Henneberger, “Visible band-gap ZnCdO heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201907 (2006).
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Boutwell, C.

A. V. Thompson, C. Boutwell, J. W. Mares, W. V. Schoenfeld, A. Osinsky, B. Hertog, J. Q. Xie, S. J. Pearton, and D. P. Norton, “Thermal stability of CdZnO/ZnO multi-quantum-wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201921 (2007).
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Bowers, J. E.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burgener, R. H.

D. C. Look, G. M. Renlund, R. H. Burgener, and J. R. Sizelove, “As-doped p-type ZnO produced by an evaporation/sputtering process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5269–5271 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Buyanova, I. A.

W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, X. J. Wang, W. M. Chen, I. A. Buyanova, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, B. Hertog, A. V. Thompson, W. V. Schoenfeld, Y. L. Wang, and F. Ren, “Migration and luminescence enhancement effects of deuterium in ZnO/ZnCdO quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 032103 (2008).
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I. A. Buyanova, X. J. Wang, G. Pozina, W. M. Chen, W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, and B. Hertog, “Effects of hydrogen on the optical properties of ZnCdO/ZnO quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261912 (2008).
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X. J. Wang, I. A. Buyanova, W. M. Chen, M. Izadifard, S. Rawal, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, and A. Dabiran, “Band gap properties of Zn1−xCdxO alloys grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. W.

V. Vaithinathan, B. T. Lee, C. W. Chang, K. Asokan, and S. S. Kim, “Characterization of As-doped, p-type ZnO by x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 112103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. W.

H. S. Kang, B. D. Ahn, J. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, S. H. Lim, H. W. Chang, and S. Y. Lee, “Structural, electrical, and optical properties of p-type ZnO thin films with Ag dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 202108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kang, S. H. Lim, J. W. Kim, H. W. Chang, G. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, Y. Li, J. S. Lee, J. K. Lee, M. A. Nastasi, S. A. Crooker, and Q. X. Jia, “Exciton localization and Stokes’ shift in Zn1−xCdxO thin films depending on chemical composition,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 70–73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. M.

S. Y. Ting, H. S. Chen, W. M. Chang, J. J. Huang, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “MBE-grown CdZnO/ZnO multiple quantum-well light-emitting diode on MOCVD-grown p-type GaN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(11), 909–911 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Che, Y.

W. Guo, A. Allenic, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, Y. Che, Z. D. Hu, and B. Liu, “Microstructure and properties of epitaxial antimony-doped p-type ZnO films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 242108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Y.

S. Y. Ting, H. S. Chen, W. M. Chang, J. J. Huang, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “MBE-grown CdZnO/ZnO multiple quantum-well light-emitting diode on MOCVD-grown p-type GaN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(11), 909–911 (2012).
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C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
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Chen, G. D.

Y. Z. Zhu, G. D. Chen, H. Ye, A. Walsh, C. Y. Moon, and S. H. Wei, “Electronic structure and phase stability of MgO, ZnO, CdO, and related ternary alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77(24), 245209 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. S.

S. Y. Ting, H. S. Chen, W. M. Chang, J. J. Huang, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “MBE-grown CdZnO/ZnO multiple quantum-well light-emitting diode on MOCVD-grown p-type GaN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(11), 909–911 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

S. Y. Ting, H. S. Chen, W. M. Chang, J. J. Huang, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “MBE-grown CdZnO/ZnO multiple quantum-well light-emitting diode on MOCVD-grown p-type GaN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(11), 909–911 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. J.

J. J. Chen, S. Jang, F. Rena, S. Rawal, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, and A. Osinsky, “Thermal stability of Ti/Al/Pt/Au and Ti/Au Ohmic contacts on n-type ZnCdO,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(2), 746–752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Jang, J. J. Chen, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, J. Lopata, and W. S. Hobson, “Formation of p-n homojunctions in n-ZnO bulk single crystals by diffusion from a Zn3P2 source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 222113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. C.

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J. R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K.-J. Ma, S.-C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C.-C. Pan, and J.-I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

R. Zhang, P. Chen, Y. Zhang, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Effect of rapid thermal annealing on photoluminescence and crystal structures of CdZnO films,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(12-13), 1908–1911 (2010).
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Chen, R.

W. F. Yang, B. Liu, R. Chen, L. M. Wong, S. J. Wang, and H. D. Sun, “Pulsed laser deposition of high-quality ZnCdO epilayers and ZnCdO/ZnO single quantum well on sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061911 (2010).
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Chen, T. P.

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, S. P. Lau, K. Pita, H. Y. Yang, and T. P. Chen, “Room temperature deposition of p-type arsenic doped ZnO polycrystalline films by laser-assist filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 094905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. M.

W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, X. J. Wang, W. M. Chen, I. A. Buyanova, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, B. Hertog, A. V. Thompson, W. V. Schoenfeld, Y. L. Wang, and F. Ren, “Migration and luminescence enhancement effects of deuterium in ZnO/ZnCdO quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 032103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, X. J. Wang, G. Pozina, W. M. Chen, W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, and B. Hertog, “Effects of hydrogen on the optical properties of ZnCdO/ZnO quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261912 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Wang, I. A. Buyanova, W. M. Chen, M. Izadifard, S. Rawal, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, and A. Dabiran, “Band gap properties of Zn1−xCdxO alloys grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. B.

W. Guo, A. Allenic, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, Y. Che, Z. D. Hu, and B. Liu, “Microstructure and properties of epitaxial antimony-doped p-type ZnO films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 242108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. C.

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J. R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K.-J. Ma, S.-C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C.-C. Pan, and J.-I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chia, C. H.

T. Makino, C. H. Chia, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura, and H. Koinumac, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in lattice-matched (Cd,Zn)O/(Mg,Zn)O multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1632–1634 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chow, P. P.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chuo, C. C.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chyi, J. I.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chyi, J.-I.

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J. R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K.-J. Ma, S.-C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C.-C. Pan, and J.-I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Claflin, B.

Z. Q. Fang, B. Claflin, D. C. Look, L. L. Kerr, and X. Li, “Electron and hole traps in N-doped ZnO grown on p-type Si by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 023714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coutts, T. J.

X. Li, Y. Yan, T. A. Gessert, C. DeHart, C. L. Perkins, D. Young, and T. J. Coutts, “p-Type ZnO thin films formed by CVD reaction of diethylzinc and NO gas,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 6(4), C56–C58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Crooker, S. A.

H. S. Kang, S. H. Lim, J. W. Kim, H. W. Chang, G. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, Y. Li, J. S. Lee, J. K. Lee, M. A. Nastasi, S. A. Crooker, and Q. X. Jia, “Exciton localization and Stokes’ shift in Zn1−xCdxO thin films depending on chemical composition,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 70–73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cui, J.

S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Cui, J. Puls, S. Rogaschewski, P. Schäfer, and F. Henneberger, “Visible band-gap ZnCdO heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dabiran, A.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Wang, I. A. Buyanova, W. M. Chen, M. Izadifard, S. Rawal, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, and A. Dabiran, “Band gap properties of Zn1−xCdxO alloys grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dadgar, A.

A. Krtschil, A. Dadgar, N. Oleynik, J. Blasing, A. Diez, and A. Krost, “Local p-type conductivity in zinc oxide dual-doped with nitrogen and arsenic,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 262105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DeHart, C.

X. Li, Y. Yan, T. A. Gessert, C. DeHart, C. L. Perkins, D. Young, and T. J. Coutts, “p-Type ZnO thin films formed by CVD reaction of diethylzinc and NO gas,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 6(4), C56–C58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Diez, A.

A. Krtschil, A. Dadgar, N. Oleynik, J. Blasing, A. Diez, and A. Krost, “Local p-type conductivity in zinc oxide dual-doped with nitrogen and arsenic,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 262105 (2005).
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Dong, J. W.

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H. S. Kang, S. H. Lim, J. W. Kim, H. W. Chang, G. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, Y. Li, J. S. Lee, J. K. Lee, M. A. Nastasi, S. A. Crooker, and Q. X. Jia, “Exciton localization and Stokes’ shift in Zn1−xCdxO thin films depending on chemical composition,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 70–73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. Y.

H. S. Kang, S. H. Lim, J. W. Kim, H. W. Chang, G. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, Y. Li, J. S. Lee, J. K. Lee, M. A. Nastasi, S. A. Crooker, and Q. X. Jia, “Exciton localization and Stokes’ shift in Zn1−xCdxO thin films depending on chemical composition,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 70–73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kang, B. D. Ahn, J. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, S. H. Lim, H. W. Chang, and S. Y. Lee, “Structural, electrical, and optical properties of p-type ZnO thin films with Ag dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 202108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leong, E. S. P.

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, S. P. Lau, K. Pita, H. Y. Yang, and T. P. Chen, “Room temperature deposition of p-type arsenic doped ZnO polycrystalline films by laser-assist filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 094905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. L.

F. X. Xiu, L. J. Mandalapu, Z. Yang, J. L. Li, G. F. Liu, and J. A. Yarmoff, “Bi-induced acceptor states in ZnO by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 052103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

L. Li, Z. Yang, Z. Zuo, J. H. Lim, and J. L. Liu, “Thermal stability of CdZnO thin films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256(14), 4734–4737 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, Z. Yang, Z. Zuo, J. Y. Kong, and J. L. Liu, “Study of rapid thermal annealing effect on CdZnO thin films grown on Si substrate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(3), C3D13, D16 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, Z. Yang, J. Y. Kong, and J. L. Liu, “Blue electroluminescence from ZnO based heterojunction diodes with CdZnO active layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 232117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Z. Q. Fang, B. Claflin, D. C. Look, L. L. Kerr, and X. Li, “Electron and hole traps in N-doped ZnO grown on p-type Si by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 023714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, Y. Yan, T. A. Gessert, C. DeHart, C. L. Perkins, D. Young, and T. J. Coutts, “p-Type ZnO thin films formed by CVD reaction of diethylzinc and NO gas,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 6(4), C56–C58 (2003).
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Li, Y.

H. S. Kang, S. H. Lim, J. W. Kim, H. W. Chang, G. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, Y. Li, J. S. Lee, J. K. Lee, M. A. Nastasi, S. A. Crooker, and Q. X. Jia, “Exciton localization and Stokes’ shift in Zn1−xCdxO thin films depending on chemical composition,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 70–73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chen, S. Jang, F. Rena, S. Rawal, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, and A. Osinsky, “Thermal stability of Ti/Al/Pt/Au and Ti/Au Ohmic contacts on n-type ZnCdO,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(2), 746–752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H. W.

J. C. Sun, J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. M. Bian, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, W. F. Liu, and G. T. Du, “Realization of ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO homojunction with n-ZnO/p-ZnO:As/GaAs structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X. P.

J. C. Sun, J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. M. Bian, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, W. F. Liu, and G. T. Du, “Realization of ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO homojunction with n-ZnO/p-ZnO:As/GaAs structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121128 (2007).
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Liao, C. C.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
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Liao, C. H.

S. Y. Ting, H. S. Chen, W. M. Chang, J. J. Huang, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “MBE-grown CdZnO/ZnO multiple quantum-well light-emitting diode on MOCVD-grown p-type GaN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(11), 909–911 (2012).
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Lim, J. H.

L. Li, Z. Yang, Z. Zuo, J. H. Lim, and J. L. Liu, “Thermal stability of CdZnO thin films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256(14), 4734–4737 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. H.

H. S. Kang, B. D. Ahn, J. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, S. H. Lim, H. W. Chang, and S. Y. Lee, “Structural, electrical, and optical properties of p-type ZnO thin films with Ag dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 202108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kang, S. H. Lim, J. W. Kim, H. W. Chang, G. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, Y. Li, J. S. Lee, J. K. Lee, M. A. Nastasi, S. A. Crooker, and Q. X. Jia, “Exciton localization and Stokes’ shift in Zn1−xCdxO thin films depending on chemical composition,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 70–73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lim, W.

W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, X. J. Wang, W. M. Chen, I. A. Buyanova, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, B. Hertog, A. V. Thompson, W. V. Schoenfeld, Y. L. Wang, and F. Ren, “Migration and luminescence enhancement effects of deuterium in ZnO/ZnCdO quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 032103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, X. J. Wang, G. Pozina, W. M. Chen, W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, and B. Hertog, “Effects of hydrogen on the optical properties of ZnCdO/ZnO quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261912 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, E. C.

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J. R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K.-J. Ma, S.-C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C.-C. Pan, and J.-I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. S.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

W. F. Yang, B. Liu, R. Chen, L. M. Wong, S. J. Wang, and H. D. Sun, “Pulsed laser deposition of high-quality ZnCdO epilayers and ZnCdO/ZnO single quantum well on sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061911 (2010).
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W. Guo, A. Allenic, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, Y. Che, Z. D. Hu, and B. Liu, “Microstructure and properties of epitaxial antimony-doped p-type ZnO films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 242108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. F.

F. X. Xiu, L. J. Mandalapu, Z. Yang, J. L. Li, G. F. Liu, and J. A. Yarmoff, “Bi-induced acceptor states in ZnO by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 052103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. L.

L. Li, Z. Yang, Z. Zuo, J. H. Lim, and J. L. Liu, “Thermal stability of CdZnO thin films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256(14), 4734–4737 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, Z. Yang, Z. Zuo, J. Y. Kong, and J. L. Liu, “Study of rapid thermal annealing effect on CdZnO thin films grown on Si substrate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(3), C3D13, D16 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, Z. Yang, J. Y. Kong, and J. L. Liu, “Blue electroluminescence from ZnO based heterojunction diodes with CdZnO active layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 232117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Mandalapu, Z. Yang, F. X. Xiu, D. T. Zhao, and J. L. Liu, “Homojunction photodiodes based on Sb-doped p-type ZnO for ultraviolet detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. F.

J. C. Sun, J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. M. Bian, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, W. F. Liu, and G. T. Du, “Realization of ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO homojunction with n-ZnO/p-ZnO:As/GaAs structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Look, D. C.

Z. Q. Fang, B. Claflin, D. C. Look, L. L. Kerr, and X. Li, “Electron and hole traps in N-doped ZnO grown on p-type Si by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 023714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Look, G. M. Renlund, R. H. Burgener, and J. R. Sizelove, “As-doped p-type ZnO produced by an evaporation/sputtering process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5269–5271 (2004).
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Y. R. Ryu, S. Zhu, D. C. Look, J. M. Wrobel, H. M. Jeong, and H. W. White, “Synthesis of p-type ZnO films,” J. Cryst. Growth 216(1-4), 330–334 (2000).
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Lopata, J.

S. Jang, J. J. Chen, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, J. Lopata, and W. S. Hobson, “Formation of p-n homojunctions in n-ZnO bulk single crystals by diffusion from a Zn3P2 source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 222113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. F.

C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Reduced injection current induced blueshift in an InGaN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diode of prestrained growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051121 (2007).
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Lu, J. G.

J. G. Lu, Z. Z. Ye, G. D. Yuan, Y. J. Zeng, F. Zhuge, L. P. Zhu, B. H. Zhao, and S. B. Zhang, “Electrical characterization of ZnO-based homojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 053501 (2006).
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J. G. Lu, Z. Z. Ye, F. Zhuge, Y. J. Zeng, B. H. Zhao, and L. P. Zhu, “p-type conduction in N–Al co-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(15), 3134–3135 (2004).
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Ma, K. J.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ma, K.-J.

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J. R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K.-J. Ma, S.-C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C.-C. Pan, and J.-I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.

R. Zhang, P. Chen, Y. Zhang, X. Ma, and D. Yang, “Effect of rapid thermal annealing on photoluminescence and crystal structures of CdZnO films,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(12-13), 1908–1911 (2010).
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Makino, T.

T. Makino, C. H. Chia, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura, and H. Koinumac, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in lattice-matched (Cd,Zn)O/(Mg,Zn)O multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1632–1634 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mandalapu, L. J.

F. X. Xiu, L. J. Mandalapu, Z. Yang, J. L. Li, G. F. Liu, and J. A. Yarmoff, “Bi-induced acceptor states in ZnO by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 052103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Mandalapu, Z. Yang, F. X. Xiu, D. T. Zhao, and J. L. Liu, “Homojunction photodiodes based on Sb-doped p-type ZnO for ultraviolet detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mares, J. W.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Thompson, C. Boutwell, J. W. Mares, W. V. Schoenfeld, A. Osinsky, B. Hertog, J. Q. Xie, S. J. Pearton, and D. P. Norton, “Thermal stability of CdZnO/ZnO multi-quantum-wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201921 (2007).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
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Moon, C. Y.

Y. Z. Zhu, G. D. Chen, H. Ye, A. Walsh, C. Y. Moon, and S. H. Wei, “Electronic structure and phase stability of MgO, ZnO, CdO, and related ternary alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77(24), 245209 (2008).
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Mukai, T.

A. Sasaki, S. Shibakawa, Y. Kawakami, K. Nishizuka, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Equation for internal quantum efficiency and its temperature dependence of luminescence, and application to InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8719–8723 (2006).
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Muñoz, E.

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakamura, J. Temmyo, E. Muñoz, and A. Hierro, “Green electroluminescence from ZnCdO multiple quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by remote-plasma-enhanced metal–organic chemical vapor deposition,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 23(15), 1052–1054 (2011).
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Nagashima, M.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, S.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
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Nakamura, A.

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakamura, J. Temmyo, E. Muñoz, and A. Hierro, “Green electroluminescence from ZnCdO multiple quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by remote-plasma-enhanced metal–organic chemical vapor deposition,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 23(15), 1052–1054 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamoto, M. Adachi, T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, A. Nakamura, and J. Temmyo, “Synthesis and characterization of ZnCdO/ZnO multiple quantum wells by remote-plasma-enhanced MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(9), 1496–1499 (2010).
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J. Ishihara, A. Nakamura, S. Shigemori, T. Aoki, and J. Temmyo, “Zn1−xCdxO systems with visible band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091914 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

A. Sasaki, S. Shibakawa, Y. Kawakami, K. Nishizuka, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Equation for internal quantum efficiency and its temperature dependence of luminescence, and application to InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8719–8723 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nastasi, M. A.

H. S. Kang, S. H. Lim, J. W. Kim, H. W. Chang, G. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, Y. Li, J. S. Lee, J. K. Lee, M. A. Nastasi, S. A. Crooker, and Q. X. Jia, “Exciton localization and Stokes’ shift in Zn1−xCdxO thin films depending on chemical composition,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 70–73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishizuka, K.

A. Sasaki, S. Shibakawa, Y. Kawakami, K. Nishizuka, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Equation for internal quantum efficiency and its temperature dependence of luminescence, and application to InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8719–8723 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Norton, D. P.

I. A. Buyanova, X. J. Wang, G. Pozina, W. M. Chen, W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, and B. Hertog, “Effects of hydrogen on the optical properties of ZnCdO/ZnO quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261912 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, X. J. Wang, W. M. Chen, I. A. Buyanova, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, B. Hertog, A. V. Thompson, W. V. Schoenfeld, Y. L. Wang, and F. Ren, “Migration and luminescence enhancement effects of deuterium in ZnO/ZnCdO quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 032103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Thompson, C. Boutwell, J. W. Mares, W. V. Schoenfeld, A. Osinsky, B. Hertog, J. Q. Xie, S. J. Pearton, and D. P. Norton, “Thermal stability of CdZnO/ZnO multi-quantum-wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Wang, I. A. Buyanova, W. M. Chen, M. Izadifard, S. Rawal, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, and A. Dabiran, “Band gap properties of Zn1−xCdxO alloys grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chen, S. Jang, F. Rena, S. Rawal, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, and A. Osinsky, “Thermal stability of Ti/Al/Pt/Au and Ti/Au Ohmic contacts on n-type ZnCdO,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(2), 746–752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Jang, J. J. Chen, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, J. Lopata, and W. S. Hobson, “Formation of p-n homojunctions in n-ZnO bulk single crystals by diffusion from a Zn3P2 source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 222113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohtomo, A.

T. Makino, C. H. Chia, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura, and H. Koinumac, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in lattice-matched (Cd,Zn)O/(Mg,Zn)O multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1632–1634 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Okagawa, H.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oleynik, N.

A. Krtschil, A. Dadgar, N. Oleynik, J. Blasing, A. Diez, and A. Krost, “Local p-type conductivity in zinc oxide dual-doped with nitrogen and arsenic,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 262105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Osinsky, A.

I. A. Buyanova, X. J. Wang, G. Pozina, W. M. Chen, W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, and B. Hertog, “Effects of hydrogen on the optical properties of ZnCdO/ZnO quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261912 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, X. J. Wang, W. M. Chen, I. A. Buyanova, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, B. Hertog, A. V. Thompson, W. V. Schoenfeld, Y. L. Wang, and F. Ren, “Migration and luminescence enhancement effects of deuterium in ZnO/ZnCdO quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 032103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Thompson, C. Boutwell, J. W. Mares, W. V. Schoenfeld, A. Osinsky, B. Hertog, J. Q. Xie, S. J. Pearton, and D. P. Norton, “Thermal stability of CdZnO/ZnO multi-quantum-wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chen, S. Jang, F. Rena, S. Rawal, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, and A. Osinsky, “Thermal stability of Ti/Al/Pt/Au and Ti/Au Ohmic contacts on n-type ZnCdO,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(2), 746–752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Wang, I. A. Buyanova, W. M. Chen, M. Izadifard, S. Rawal, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, and A. Dabiran, “Band gap properties of Zn1−xCdxO alloys grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C.-C.

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J. R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K.-J. Ma, S.-C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C.-C. Pan, and J.-I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pan, X. Q.

W. Guo, A. Allenic, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, Y. Che, Z. D. Hu, and B. Liu, “Microstructure and properties of epitaxial antimony-doped p-type ZnO films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 242108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

I. A. Buyanova, X. J. Wang, G. Pozina, W. M. Chen, W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, and B. Hertog, “Effects of hydrogen on the optical properties of ZnCdO/ZnO quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261912 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, X. J. Wang, W. M. Chen, I. A. Buyanova, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, B. Hertog, A. V. Thompson, W. V. Schoenfeld, Y. L. Wang, and F. Ren, “Migration and luminescence enhancement effects of deuterium in ZnO/ZnCdO quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 032103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Thompson, C. Boutwell, J. W. Mares, W. V. Schoenfeld, A. Osinsky, B. Hertog, J. Q. Xie, S. J. Pearton, and D. P. Norton, “Thermal stability of CdZnO/ZnO multi-quantum-wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Wang, I. A. Buyanova, W. M. Chen, M. Izadifard, S. Rawal, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, and A. Dabiran, “Band gap properties of Zn1−xCdxO alloys grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chen, S. Jang, F. Rena, S. Rawal, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, and A. Osinsky, “Thermal stability of Ti/Al/Pt/Au and Ti/Au Ohmic contacts on n-type ZnCdO,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(2), 746–752 (2006).
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S. Jang, J. J. Chen, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, J. Lopata, and W. S. Hobson, “Formation of p-n homojunctions in n-ZnO bulk single crystals by diffusion from a Zn3P2 source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 222113 (2005).
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X. Li, Y. Yan, T. A. Gessert, C. DeHart, C. L. Perkins, D. Young, and T. J. Coutts, “p-Type ZnO thin films formed by CVD reaction of diethylzinc and NO gas,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 6(4), C56–C58 (2003).
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C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, S. P. Lau, K. Pita, H. Y. Yang, and T. P. Chen, “Room temperature deposition of p-type arsenic doped ZnO polycrystalline films by laser-assist filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 094905 (2007).
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I. A. Buyanova, X. J. Wang, G. Pozina, W. M. Chen, W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, and B. Hertog, “Effects of hydrogen on the optical properties of ZnCdO/ZnO quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261912 (2008).
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S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “ZnCdO/ZnO – a new heterosystem for green-wavelength semiconductor lasing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 233–242 (2009).
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S. Sadofev, S. Kalusniak, J. Puls, P. Schäfer, S. Blumstengel, and F. Henneberger, “Visible-wavelength laser action of ZnCdO/(Zn,Mg)O multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231103 (2007).
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S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Cui, J. Puls, S. Rogaschewski, P. Schäfer, and F. Henneberger, “Visible band-gap ZnCdO heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201907 (2006).
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Rawal, S.

X. J. Wang, I. A. Buyanova, W. M. Chen, M. Izadifard, S. Rawal, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, and A. Dabiran, “Band gap properties of Zn1−xCdxO alloys grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chen, S. Jang, F. Rena, S. Rawal, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, and A. Osinsky, “Thermal stability of Ti/Al/Pt/Au and Ti/Au Ohmic contacts on n-type ZnCdO,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(2), 746–752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, X. J. Wang, W. M. Chen, I. A. Buyanova, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, B. Hertog, A. V. Thompson, W. V. Schoenfeld, Y. L. Wang, and F. Ren, “Migration and luminescence enhancement effects of deuterium in ZnO/ZnCdO quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 032103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Jang, J. J. Chen, B. S. Kang, F. Ren, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, J. Lopata, and W. S. Hobson, “Formation of p-n homojunctions in n-ZnO bulk single crystals by diffusion from a Zn3P2 source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 222113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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J. J. Chen, S. Jang, F. Rena, S. Rawal, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, and A. Osinsky, “Thermal stability of Ti/Al/Pt/Au and Ti/Au Ohmic contacts on n-type ZnCdO,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(2), 746–752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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D. C. Look, G. M. Renlund, R. H. Burgener, and J. R. Sizelove, “As-doped p-type ZnO produced by an evaporation/sputtering process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5269–5271 (2004).
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S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Cui, J. Puls, S. Rogaschewski, P. Schäfer, and F. Henneberger, “Visible band-gap ZnCdO heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201907 (2006).
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Rosenauer, A.

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J. R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K.-J. Ma, S.-C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C.-C. Pan, and J.-I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, Y. R.

Y. R. Ryu, S. Zhu, D. C. Look, J. M. Wrobel, H. M. Jeong, and H. W. White, “Synthesis of p-type ZnO films,” J. Cryst. Growth 216(1-4), 330–334 (2000).
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S. Blumstengel, S. Sadofev, H. Kirmse, and F. Henneberger, “Extreme low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO-based quantum structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(3), 031907 (2011).
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S. Kalusniak, S. Sadofev, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “ZnCdO/ZnO – a new heterosystem for green-wavelength semiconductor lasing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 233–242 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Sadofev, S. Kalusniak, J. Puls, P. Schäfer, S. Blumstengel, and F. Henneberger, “Visible-wavelength laser action of ZnCdO/(Zn,Mg)O multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Sadofev, P. Schäfer, Y. H. Fan, S. Blumstengel, F. Henneberger, D. Schulz, and D. Klimm, “Radical-source molecular beam epitaxy of ZnMgO and ZnCdO alloys on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201923 (2007).
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S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Cui, J. Puls, S. Rogaschewski, P. Schäfer, and F. Henneberger, “Visible band-gap ZnCdO heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201907 (2006).
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Sakai, H.

T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
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Sakurai, K.

K. Sakurai, T. Takagi, T. Kubo, D. Kajita, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, S. Fujita, and S. Fujita, “Spatial composition fluctuations in blue-luminescent ZnCdO semiconductor films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 237-239, 514–517 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, A.

A. Sasaki, S. Shibakawa, Y. Kawakami, K. Nishizuka, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Equation for internal quantum efficiency and its temperature dependence of luminescence, and application to InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8719–8723 (2006).
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Sasaki, C.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, P.

S. Sadofev, P. Schäfer, Y. H. Fan, S. Blumstengel, F. Henneberger, D. Schulz, and D. Klimm, “Radical-source molecular beam epitaxy of ZnMgO and ZnCdO alloys on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201923 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Sadofev, S. Kalusniak, J. Puls, P. Schäfer, S. Blumstengel, and F. Henneberger, “Visible-wavelength laser action of ZnCdO/(Zn,Mg)O multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Sadofev, S. Blumstengel, J. Cui, J. Puls, S. Rogaschewski, P. Schäfer, and F. Henneberger, “Visible band-gap ZnCdO heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schoenfeld, W. V.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, X. J. Wang, W. M. Chen, I. A. Buyanova, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, B. Hertog, A. V. Thompson, W. V. Schoenfeld, Y. L. Wang, and F. Ren, “Migration and luminescence enhancement effects of deuterium in ZnO/ZnCdO quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 032103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Thompson, C. Boutwell, J. W. Mares, W. V. Schoenfeld, A. Osinsky, B. Hertog, J. Q. Xie, S. J. Pearton, and D. P. Norton, “Thermal stability of CdZnO/ZnO multi-quantum-wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, D.

S. Sadofev, P. Schäfer, Y. H. Fan, S. Blumstengel, F. Henneberger, D. Schulz, and D. Klimm, “Radical-source molecular beam epitaxy of ZnMgO and ZnCdO alloys on ZnO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201923 (2007).
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T. Makino, C. H. Chia, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura, and H. Koinumac, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in lattice-matched (Cd,Zn)O/(Mg,Zn)O multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1632–1634 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.-C.

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J. R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K.-J. Ma, S.-C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C.-C. Pan, and J.-I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shibakawa, S.

A. Sasaki, S. Shibakawa, Y. Kawakami, K. Nishizuka, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Equation for internal quantum efficiency and its temperature dependence of luminescence, and application to InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8719–8723 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shigemori, S.

J. Ishihara, A. Nakamura, S. Shigemori, T. Aoki, and J. Temmyo, “Zn1−xCdxO systems with visible band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091914 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sizelove, J. R.

D. C. Look, G. M. Renlund, R. H. Burgener, and J. R. Sizelove, “As-doped p-type ZnO produced by an evaporation/sputtering process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5269–5271 (2004).
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S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
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W. F. Yang, L. M. Wong, S. J. Wang, H. D. Sun, C. H. Ge, A. Y. S. Lee, and H. Gong, “Photoluminescence characteristics of ZnCdO/ZnO single quantum well grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Yang, B. Liu, R. Chen, L. M. Wong, S. J. Wang, and H. D. Sun, “Pulsed laser deposition of high-quality ZnCdO epilayers and ZnCdO/ZnO single quantum well on sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061911 (2010).
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Sun, J. C.

J. C. Sun, J. Z. Zhao, H. W. Liang, J. M. Bian, L. Z. Hu, H. Q. Zhang, X. P. Liang, W. F. Liu, and G. T. Du, “Realization of ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO homojunction with n-ZnO/p-ZnO:As/GaAs structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121128 (2007).
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S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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K. Sakurai, T. Takagi, T. Kubo, D. Kajita, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, S. Fujita, and S. Fujita, “Spatial composition fluctuations in blue-luminescent ZnCdO semiconductor films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 237-239, 514–517 (2002).
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Takasu, H.

K. Sakurai, T. Takagi, T. Kubo, D. Kajita, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, S. Fujita, and S. Fujita, “Spatial composition fluctuations in blue-luminescent ZnCdO semiconductor films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 237-239, 514–517 (2002).
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T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
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Tamura, K.

T. Makino, C. H. Chia, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura, and H. Koinumac, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in lattice-matched (Cd,Zn)O/(Mg,Zn)O multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1632–1634 (2000).
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Tanabe, T.

K. Sakurai, T. Takagi, T. Kubo, D. Kajita, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, S. Fujita, and S. Fujita, “Spatial composition fluctuations in blue-luminescent ZnCdO semiconductor films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 237-239, 514–517 (2002).
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Tawara, T.

K. Yamamoto, M. Adachi, T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, A. Nakamura, and J. Temmyo, “Synthesis and characterization of ZnCdO/ZnO multiple quantum wells by remote-plasma-enhanced MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(9), 1496–1499 (2010).
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K. Yamamoto, A. Nakamura, J. Temmyo, E. Muñoz, and A. Hierro, “Green electroluminescence from ZnCdO multiple quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by remote-plasma-enhanced metal–organic chemical vapor deposition,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 23(15), 1052–1054 (2011).
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K. Yamamoto, M. Adachi, T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, A. Nakamura, and J. Temmyo, “Synthesis and characterization of ZnCdO/ZnO multiple quantum wells by remote-plasma-enhanced MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(9), 1496–1499 (2010).
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J. Ishihara, A. Nakamura, S. Shigemori, T. Aoki, and J. Temmyo, “Zn1−xCdxO systems with visible band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091914 (2006).
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Thompson, A. V.

W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, X. J. Wang, W. M. Chen, I. A. Buyanova, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, B. Hertog, A. V. Thompson, W. V. Schoenfeld, Y. L. Wang, and F. Ren, “Migration and luminescence enhancement effects of deuterium in ZnO/ZnCdO quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 032103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Thompson, C. Boutwell, J. W. Mares, W. V. Schoenfeld, A. Osinsky, B. Hertog, J. Q. Xie, S. J. Pearton, and D. P. Norton, “Thermal stability of CdZnO/ZnO multi-quantum-wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201921 (2007).
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S. Y. Ting, H. S. Chen, W. M. Chang, J. J. Huang, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “MBE-grown CdZnO/ZnO multiple quantum-well light-emitting diode on MOCVD-grown p-type GaN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(11), 909–911 (2012).
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T. Makino, C. H. Chia, N. T. Tuan, Y. Segawa, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, K. Tamura, and H. Koinumac, “Radiative and nonradiative recombination processes in lattice-matched (Cd,Zn)O/(Mg,Zn)O multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1632–1634 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ueki, Y.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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V. Vaithinathan, B. T. Lee, C. W. Chang, K. Asokan, and S. S. Kim, “Characterization of As-doped, p-type ZnO by x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 112103 (2006).
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Y. Z. Zhu, G. D. Chen, H. Ye, A. Walsh, C. Y. Moon, and S. H. Wei, “Electronic structure and phase stability of MgO, ZnO, CdO, and related ternary alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77(24), 245209 (2008).
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Wang, S. J.

W. F. Yang, L. M. Wong, S. J. Wang, H. D. Sun, C. H. Ge, A. Y. S. Lee, and H. Gong, “Photoluminescence characteristics of ZnCdO/ZnO single quantum well grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Yang, B. Liu, R. Chen, L. M. Wong, S. J. Wang, and H. D. Sun, “Pulsed laser deposition of high-quality ZnCdO epilayers and ZnCdO/ZnO single quantum well on sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061911 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. J.

W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, X. J. Wang, W. M. Chen, I. A. Buyanova, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, B. Hertog, A. V. Thompson, W. V. Schoenfeld, Y. L. Wang, and F. Ren, “Migration and luminescence enhancement effects of deuterium in ZnO/ZnCdO quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 032103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Buyanova, X. J. Wang, G. Pozina, W. M. Chen, W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, and B. Hertog, “Effects of hydrogen on the optical properties of ZnCdO/ZnO quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 261912 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Wang, I. A. Buyanova, W. M. Chen, M. Izadifard, S. Rawal, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, and A. Dabiran, “Band gap properties of Zn1−xCdxO alloys grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. L.

W. Lim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, X. J. Wang, W. M. Chen, I. A. Buyanova, A. Osinsky, J. W. Dong, B. Hertog, A. V. Thompson, W. V. Schoenfeld, Y. L. Wang, and F. Ren, “Migration and luminescence enhancement effects of deuterium in ZnO/ZnCdO quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 032103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1−xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wei, S. H.

Y. Z. Zhu, G. D. Chen, H. Ye, A. Walsh, C. Y. Moon, and S. H. Wei, “Electronic structure and phase stability of MgO, ZnO, CdO, and related ternary alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 77(24), 245209 (2008).
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T. Takeuchi, C. Wetzel, S. Yamaguchi, H. Sakai, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, Y. Yamaoka, and N. Yamada, “Determination of piezoelectric fields in strained GaInN quantum wells using the quantum-confined Stark effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(12), 1691–1693 (1998).
[CrossRef]

White, H. W.

Y. R. Ryu, S. Zhu, D. C. Look, J. M. Wrobel, H. M. Jeong, and H. W. White, “Synthesis of p-type ZnO films,” J. Cryst. Growth 216(1-4), 330–334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wong, L. M.

W. F. Yang, L. M. Wong, S. J. Wang, H. D. Sun, C. H. Ge, A. Y. S. Lee, and H. Gong, “Photoluminescence characteristics of ZnCdO/ZnO single quantum well grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Yang, B. Liu, R. Chen, L. M. Wong, S. J. Wang, and H. D. Sun, “Pulsed laser deposition of high-quality ZnCdO epilayers and ZnCdO/ZnO single quantum well on sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 061911 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wrobel, J. M.

Y. R. Ryu, S. Zhu, D. C. Look, J. M. Wrobel, H. M. Jeong, and H. W. White, “Synthesis of p-type ZnO films,” J. Cryst. Growth 216(1-4), 330–334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. M.

Y. C. Cheng, E. C. Lin, C. M. Wu, C. C. Yang, J. R. Yang, A. Rosenauer, K.-J. Ma, S.-C. Shi, L. C. Chen, C.-C. Pan, and J.-I. Chyi, “Nanostructures and carrier localization behaviors of green-luminescence InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures of various silicon-doping conditions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2506–2508 (2004).
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Z. G. Yu, P. Wu, and H. Gong, “Control of p- and n-type conductivities in P doped ZnO thin films by using radio-frequency sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 132114 (2006).
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Appl. Surf. Sci.

L. Li, Z. Yang, Z. Zuo, J. H. Lim, and J. L. Liu, “Thermal stability of CdZnO thin films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 256(14), 4734–4737 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chen, S. Jang, F. Rena, S. Rawal, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, D. P. Norton, S. J. Pearton, and A. Osinsky, “Thermal stability of Ti/Al/Pt/Au and Ti/Au Ohmic contacts on n-type ZnCdO,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(2), 746–752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.

X. Li, Y. Yan, T. A. Gessert, C. DeHart, C. L. Perkins, D. Young, and T. J. Coutts, “p-Type ZnO thin films formed by CVD reaction of diethylzinc and NO gas,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 6(4), C56–C58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon Technol. Lett.

K. Yamamoto, A. Nakamura, J. Temmyo, E. Muñoz, and A. Hierro, “Green electroluminescence from ZnCdO multiple quantum-well light-emitting diodes grown by remote-plasma-enhanced metal–organic chemical vapor deposition,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 23(15), 1052–1054 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Y. Ting, H. S. Chen, W. M. Chang, J. J. Huang, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “MBE-grown CdZnO/ZnO multiple quantum-well light-emitting diode on MOCVD-grown p-type GaN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(11), 909–911 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. W. Mares, M. Falanga, A. V. Thompson, A. Osinsky, J. Q. Xie, B. Hertog, A. Dabiran, P. P. Chow, S. Karpov, and W. V. Schoenfeld, “Hybrid CdZnO/GaN quantum-well light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Fang, B. Claflin, D. C. Look, L. L. Kerr, and X. Li, “Electron and hole traps in N-doped ZnO grown on p-type Si by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 023714 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, S. P. Lau, K. Pita, H. Y. Yang, and T. P. Chen, “Room temperature deposition of p-type arsenic doped ZnO polycrystalline films by laser-assist filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 094905 (2007).
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J. Cryst. Growth

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H. S. Kang, S. H. Lim, J. W. Kim, H. W. Chang, G. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. Y. Lee, Y. Li, J. S. Lee, J. K. Lee, M. A. Nastasi, S. A. Crooker, and Q. X. Jia, “Exciton localization and Stokes’ shift in Zn1−xCdxO thin films depending on chemical composition,” J. Cryst. Growth 287(1), 70–73 (2006).
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K. Sakurai, T. Takagi, T. Kubo, D. Kajita, T. Tanabe, H. Takasu, S. Fujita, and S. Fujita, “Spatial composition fluctuations in blue-luminescent ZnCdO semiconductor films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth 237-239, 514–517 (2002).
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K. Yamamoto, M. Adachi, T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, A. Nakamura, and J. Temmyo, “Synthesis and characterization of ZnCdO/ZnO multiple quantum wells by remote-plasma-enhanced MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(9), 1496–1499 (2010).
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J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

L. Li, Z. Yang, Z. Zuo, J. Y. Kong, and J. L. Liu, “Study of rapid thermal annealing effect on CdZnO thin films grown on Si substrate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(3), C3D13, D16 (2010).
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A. Sasaki, S. Shibakawa, Y. Kawakami, K. Nishizuka, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Equation for internal quantum efficiency and its temperature dependence of luminescence, and application to InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(11), 8719–8723 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TEM HAADF images of samples B (a), F (b), and H (c). The QWs are indicated by the horizontal arrows.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

XRD patterns in the (0002) plane of samples A-E. For comparison, the XRD result of the GaN template is also shown. The major peaks correspond to the GaN signals. The ZnO features are indicated by the vertical short-dashed line. The wt-CdZnO features are indicated by the vertical dotted line. The unknown feature from the GaN template is indicated by the vertical long-dashed line. The rs-CdZnO features are indicated by the thick arrows.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

XRD patterns in the (0002) plane of samples F-K. For comparison, the XRD result of the ZnO template is also shown. The major peaks correspond to the ZnO signals. The wt-CdZnO features are indicated by the vertical dotted line. The rs-CdZnO features are indicated by the thick arrows.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized PL spectra at LT (a) and RT (b) of samples A-E and L.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized PL spectra at LT (a) and RT (b) of samples G-K and L.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized PL spectra at LT and their two-component fitting curves for samples C (a), D (b), and E (c). The assignments of those fitting components to either wt or rs structures are labeled.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized PL spectra at LT and their two-component fitting curves for samples J (a) and K (b). The assignments of those fitting components to either wt or rs structures are labeled.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) and (b): PL spectral peak energies as functions of temperature of the wt (a) and rs (b) components in samples C-E. For comparison, the corresponding data of samples A and B with the whole spectra are also plotted. (c): Similar results for samples G-I and the wt and rs components of samples J and K. The result of sample L is also shown in parts (a)-(c) for comparison.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Normalized integrated PL intensities as functions of temperature for the whole spectra of samples A-E (a), the wt components of samples C-E (b), and the rs components of samples C-E (c). For comparison, the curves for the whole spectra of samples A and B are also plotted in parts (b) and (c).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a): Normalized integrated PL intensities as functions of temperature for the whole spectra of samples G-K. (b): Similar results for the whole spectra, the wt and rs components of samples J and K.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Variations of PL spectral peak energy with excitation power at RT for samples A-E (a) and G-K (b). For comparison, the result of sample L is also plotted in both parts (a) and (b).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Growth conditions and characterization results of various samples. Here, ws represents the whole spectrum.

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