Abstract

Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime microscopy is achieved by combining wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with a remote optical refocusing method. As required for some applications in dynamic research for physics, chemistry, or biology, it is thereby not necessary to move the sample, i.e., the specimen is not disturbed during measurement. Using a fluorescent microsphere the performance of the system has been tested successfully with respect to three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime microscopy as well as time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. E. B. van Munster and T. W. J. Gadella, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM),” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 95, 143–175 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  2. K. Suhling, P. M. W. French, and D. Phillips, “Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4(1), 13–22 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. Y. Soloviev, J. McGinty, K. B. Tahir, M. A. A. Neil, A. Sardini, J. V. Hajnal, S. R. Arridge, and P. M. W. French, “Fluorescence lifetime tomography of live cells expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein embedded in a scattering medium exhibiting background autofluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2034–2036 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Y. Berezin and S. Achilefu, “Fluorescence lifetime measurements and biological imaging,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2641–2684 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Carlsson and A. Liljeborg, “Simultaneous confocal lifetime imaging of multiple fluorophores using the intensity-modulated multiple-wavelength scanning (IMS) technique,” J. Microsc. 191(2), 119–127 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Systma, J. M. Vroom, C. J. de Grauw, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging and microvolume spectroscopy using two-photon excitation,” J. Microsc. 191, 39–51 (1998).
  7. M. Straub and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence lifetime three-dimensional microscopy with picosecond precision using a multifocal multiphoton microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1769–1771 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1898–1907 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203(3), 246–257 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Siegel, K. Suhling, S. Lévêque-Fort, S. E. D. Webb, D. M. Davis, D. Phillips, Y. Sabharwal, and P. M. W. French, “Wide-field time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging (TR-FAIM): Imaging the rotational mobility of a fluorophore,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 182–192 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Suhling, J. Siegel, P. M. P. Lanigan, S. Lévêque-Fort, S. E. D. Webb, D. Phillips, D. M. Davis, and P. M. W. French, “Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging applied to live cells,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 584–586 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. A. Levitt, D. R. Matthews, S. M. Ameer-Beg, and K. Suhling, “Fluorescence lifetime and polarization-resolved imaging in cell biology,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 28–36 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Siegel, D. S. Elson, S. E. D. Webb, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, S. Lévêque-Fort, M. J. Cole, M. J. Lever, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field five-dimensional fluorescence microscopy combining lifetime and spectral resolution with optical sectioning,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1338–1340 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Aberration-free optical refocusing in high numerical aperture microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2007–2009 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “An optical technique for remote focusing in microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 880–887 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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2010 (1)

M. Y. Berezin and S. Achilefu, “Fluorescence lifetime measurements and biological imaging,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2641–2684 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. A. Levitt, D. R. Matthews, S. M. Ameer-Beg, and K. Suhling, “Fluorescence lifetime and polarization-resolved imaging in cell biology,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 28–36 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “An optical technique for remote focusing in microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 880–887 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2005 (2)

E. B. van Munster and T. W. J. Gadella, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM),” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 95, 143–175 (2005).
[PubMed]

K. Suhling, P. M. W. French, and D. Phillips, “Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4(1), 13–22 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suhling, J. Siegel, P. M. P. Lanigan, S. Lévêque-Fort, S. E. D. Webb, D. Phillips, D. M. Davis, and P. M. W. French, “Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging applied to live cells,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 584–586 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. Siegel, K. Suhling, S. Lévêque-Fort, S. E. D. Webb, D. M. Davis, D. Phillips, Y. Sabharwal, and P. M. W. French, “Wide-field time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging (TR-FAIM): Imaging the rotational mobility of a fluorophore,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 182–192 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning and spectral resolution applied to biological samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 49(5-6), 985–995 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1898–1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203(3), 246–257 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siegel, D. S. Elson, S. E. D. Webb, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, S. Lévêque-Fort, M. J. Cole, M. J. Lever, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field five-dimensional fluorescence microscopy combining lifetime and spectral resolution with optical sectioning,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1338–1340 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1998 (3)

K. Carlsson and A. Liljeborg, “Simultaneous confocal lifetime imaging of multiple fluorophores using the intensity-modulated multiple-wavelength scanning (IMS) technique,” J. Microsc. 191(2), 119–127 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Systma, J. M. Vroom, C. J. de Grauw, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging and microvolume spectroscopy using two-photon excitation,” J. Microsc. 191, 39–51 (1998).

M. Straub and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence lifetime three-dimensional microscopy with picosecond precision using a multifocal multiphoton microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1769–1771 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Achilefu, S.

M. Y. Berezin and S. Achilefu, “Fluorescence lifetime measurements and biological imaging,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2641–2684 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ameer-Beg, S. M.

J. A. Levitt, D. R. Matthews, S. M. Ameer-Beg, and K. Suhling, “Fluorescence lifetime and polarization-resolved imaging in cell biology,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 28–36 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

Benninger, R.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berezin, M. Y.

M. Y. Berezin and S. Achilefu, “Fluorescence lifetime measurements and biological imaging,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2641–2684 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Booth, M. J.

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “An optical technique for remote focusing in microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 880–887 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Aberration-free optical refocusing in high numerical aperture microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2007–2009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Botcherby, E. J.

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “An optical technique for remote focusing in microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 880–887 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Aberration-free optical refocusing in high numerical aperture microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2007–2009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlsson, K.

K. Carlsson and A. Liljeborg, “Simultaneous confocal lifetime imaging of multiple fluorophores using the intensity-modulated multiple-wavelength scanning (IMS) technique,” J. Microsc. 191(2), 119–127 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, M. J.

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1898–1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning and spectral resolution applied to biological samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 49(5-6), 985–995 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203(3), 246–257 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siegel, D. S. Elson, S. E. D. Webb, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, S. Lévêque-Fort, M. J. Cole, M. J. Lever, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field five-dimensional fluorescence microscopy combining lifetime and spectral resolution with optical sectioning,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1338–1340 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field optically sectioned fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1361–1363 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, D.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, D. M.

K. Suhling, J. Siegel, P. M. P. Lanigan, S. Lévêque-Fort, S. E. D. Webb, D. Phillips, D. M. Davis, and P. M. W. French, “Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging applied to live cells,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 584–586 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siegel, K. Suhling, S. Lévêque-Fort, S. E. D. Webb, D. M. Davis, D. Phillips, Y. Sabharwal, and P. M. W. French, “Wide-field time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging (TR-FAIM): Imaging the rotational mobility of a fluorophore,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 182–192 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning and spectral resolution applied to biological samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 49(5-6), 985–995 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dayel, M. J.

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203(3), 246–257 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Grauw, C. J.

J. Systma, J. M. Vroom, C. J. de Grauw, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging and microvolume spectroscopy using two-photon excitation,” J. Microsc. 191, 39–51 (1998).

Dowling, K.

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1898–1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203(3), 246–257 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field optically sectioned fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1361–1363 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elson, D.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elson, D. S.

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning and spectral resolution applied to biological samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 49(5-6), 985–995 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Siegel, D. S. Elson, S. E. D. Webb, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, S. Lévêque-Fort, M. J. Cole, M. J. Lever, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field five-dimensional fluorescence microscopy combining lifetime and spectral resolution with optical sectioning,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1338–1340 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

French, P.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

French, P. M. W.

V. Y. Soloviev, J. McGinty, K. B. Tahir, M. A. A. Neil, A. Sardini, J. V. Hajnal, S. R. Arridge, and P. M. W. French, “Fluorescence lifetime tomography of live cells expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein embedded in a scattering medium exhibiting background autofluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2034–2036 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suhling, P. M. W. French, and D. Phillips, “Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4(1), 13–22 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suhling, J. Siegel, P. M. P. Lanigan, S. Lévêque-Fort, S. E. D. Webb, D. Phillips, D. M. Davis, and P. M. W. French, “Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging applied to live cells,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 584–586 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siegel, K. Suhling, S. Lévêque-Fort, S. E. D. Webb, D. M. Davis, D. Phillips, Y. Sabharwal, and P. M. W. French, “Wide-field time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging (TR-FAIM): Imaging the rotational mobility of a fluorophore,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 182–192 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1898–1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning and spectral resolution applied to biological samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 49(5-6), 985–995 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203(3), 246–257 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siegel, D. S. Elson, S. E. D. Webb, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, S. Lévêque-Fort, M. J. Cole, M. J. Lever, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field five-dimensional fluorescence microscopy combining lifetime and spectral resolution with optical sectioning,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1338–1340 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field optically sectioned fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1361–1363 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gadella, T. W. J.

E. B. van Munster and T. W. J. Gadella, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM),” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 95, 143–175 (2005).
[PubMed]

Gerritsen, H. C.

J. Systma, J. M. Vroom, C. J. de Grauw, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging and microvolume spectroscopy using two-photon excitation,” J. Microsc. 191, 39–51 (1998).

Gu, Y.

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1898–1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hajnal, J. V.

Hell, S. W.

M. Straub and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence lifetime three-dimensional microscopy with picosecond precision using a multifocal multiphoton microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1769–1771 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1898–1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203(3), 246–257 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field optically sectioned fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1361–1363 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juskaitis, R.

Juškaitis, R.

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning and spectral resolution applied to biological samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 49(5-6), 985–995 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1898–1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203(3), 246–257 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field optically sectioned fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1361–1363 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanigan, P.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanigan, P. M. P.

Lévêque-Fort, S.

K. Suhling, J. Siegel, P. M. P. Lanigan, S. Lévêque-Fort, S. E. D. Webb, D. Phillips, D. M. Davis, and P. M. W. French, “Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging applied to live cells,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 584–586 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siegel, K. Suhling, S. Lévêque-Fort, S. E. D. Webb, D. M. Davis, D. Phillips, Y. Sabharwal, and P. M. W. French, “Wide-field time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging (TR-FAIM): Imaging the rotational mobility of a fluorophore,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 182–192 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning and spectral resolution applied to biological samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 49(5-6), 985–995 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1898–1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Siegel, D. S. Elson, S. E. D. Webb, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, S. Lévêque-Fort, M. J. Cole, M. J. Lever, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field five-dimensional fluorescence microscopy combining lifetime and spectral resolution with optical sectioning,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1338–1340 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lever, J.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lever, M. J.

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1898–1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning and spectral resolution applied to biological samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 49(5-6), 985–995 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203(3), 246–257 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siegel, D. S. Elson, S. E. D. Webb, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, S. Lévêque-Fort, M. J. Cole, M. J. Lever, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field five-dimensional fluorescence microscopy combining lifetime and spectral resolution with optical sectioning,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1338–1340 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field optically sectioned fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1361–1363 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levitt, J. A.

J. A. Levitt, D. R. Matthews, S. M. Ameer-Beg, and K. Suhling, “Fluorescence lifetime and polarization-resolved imaging in cell biology,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 28–36 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liljeborg, A.

K. Carlsson and A. Liljeborg, “Simultaneous confocal lifetime imaging of multiple fluorophores using the intensity-modulated multiple-wavelength scanning (IMS) technique,” J. Microsc. 191(2), 119–127 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthews, D. R.

J. A. Levitt, D. R. Matthews, S. M. Ameer-Beg, and K. Suhling, “Fluorescence lifetime and polarization-resolved imaging in cell biology,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 28–36 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGinty, J.

V. Y. Soloviev, J. McGinty, K. B. Tahir, M. A. A. Neil, A. Sardini, J. V. Hajnal, S. R. Arridge, and P. M. W. French, “Fluorescence lifetime tomography of live cells expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein embedded in a scattering medium exhibiting background autofluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2034–2036 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munro, I.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neil, M.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neil, M. A. A.

V. Y. Soloviev, J. McGinty, K. B. Tahir, M. A. A. Neil, A. Sardini, J. V. Hajnal, S. R. Arridge, and P. M. W. French, “Fluorescence lifetime tomography of live cells expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein embedded in a scattering medium exhibiting background autofluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2034–2036 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1898–1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning and spectral resolution applied to biological samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 49(5-6), 985–995 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203(3), 246–257 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siegel, D. S. Elson, S. E. D. Webb, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, S. Lévêque-Fort, M. J. Cole, M. J. Lever, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field five-dimensional fluorescence microscopy combining lifetime and spectral resolution with optical sectioning,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1338–1340 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field optically sectioned fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1361–1363 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parsons-Karavassilis, D.

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning and spectral resolution applied to biological samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 49(5-6), 985–995 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203(3), 246–257 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siegel, D. S. Elson, S. E. D. Webb, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, S. Lévêque-Fort, M. J. Cole, M. J. Lever, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field five-dimensional fluorescence microscopy combining lifetime and spectral resolution with optical sectioning,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1338–1340 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, D.

K. Suhling, P. M. W. French, and D. Phillips, “Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4(1), 13–22 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suhling, J. Siegel, P. M. P. Lanigan, S. Lévêque-Fort, S. E. D. Webb, D. Phillips, D. M. Davis, and P. M. W. French, “Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging applied to live cells,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 584–586 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siegel, K. Suhling, S. Lévêque-Fort, S. E. D. Webb, D. M. Davis, D. Phillips, Y. Sabharwal, and P. M. W. French, “Wide-field time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging (TR-FAIM): Imaging the rotational mobility of a fluorophore,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 182–192 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reavell, F.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Requejo-Isidro, J.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sabharwal, Y.

J. Siegel, K. Suhling, S. Lévêque-Fort, S. E. D. Webb, D. M. Davis, D. Phillips, Y. Sabharwal, and P. M. W. French, “Wide-field time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging (TR-FAIM): Imaging the rotational mobility of a fluorophore,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 182–192 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sandison, A.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sardini, A.

Siegel, J.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suhling, J. Siegel, P. M. P. Lanigan, S. Lévêque-Fort, S. E. D. Webb, D. Phillips, D. M. Davis, and P. M. W. French, “Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging applied to live cells,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 584–586 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siegel, K. Suhling, S. Lévêque-Fort, S. E. D. Webb, D. M. Davis, D. Phillips, Y. Sabharwal, and P. M. W. French, “Wide-field time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging (TR-FAIM): Imaging the rotational mobility of a fluorophore,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 182–192 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1898–1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning and spectral resolution applied to biological samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 49(5-6), 985–995 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203(3), 246–257 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siegel, D. S. Elson, S. E. D. Webb, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, S. Lévêque-Fort, M. J. Cole, M. J. Lever, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field five-dimensional fluorescence microscopy combining lifetime and spectral resolution with optical sectioning,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1338–1340 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field optically sectioned fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1361–1363 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soloviev, V. Y.

Stamp, G.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Straub, M.

M. Straub and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence lifetime three-dimensional microscopy with picosecond precision using a multifocal multiphoton microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1769–1771 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sucharov, L. O.

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning and spectral resolution applied to biological samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 49(5-6), 985–995 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Siegel, D. S. Elson, S. E. D. Webb, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, S. Lévêque-Fort, M. J. Cole, M. J. Lever, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field five-dimensional fluorescence microscopy combining lifetime and spectral resolution with optical sectioning,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1338–1340 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sucharov, L. O. D.

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1898–1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203(3), 246–257 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field optically sectioned fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1361–1363 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suhling, K.

J. A. Levitt, D. R. Matthews, S. M. Ameer-Beg, and K. Suhling, “Fluorescence lifetime and polarization-resolved imaging in cell biology,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 28–36 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suhling, P. M. W. French, and D. Phillips, “Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4(1), 13–22 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suhling, J. Siegel, P. M. P. Lanigan, S. Lévêque-Fort, S. E. D. Webb, D. Phillips, D. M. Davis, and P. M. W. French, “Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging applied to live cells,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 584–586 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siegel, K. Suhling, S. Lévêque-Fort, S. E. D. Webb, D. M. Davis, D. Phillips, Y. Sabharwal, and P. M. W. French, “Wide-field time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging (TR-FAIM): Imaging the rotational mobility of a fluorophore,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 182–192 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Systma, J.

J. Systma, J. M. Vroom, C. J. de Grauw, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging and microvolume spectroscopy using two-photon excitation,” J. Microsc. 191, 39–51 (1998).

Tadrous, P.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tahir, K. B.

Talbot, C.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treanor, B.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Munster, E. B.

E. B. van Munster and T. W. J. Gadella, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM),” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 95, 143–175 (2005).
[PubMed]

Vroom, J. M.

J. Systma, J. M. Vroom, C. J. de Grauw, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging and microvolume spectroscopy using two-photon excitation,” J. Microsc. 191, 39–51 (1998).

Wallace, A.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, S.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, S. E. D.

K. Suhling, J. Siegel, P. M. P. Lanigan, S. Lévêque-Fort, S. E. D. Webb, D. Phillips, D. M. Davis, and P. M. W. French, “Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging applied to live cells,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 584–586 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siegel, K. Suhling, S. Lévêque-Fort, S. E. D. Webb, D. M. Davis, D. Phillips, Y. Sabharwal, and P. M. W. French, “Wide-field time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging (TR-FAIM): Imaging the rotational mobility of a fluorophore,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 182–192 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1898–1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning and spectral resolution applied to biological samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 49(5-6), 985–995 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203(3), 246–257 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siegel, D. S. Elson, S. E. D. Webb, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, S. Lévêque-Fort, M. J. Cole, M. J. Lever, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field five-dimensional fluorescence microscopy combining lifetime and spectral resolution with optical sectioning,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1338–1340 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field optically sectioned fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1361–1363 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, T.

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “An optical technique for remote focusing in microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 880–887 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Aberration-free optical refocusing in high numerical aperture microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2007–2009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning and spectral resolution applied to biological samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 49(5-6), 985–995 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1898–1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203(3), 246–257 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siegel, D. S. Elson, S. E. D. Webb, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, S. Lévêque-Fort, M. J. Cole, M. J. Lever, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field five-dimensional fluorescence microscopy combining lifetime and spectral resolution with optical sectioning,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1338–1340 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Whole-field optically sectioned fluorescence lifetime imaging,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1361–1363 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. (1)

E. B. van Munster and T. W. J. Gadella, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM),” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 95, 143–175 (2005).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Straub and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence lifetime three-dimensional microscopy with picosecond precision using a multifocal multiphoton microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1769–1771 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

M. Y. Berezin and S. Achilefu, “Fluorescence lifetime measurements and biological imaging,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2641–2684 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

J. A. Levitt, D. R. Matthews, S. M. Ameer-Beg, and K. Suhling, “Fluorescence lifetime and polarization-resolved imaging in cell biology,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 20(1), 28–36 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (3)

K. Carlsson and A. Liljeborg, “Simultaneous confocal lifetime imaging of multiple fluorophores using the intensity-modulated multiple-wavelength scanning (IMS) technique,” J. Microsc. 191(2), 119–127 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Systma, J. M. Vroom, C. J. de Grauw, and H. C. Gerritsen, “Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging and microvolume spectroscopy using two-photon excitation,” J. Microsc. 191, 39–51 (1998).

M. J. Cole, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, R. Jones, K. Dowling, M. J. Dayel, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, P. M. W. French, M. J. Lever, L. O. D. Sucharov, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, “Time-domain whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning,” J. Microsc. 203(3), 246–257 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

D. S. Elson, J. Siegel, S. E. D. Webb, S. Lévêque-Fort, D. Parsons-Karavassilis, M. J. Cole, P. M. W. French, D. M. Davis, M. J. Lever, R. Juškaitis, M. A. A. Neil, L. O. Sucharov, and T. Wilson, “Wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging with optical sectioning and spectral resolution applied to biological samples,” J. Mod. Opt. 49(5-6), 985–995 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “An optical technique for remote focusing in microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 880–887 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. (2)

K. Suhling, P. M. W. French, and D. Phillips, “Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4(1), 13–22 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, “Time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging applied to biological tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3(8), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

J. Siegel, K. Suhling, S. Lévêque-Fort, S. E. D. Webb, D. M. Davis, D. Phillips, Y. Sabharwal, and P. M. W. French, “Wide-field time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging (TR-FAIM): Imaging the rotational mobility of a fluorophore,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 182–192 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. E. D. Webb, Y. Gu, S. Lévêque-Fort, J. Siegel, M. J. Cole, K. Dowling, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, L. O. D. Sucharov, T. Wilson, and M. J. Lever, “A wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope with optical sectioning,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1898–1907 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy, 3th ed. (Springer, 2006).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for 3D wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. DO1, DO2: dry objective lenses; TL1, TL2, TL3: tube lenses; DM: dichroic mirror; BS: beam splitter, M: reflection mirror mounted on a translation stage (TS); CL: concave lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(i) 3D fluorescence intensity image sections of a fluorescent microsphere as test sample with the mirror M on different positions along the optical axis. The gating time of the ICCD is 200 ps. (ii) 3D image of the sample reconstructed from these sections; (iii) 3D lifetime image of the sample reconstructed from 2D lifetime image sections with the mirror M on different positions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) 2D fluorescence lifetime images of section (e) in Fig. 2 (i). (b) Decay curve of the fluorescence intensity; squares are experimental data points, solid curve is a single exponential fit to the data. The decay time is 4.1 ns.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fluorescence lifetime error caused by the refocusing system along the optical axis. z is the distance along optical axis from the focus of the objective lens OD2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time-resolved fluorescence spectra of the sample. The fluorescence intensity is displayed in a pseudo-color mode as a function of both wavelength (horizontally) and time after excitation (vertically).

Equations (2)

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δz= 12 z 2 cos 2 ( α 2 )(3+6cosα+cos2α) 5f(3+8cosα+cos2α) .
δt= δz /c ,

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