Abstract

The high spatial frequency periodic structures induced on metal surface by femtosecond laser pulses was investigated experimentally and numerically. It is suggested that the redistribution of the electric field on metal surface caused by the initially formed low spatial frequency periodic structures plays a crucial role in the creation of high spatial frequency periodic structures. The field intensity which is initially localized in the grooves becomes concentrated on the ridges in between the grooves when the depth of the grooves exceeds a critical value, leading to the ablation of the ridges in between the grooves and the formation of high spatial frequency periodic structures. The proposed formation process is supported by both the numerical simulations based on the finite-difference time-domain technique and the experimental results obtained on some metals such as stainless steel and nickel.

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  1. M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 3688–3689 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, “Surface ripples on silicon and gallium arsenide under picosecond laser illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(9), 824–826 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. Van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Pattern formation during laser melting of silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 40(6), 3942–3954 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. E. Clark and D. C. Emmony, “Ultraviolet-laser-induced periodic surface structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 40(4), 2031–2041 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: nonclassical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, “Subwavelength ripple formation induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8576–8579 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Wang and C. Guo, “Ultrafast dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface pattern formation on metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 251914 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure formation on tungsten,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063523 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Le Harzic, H. Schuck, D. Sauer, T. Anhut, I. Riemann, and K. König, “Sub-100 nm nanostructuring of silicon by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6651–6656 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: a comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Qi, K. Nishii, and Y. Namba, “Regular subwavelength surface structures induced by femtosecond laser pulses on stainless steel,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1846–1848 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. X. Jia, T. Q. Jia, Y. Zhang, P. X. Xiong, D. H. Feng, Z. R. Sun, J. R. Qiu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Periodic nanoripples in the surface and subsurface layers in ZnO irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1248–1250 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Wang and C. Guo, “Formation of extraordinarily uniform periodic structures on metals induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023511 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “On the role of surface plasmon polaritons in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures upon irradiation of silicon by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 104910 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structures. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, “Modification of dielectric surfaces with ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 352–357 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, F. Stracke, and H. Zimmermann, “Generation of high spatial frequency ripples on silicon under ultrashort laser pulses irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211905 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Origin of periodicity in nanostructuring on thin film surfaces ablated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16265–16271 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Y. Dong and P. Molian, “Coulomb explosion-induced formation of highly oriented nanoparticles on thin films of 3C–SiC by the femtosecond pulsed laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(1), 10–12 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. Obara, N. Maeda, T. Miyanishi, M. Terakawa, N. N. Nedyalkov, and M. Obara, “Plasmonic and Mie scattering control of far-field interference for regular ripple formation on various material substrates,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19093–19103 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. A. Ordal, L. L. Long, R. J. Bell, S. E. Bell, R. R. Bell, R. W. Alexander, and C. A. Ward, “Optical properties of the metals Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, and W in the infrared and far infrared,” Appl. Opt. 22(7), 1099–20 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, F. Stracke, and H. Zimmermann, “Generation of high spatial frequency ripples on silicon under ultrashort laser pulses irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Obara, N. Maeda, T. Miyanishi, M. Terakawa, N. N. Nedyalkov, and M. Obara, “Plasmonic and Mie scattering control of far-field interference for regular ripple formation on various material substrates,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19093–19103 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (4)

L. Qi, K. Nishii, and Y. Namba, “Regular subwavelength surface structures induced by femtosecond laser pulses on stainless steel,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1846–1848 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: a comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “On the role of surface plasmon polaritons in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures upon irradiation of silicon by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure formation on tungsten,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Origin of periodicity in nanostructuring on thin film surfaces ablated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16265–16271 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Formation of extraordinarily uniform periodic structures on metals induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, “Subwavelength ripple formation induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8576–8579 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Ultrafast dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface pattern formation on metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Le Harzic, H. Schuck, D. Sauer, T. Anhut, I. Riemann, and K. König, “Sub-100 nm nanostructuring of silicon by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6651–6656 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

Y. Dong and P. Molian, “Coulomb explosion-induced formation of highly oriented nanoparticles on thin films of 3C–SiC by the femtosecond pulsed laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(1), 10–12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: nonclassical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, “Modification of dielectric surfaces with ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 352–357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Pattern formation during laser melting of silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 40(6), 3942–3954 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Clark and D. C. Emmony, “Ultraviolet-laser-induced periodic surface structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 40(4), 2031–2041 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (3)

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. Van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structures. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Ordal, L. L. Long, R. J. Bell, S. E. Bell, R. R. Bell, R. W. Alexander, and C. A. Ward, “Optical properties of the metals Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, and W in the infrared and far infrared,” Appl. Opt. 22(7), 1099–20 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, “Surface ripples on silicon and gallium arsenide under picosecond laser illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(9), 824–826 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 3688–3689 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, R. W.

Anhut, T.

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birnbaum, M.

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 3688–3689 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, J.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: a comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “On the role of surface plasmon polaritons in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures upon irradiation of silicon by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Borowiec, A.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. X.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, S. E.

S. E. Clark and D. C. Emmony, “Ultraviolet-laser-induced periodic surface structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 40(4), 2031–2041 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costache, F.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: nonclassical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, “Modification of dielectric surfaces with ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 352–357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Das, S. K.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: a comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Y.

Y. Dong and P. Molian, “Coulomb explosion-induced formation of highly oriented nanoparticles on thin films of 3C–SiC by the femtosecond pulsed laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(1), 10–12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dörr, D.

R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, F. Stracke, and H. Zimmermann, “Generation of high spatial frequency ripples on silicon under ultrashort laser pulses irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dufft, D.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: a comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Emmony, D. C.

S. E. Clark and D. C. Emmony, “Ultraviolet-laser-induced periodic surface structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 40(4), 2031–2041 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fauchet, P. M.

P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, “Surface ripples on silicon and gallium arsenide under picosecond laser illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(9), 824–826 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D. H.

Gottmann, J.

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, “Subwavelength ripple formation induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8576–8579 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grunwald, R.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: a comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure formation on tungsten,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Formation of extraordinarily uniform periodic structures on metals induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Ultrafast dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface pattern formation on metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H. K.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

He, X. K.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henyk, M.

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, “Modification of dielectric surfaces with ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 352–357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: nonclassical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hnatovsky, C.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horn, A.

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, “Subwavelength ripple formation induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8576–8579 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jia, T. Q.

X. Jia, T. Q. Jia, Y. Zhang, P. X. Xiong, D. H. Feng, Z. R. Sun, J. R. Qiu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Periodic nanoripples in the surface and subsurface layers in ZnO irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1248–1250 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jia, X.

König, K.

Kreutz, E. W.

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, “Subwavelength ripple formation induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8576–8579 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, J.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “On the role of surface plasmon polaritons in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures upon irradiation of silicon by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Le Harzic, R.

R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, F. Stracke, and H. Zimmermann, “Generation of high spatial frequency ripples on silicon under ultrashort laser pulses irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Le Harzic, H. Schuck, D. Sauer, T. Anhut, I. Riemann, and K. König, “Sub-100 nm nanostructuring of silicon by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6651–6656 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, R. X.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

Maeda, N.

Miyaji, G.

Miyanishi, T.

Miyazaki, K.

Molian, P.

Y. Dong and P. Molian, “Coulomb explosion-induced formation of highly oriented nanoparticles on thin films of 3C–SiC by the femtosecond pulsed laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(1), 10–12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Namba, Y.

Nedyalkov, N. N.

Nishii, K.

Obara, G.

Obara, M.

Ordal, M. A.

Pandelov, S. V.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: nonclassical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Preston, J. S.

J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Pattern formation during laser melting of silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 40(6), 3942–3954 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structures. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. Van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Qi, L.

Qiu, J. R.

X. Jia, T. Q. Jia, Y. Zhang, P. X. Xiong, D. H. Feng, Z. R. Sun, J. R. Qiu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Periodic nanoripples in the surface and subsurface layers in ZnO irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1248–1250 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rajeev, P. P.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reif, J.

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, “Modification of dielectric surfaces with ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 352–357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: nonclassical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Riemann, I.

Rosenfeld, A.

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “On the role of surface plasmon polaritons in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures upon irradiation of silicon by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: a comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, D.

R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, F. Stracke, and H. Zimmermann, “Generation of high spatial frequency ripples on silicon under ultrashort laser pulses irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Le Harzic, H. Schuck, D. Sauer, T. Anhut, I. Riemann, and K. König, “Sub-100 nm nanostructuring of silicon by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6651–6656 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuck, H.

Siegman, A. E.

P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, “Surface ripples on silicon and gallium arsenide under picosecond laser illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(9), 824–826 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sipe, J. E.

J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Pattern formation during laser melting of silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 40(6), 3942–3954 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structures. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. Van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stracke, F.

R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, F. Stracke, and H. Zimmermann, “Generation of high spatial frequency ripples on silicon under ultrashort laser pulses irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z. R.

Taylor, R. S.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terakawa, M.

van Driel, H. M.

J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Pattern formation during laser melting of silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 40(6), 3942–3954 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structures. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. Van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Vorobyev, A. Y.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure formation on tungsten,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, R.

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, “Subwavelength ripple formation induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8576–8579 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Formation of extraordinarily uniform periodic structures on metals induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Ultrafast dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface pattern formation on metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C. A.

Xiong, P. X.

Xu, N.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z. Z.

X. Jia, T. Q. Jia, Y. Zhang, P. X. Xiong, D. H. Feng, Z. R. Sun, J. R. Qiu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Periodic nanoripples in the surface and subsurface layers in ZnO irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1248–1250 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. Van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structures. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, F.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, F. L.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, H.

R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, F. Stracke, and H. Zimmermann, “Generation of high spatial frequency ripples on silicon under ultrashort laser pulses irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Y. Dong and P. Molian, “Coulomb explosion-induced formation of highly oriented nanoparticles on thin films of 3C–SiC by the femtosecond pulsed laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(1), 10–12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, F. Stracke, and H. Zimmermann, “Generation of high spatial frequency ripples on silicon under ultrashort laser pulses irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211905 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Fauchet and A. E. Siegman, “Surface ripples on silicon and gallium arsenide under picosecond laser illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(9), 824–826 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Ultrafast dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface pattern formation on metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (3)

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: nonclassical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197–198, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, “Subwavelength ripple formation induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8576–8579 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, “Modification of dielectric surfaces with ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 352–357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: a comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Formation of extraordinarily uniform periodic structures on metals induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023511 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “On the role of surface plasmon polaritons in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures upon irradiation of silicon by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 104910 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure formation on tungsten,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 063523 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 3688–3689 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. Van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structures. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, “Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 72(12), 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (2)

J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Pattern formation during laser melting of silicon,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 40(6), 3942–3954 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Clark and D. C. Emmony, “Ultraviolet-laser-induced periodic surface structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 40(4), 2031–2041 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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