Abstract

In this report, we investigated ultrafast carrier dynamics of vertically aligned indium nitride (InN) nanorod (NR) arrays grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates. Dominant band filling effects were observed and were attributed to a partial bleaching of absorption at the probe wavelengths near the absorption edge. Carrier relaxation in nanorod samples was strongly dependent on the rod size and length. In particular, a fast initial decay was observed for carriers in NRs with a small diameter (~30 nm), the lifetime of which is much shorter than the carrier cooling time, demonstrating the substantial surface-associated influence on carrier relaxation in semiconductor nanostructures.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. F. Chen, A. N. Cartwright, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Hole transport and carrier lifetimes in InN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 212104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Zanato, N. Balkan, B. K. Ridley, G. Hill, and W. J. Schaff, “Hot electron cooling rates via the emission of LO phonons in InN,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 1024–1028 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. W. Pomeroy, M. Kuball, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, X. Wang, and A. Yoshikawa, “Phonon lifetimes and phonon decay in InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 223501 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. T. Tsen, J. G. Kiang, D. K. Ferry, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, H.-W. Lin, and S. Gwo, “Electron-density dependence of longitudinal-optical phonon lifetime in InN studied by subpicosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 236219 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T.-R. Tsai, C.-F. Chang, and S. Gwo, “Ultrafast hot electron relaxation anomaly in InN epitaxial films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252111 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y.-C. Wen, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Shen, S. Gwo, and C.-K. Sun, “Ultrafast carrier thermalization in InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232114 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Ascázubi, I. Wilke, S. Cho, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Ultrafast recombination in Si-doped InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 112111 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Nargelas, R. Alecksiejunas, M. Vengris, T. Malinauskas, K. Jarasiunas, and E. Dimakis, “Dynamics of free carrier absorption in InN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 162103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Fukunaga, M. Hashimoto, H. Kunugita, J. Kamimura, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, and K. Ema, “Energy- and density-dependent dynamics of photoexcited carriers in InN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 232114 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Ahn, K.-J. Yu, Y.-L. Hong, and S. Gwo, “Carrier dynamics of Mg-doped indium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 062110 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y.-M. Chang and S. Gwo, “Carrier and phonon dynamics of wurtzite InN nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071911 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Ahn, Y.-P. Ku, Y.-C. Wang, C.-H. Chang, S. Gwo, and C.-L. Pan, “Terahertz spectroscopic study of vertically aligned InN nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. v.d. Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent photoconductivity in MBE-grown GaN-nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C.-H. Shen, H.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Lin, S. Gwo, A. A. Klochikhin, and V. Yu. Davydov, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from vertical InN nanorod arrays grown on silicon: Effects of surface electron accumulation layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. A. Klochikhin, V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. V. Sakharov, V. A. Kapitonov, B. A. Andreev, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Acceptor states in the photoluminescence spectra of n-InN,” Phys. Rev. B 71(19), 195207 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. P. Prasankumar, S. Choi, S. A. Trugman, S. T. Picraux, and A. J. Taylor, “Ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1619–1624 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. P. Prasankumar, P. C. Upadhya, and A. J. Taylor, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 246(9), 1973–1995 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

H. Ahn, K.-J. Yu, Y.-L. Hong, and S. Gwo, “Carrier dynamics of Mg-doped indium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 062110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

Y.-M. Chang and S. Gwo, “Carrier and phonon dynamics of wurtzite InN nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Othonos, M. Zervos, and M. Pervolaraki, “Ultrafast carrier relaxation in InN nanowires grown by reactive vapor transport,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 4(2), 122–129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ahn, C.-H. Chang, Y.-P. Ku, and C.-L. Pan, “Free carrier dynamics of InN nanorods investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nargelas, R. Alecksiejunas, M. Vengris, T. Malinauskas, K. Jarasiunas, and E. Dimakis, “Dynamics of free carrier absorption in InN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 162103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukunaga, M. Hashimoto, H. Kunugita, J. Kamimura, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, and K. Ema, “Energy- and density-dependent dynamics of photoexcited carriers in InN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 232114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Prasankumar, P. C. Upadhya, and A. J. Taylor, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 246(9), 1973–1995 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

R. P. Prasankumar, S. Choi, S. A. Trugman, S. T. Picraux, and A. J. Taylor, “Ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1619–1624 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

H. Ahn, Y.-P. Ku, Y.-C. Wang, C.-H. Chang, S. Gwo, and C.-L. Pan, “Terahertz spectroscopic study of vertically aligned InN nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Tsen, J. G. Kiang, D. K. Ferry, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, H.-W. Lin, and S. Gwo, “Electron-density dependence of longitudinal-optical phonon lifetime in InN studied by subpicosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 236219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T.-R. Tsai, C.-F. Chang, and S. Gwo, “Ultrafast hot electron relaxation anomaly in InN epitaxial films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

Y.-C. Wen, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Shen, S. Gwo, and C.-K. Sun, “Ultrafast carrier thermalization in InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Ascázubi, I. Wilke, S. Cho, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Ultrafast recombination in Si-doped InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 112111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Shen, H.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Lin, S. Gwo, A. A. Klochikhin, and V. Yu. Davydov, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from vertical InN nanorod arrays grown on silicon: Effects of surface electron accumulation layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

A. A. Klochikhin, V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. V. Sakharov, V. A. Kapitonov, B. A. Andreev, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Acceptor states in the photoluminescence spectra of n-InN,” Phys. Rev. B 71(19), 195207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Pomeroy, M. Kuball, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, X. Wang, and A. Yoshikawa, “Phonon lifetimes and phonon decay in InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 223501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. v.d. Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent photoconductivity in MBE-grown GaN-nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chen, A. N. Cartwright, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Hole transport and carrier lifetimes in InN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 212104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. Zanato, N. Balkan, B. K. Ridley, G. Hill, and W. J. Schaff, “Hot electron cooling rates via the emission of LO phonons in InN,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 1024–1028 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, H.

H. Ahn, K.-J. Yu, Y.-L. Hong, and S. Gwo, “Carrier dynamics of Mg-doped indium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 062110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Ahn, C.-H. Chang, Y.-P. Ku, and C.-L. Pan, “Free carrier dynamics of InN nanorods investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ahn, Y.-P. Ku, Y.-C. Wang, C.-H. Chang, S. Gwo, and C.-L. Pan, “Terahertz spectroscopic study of vertically aligned InN nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alecksiejunas, R.

S. Nargelas, R. Alecksiejunas, M. Vengris, T. Malinauskas, K. Jarasiunas, and E. Dimakis, “Dynamics of free carrier absorption in InN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 162103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, B. A.

A. A. Klochikhin, V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. V. Sakharov, V. A. Kapitonov, B. A. Andreev, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Acceptor states in the photoluminescence spectra of n-InN,” Phys. Rev. B 71(19), 195207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ascázubi, R.

R. Ascázubi, I. Wilke, S. Cho, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Ultrafast recombination in Si-doped InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 112111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aykanat, A. I.

R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. v.d. Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent photoconductivity in MBE-grown GaN-nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balkan, N.

D. Zanato, N. Balkan, B. K. Ridley, G. Hill, and W. J. Schaff, “Hot electron cooling rates via the emission of LO phonons in InN,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 1024–1028 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Calarco, R.

R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. v.d. Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent photoconductivity in MBE-grown GaN-nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cartwright, A. N.

F. Chen, A. N. Cartwright, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Hole transport and carrier lifetimes in InN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 212104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-F.

T.-R. Tsai, C.-F. Chang, and S. Gwo, “Ultrafast hot electron relaxation anomaly in InN epitaxial films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-H.

H. Ahn, C.-H. Chang, Y.-P. Ku, and C.-L. Pan, “Free carrier dynamics of InN nanorods investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ahn, Y.-P. Ku, Y.-C. Wang, C.-H. Chang, S. Gwo, and C.-L. Pan, “Terahertz spectroscopic study of vertically aligned InN nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-M.

Y.-M. Chang and S. Gwo, “Carrier and phonon dynamics of wurtzite InN nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-Y.

Y.-C. Wen, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Shen, S. Gwo, and C.-K. Sun, “Ultrafast carrier thermalization in InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, A. N. Cartwright, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Hole transport and carrier lifetimes in InN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 212104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-Y.

C.-H. Shen, H.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Lin, S. Gwo, A. A. Klochikhin, and V. Yu. Davydov, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from vertical InN nanorod arrays grown on silicon: Effects of surface electron accumulation layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.

R. Ascázubi, I. Wilke, S. Cho, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Ultrafast recombination in Si-doped InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 112111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

R. P. Prasankumar, S. Choi, S. A. Trugman, S. T. Picraux, and A. J. Taylor, “Ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1619–1624 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davydov, V. Y.

A. A. Klochikhin, V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. V. Sakharov, V. A. Kapitonov, B. A. Andreev, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Acceptor states in the photoluminescence spectra of n-InN,” Phys. Rev. B 71(19), 195207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davydov, V. Yu.

C.-H. Shen, H.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Lin, S. Gwo, A. A. Klochikhin, and V. Yu. Davydov, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from vertical InN nanorod arrays grown on silicon: Effects of surface electron accumulation layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dimakis, E.

S. Nargelas, R. Alecksiejunas, M. Vengris, T. Malinauskas, K. Jarasiunas, and E. Dimakis, “Dynamics of free carrier absorption in InN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 162103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ema, K.

K. Fukunaga, M. Hashimoto, H. Kunugita, J. Kamimura, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, and K. Ema, “Energy- and density-dependent dynamics of photoexcited carriers in InN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 232114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Emtsev, V. V.

A. A. Klochikhin, V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. V. Sakharov, V. A. Kapitonov, B. A. Andreev, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Acceptor states in the photoluminescence spectra of n-InN,” Phys. Rev. B 71(19), 195207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, D. K.

K. T. Tsen, J. G. Kiang, D. K. Ferry, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, H.-W. Lin, and S. Gwo, “Electron-density dependence of longitudinal-optical phonon lifetime in InN studied by subpicosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 236219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fukunaga, K.

K. Fukunaga, M. Hashimoto, H. Kunugita, J. Kamimura, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, and K. Ema, “Energy- and density-dependent dynamics of photoexcited carriers in InN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 232114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gwo, S.

H. Ahn, K.-J. Yu, Y.-L. Hong, and S. Gwo, “Carrier dynamics of Mg-doped indium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 062110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-M. Chang and S. Gwo, “Carrier and phonon dynamics of wurtzite InN nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Tsen, J. G. Kiang, D. K. Ferry, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, H.-W. Lin, and S. Gwo, “Electron-density dependence of longitudinal-optical phonon lifetime in InN studied by subpicosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 236219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ahn, Y.-P. Ku, Y.-C. Wang, C.-H. Chang, S. Gwo, and C.-L. Pan, “Terahertz spectroscopic study of vertically aligned InN nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T.-R. Tsai, C.-F. Chang, and S. Gwo, “Ultrafast hot electron relaxation anomaly in InN epitaxial films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Shen, H.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Lin, S. Gwo, A. A. Klochikhin, and V. Yu. Davydov, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from vertical InN nanorod arrays grown on silicon: Effects of surface electron accumulation layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Wen, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Shen, S. Gwo, and C.-K. Sun, “Ultrafast carrier thermalization in InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, M.

K. Fukunaga, M. Hashimoto, H. Kunugita, J. Kamimura, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, and K. Ema, “Energy- and density-dependent dynamics of photoexcited carriers in InN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 232114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hill, G.

D. Zanato, N. Balkan, B. K. Ridley, G. Hill, and W. J. Schaff, “Hot electron cooling rates via the emission of LO phonons in InN,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 1024–1028 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y.-L.

H. Ahn, K.-J. Yu, Y.-L. Hong, and S. Gwo, “Carrier dynamics of Mg-doped indium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 062110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jarasiunas, K.

S. Nargelas, R. Alecksiejunas, M. Vengris, T. Malinauskas, K. Jarasiunas, and E. Dimakis, “Dynamics of free carrier absorption in InN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 162103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kamimura, J.

K. Fukunaga, M. Hashimoto, H. Kunugita, J. Kamimura, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, and K. Ema, “Energy- and density-dependent dynamics of photoexcited carriers in InN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 232114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kapitonov, V. A.

A. A. Klochikhin, V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. V. Sakharov, V. A. Kapitonov, B. A. Andreev, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Acceptor states in the photoluminescence spectra of n-InN,” Phys. Rev. B 71(19), 195207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kiang, J. G.

K. T. Tsen, J. G. Kiang, D. K. Ferry, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, H.-W. Lin, and S. Gwo, “Electron-density dependence of longitudinal-optical phonon lifetime in InN studied by subpicosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 236219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, A.

K. Fukunaga, M. Hashimoto, H. Kunugita, J. Kamimura, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, and K. Ema, “Energy- and density-dependent dynamics of photoexcited carriers in InN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 232114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, K.

K. Fukunaga, M. Hashimoto, H. Kunugita, J. Kamimura, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, and K. Ema, “Energy- and density-dependent dynamics of photoexcited carriers in InN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 232114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klochikhin, A. A.

C.-H. Shen, H.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Lin, S. Gwo, A. A. Klochikhin, and V. Yu. Davydov, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from vertical InN nanorod arrays grown on silicon: Effects of surface electron accumulation layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Klochikhin, V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. V. Sakharov, V. A. Kapitonov, B. A. Andreev, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Acceptor states in the photoluminescence spectra of n-InN,” Phys. Rev. B 71(19), 195207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ku, Y.-P.

H. Ahn, C.-H. Chang, Y.-P. Ku, and C.-L. Pan, “Free carrier dynamics of InN nanorods investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ahn, Y.-P. Ku, Y.-C. Wang, C.-H. Chang, S. Gwo, and C.-L. Pan, “Terahertz spectroscopic study of vertically aligned InN nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuball, M.

J. W. Pomeroy, M. Kuball, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, X. Wang, and A. Yoshikawa, “Phonon lifetimes and phonon decay in InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 223501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kunugita, H.

K. Fukunaga, M. Hashimoto, H. Kunugita, J. Kamimura, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, and K. Ema, “Energy- and density-dependent dynamics of photoexcited carriers in InN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 232114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-W.

K. T. Tsen, J. G. Kiang, D. K. Ferry, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, H.-W. Lin, and S. Gwo, “Electron-density dependence of longitudinal-optical phonon lifetime in InN studied by subpicosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 236219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Shen, H.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Lin, S. Gwo, A. A. Klochikhin, and V. Yu. Davydov, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from vertical InN nanorod arrays grown on silicon: Effects of surface electron accumulation layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

K. T. Tsen, J. G. Kiang, D. K. Ferry, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, H.-W. Lin, and S. Gwo, “Electron-density dependence of longitudinal-optical phonon lifetime in InN studied by subpicosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 236219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Ascázubi, I. Wilke, S. Cho, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Ultrafast recombination in Si-doped InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 112111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Pomeroy, M. Kuball, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, X. Wang, and A. Yoshikawa, “Phonon lifetimes and phonon decay in InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 223501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, A. N. Cartwright, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Hole transport and carrier lifetimes in InN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 212104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Klochikhin, V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. V. Sakharov, V. A. Kapitonov, B. A. Andreev, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Acceptor states in the photoluminescence spectra of n-InN,” Phys. Rev. B 71(19), 195207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lüth, H.

R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. v.d. Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent photoconductivity in MBE-grown GaN-nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malinauskas, T.

S. Nargelas, R. Alecksiejunas, M. Vengris, T. Malinauskas, K. Jarasiunas, and E. Dimakis, “Dynamics of free carrier absorption in InN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 162103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marso, M.

R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. v.d. Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent photoconductivity in MBE-grown GaN-nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meijers, R.

R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. v.d. Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent photoconductivity in MBE-grown GaN-nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nargelas, S.

S. Nargelas, R. Alecksiejunas, M. Vengris, T. Malinauskas, K. Jarasiunas, and E. Dimakis, “Dynamics of free carrier absorption in InN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 162103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Othonos, A.

A. Othonos, M. Zervos, and M. Pervolaraki, “Ultrafast carrier relaxation in InN nanowires grown by reactive vapor transport,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 4(2), 122–129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C.-L.

H. Ahn, C.-H. Chang, Y.-P. Ku, and C.-L. Pan, “Free carrier dynamics of InN nanorods investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ahn, Y.-P. Ku, Y.-C. Wang, C.-H. Chang, S. Gwo, and C.-L. Pan, “Terahertz spectroscopic study of vertically aligned InN nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pervolaraki, M.

A. Othonos, M. Zervos, and M. Pervolaraki, “Ultrafast carrier relaxation in InN nanowires grown by reactive vapor transport,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 4(2), 122–129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Picraux, S. T.

R. P. Prasankumar, S. Choi, S. A. Trugman, S. T. Picraux, and A. J. Taylor, “Ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1619–1624 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pomeroy, J. W.

J. W. Pomeroy, M. Kuball, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, X. Wang, and A. Yoshikawa, “Phonon lifetimes and phonon decay in InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 223501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prasankumar, R. P.

R. P. Prasankumar, P. C. Upadhya, and A. J. Taylor, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 246(9), 1973–1995 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Prasankumar, S. Choi, S. A. Trugman, S. T. Picraux, and A. J. Taylor, “Ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1619–1624 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, T.

R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. v.d. Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent photoconductivity in MBE-grown GaN-nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ridley, B. K.

D. Zanato, N. Balkan, B. K. Ridley, G. Hill, and W. J. Schaff, “Hot electron cooling rates via the emission of LO phonons in InN,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 1024–1028 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sakharov, A. V.

A. A. Klochikhin, V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. V. Sakharov, V. A. Kapitonov, B. A. Andreev, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Acceptor states in the photoluminescence spectra of n-InN,” Phys. Rev. B 71(19), 195207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W. J.

K. T. Tsen, J. G. Kiang, D. K. Ferry, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, H.-W. Lin, and S. Gwo, “Electron-density dependence of longitudinal-optical phonon lifetime in InN studied by subpicosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 236219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Ascázubi, I. Wilke, S. Cho, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Ultrafast recombination in Si-doped InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 112111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, A. N. Cartwright, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Hole transport and carrier lifetimes in InN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 212104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Pomeroy, M. Kuball, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, X. Wang, and A. Yoshikawa, “Phonon lifetimes and phonon decay in InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 223501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Klochikhin, V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. V. Sakharov, V. A. Kapitonov, B. A. Andreev, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Acceptor states in the photoluminescence spectra of n-InN,” Phys. Rev. B 71(19), 195207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Zanato, N. Balkan, B. K. Ridley, G. Hill, and W. J. Schaff, “Hot electron cooling rates via the emission of LO phonons in InN,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 1024–1028 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, C.-H.

C.-H. Shen, H.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Lin, S. Gwo, A. A. Klochikhin, and V. Yu. Davydov, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from vertical InN nanorod arrays grown on silicon: Effects of surface electron accumulation layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Wen, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Shen, S. Gwo, and C.-K. Sun, “Ultrafast carrier thermalization in InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stoica, T.

R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. v.d. Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent photoconductivity in MBE-grown GaN-nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.-K.

Y.-C. Wen, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Shen, S. Gwo, and C.-K. Sun, “Ultrafast carrier thermalization in InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

R. P. Prasankumar, P. C. Upadhya, and A. J. Taylor, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 246(9), 1973–1995 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Prasankumar, S. Choi, S. A. Trugman, S. T. Picraux, and A. J. Taylor, “Ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1619–1624 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trugman, S. A.

R. P. Prasankumar, S. Choi, S. A. Trugman, S. T. Picraux, and A. J. Taylor, “Ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1619–1624 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, T.-R.

T.-R. Tsai, C.-F. Chang, and S. Gwo, “Ultrafast hot electron relaxation anomaly in InN epitaxial films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsen, K. T.

K. T. Tsen, J. G. Kiang, D. K. Ferry, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, H.-W. Lin, and S. Gwo, “Electron-density dependence of longitudinal-optical phonon lifetime in InN studied by subpicosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 236219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Upadhya, P. C.

R. P. Prasankumar, P. C. Upadhya, and A. J. Taylor, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 246(9), 1973–1995 (2009).
[CrossRef]

v.d. Hart, A.

R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. v.d. Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent photoconductivity in MBE-grown GaN-nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vengris, M.

S. Nargelas, R. Alecksiejunas, M. Vengris, T. Malinauskas, K. Jarasiunas, and E. Dimakis, “Dynamics of free carrier absorption in InN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 162103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

J. W. Pomeroy, M. Kuball, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, X. Wang, and A. Yoshikawa, “Phonon lifetimes and phonon decay in InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 223501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-C.

H. Ahn, Y.-P. Ku, Y.-C. Wang, C.-H. Chang, S. Gwo, and C.-L. Pan, “Terahertz spectroscopic study of vertically aligned InN nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wen, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Wen, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Shen, S. Gwo, and C.-K. Sun, “Ultrafast carrier thermalization in InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilke, I.

R. Ascázubi, I. Wilke, S. Cho, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Ultrafast recombination in Si-doped InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 112111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, A.

J. W. Pomeroy, M. Kuball, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, X. Wang, and A. Yoshikawa, “Phonon lifetimes and phonon decay in InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 223501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K.-J.

H. Ahn, K.-J. Yu, Y.-L. Hong, and S. Gwo, “Carrier dynamics of Mg-doped indium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 062110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zanato, D.

D. Zanato, N. Balkan, B. K. Ridley, G. Hill, and W. J. Schaff, “Hot electron cooling rates via the emission of LO phonons in InN,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 1024–1028 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zervos, M.

A. Othonos, M. Zervos, and M. Pervolaraki, “Ultrafast carrier relaxation in InN nanowires grown by reactive vapor transport,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 4(2), 122–129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

T.-R. Tsai, C.-F. Chang, and S. Gwo, “Ultrafast hot electron relaxation anomaly in InN epitaxial films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 252111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Wen, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Shen, S. Gwo, and C.-K. Sun, “Ultrafast carrier thermalization in InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Ascázubi, I. Wilke, S. Cho, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Ultrafast recombination in Si-doped InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 112111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Nargelas, R. Alecksiejunas, M. Vengris, T. Malinauskas, K. Jarasiunas, and E. Dimakis, “Dynamics of free carrier absorption in InN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 162103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukunaga, M. Hashimoto, H. Kunugita, J. Kamimura, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, and K. Ema, “Energy- and density-dependent dynamics of photoexcited carriers in InN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 232114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ahn, K.-J. Yu, Y.-L. Hong, and S. Gwo, “Carrier dynamics of Mg-doped indium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 062110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-M. Chang and S. Gwo, “Carrier and phonon dynamics of wurtzite InN nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071911 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, A. N. Cartwright, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Hole transport and carrier lifetimes in InN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 212104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Pomeroy, M. Kuball, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, X. Wang, and A. Yoshikawa, “Phonon lifetimes and phonon decay in InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 223501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ahn, Y.-P. Ku, Y.-C. Wang, C.-H. Chang, S. Gwo, and C.-L. Pan, “Terahertz spectroscopic study of vertically aligned InN nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 163105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Shen, H.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Lin, S. Gwo, A. A. Klochikhin, and V. Yu. Davydov, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from vertical InN nanorod arrays grown on silicon: Effects of surface electron accumulation layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 253104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Ahn, C.-H. Chang, Y.-P. Ku, and C.-L. Pan, “Free carrier dynamics of InN nanorods investigated by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023707 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

K. T. Tsen, J. G. Kiang, D. K. Ferry, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, H.-W. Lin, and S. Gwo, “Electron-density dependence of longitudinal-optical phonon lifetime in InN studied by subpicosecond time-resolved Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19, 236219 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

R. Calarco, M. Marso, T. Richter, A. I. Aykanat, R. Meijers, A. v.d. Hart, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Size-dependent photoconductivity in MBE-grown GaN-nanowires,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 981–984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Prasankumar, S. Choi, S. A. Trugman, S. T. Picraux, and A. J. Taylor, “Ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in germanium nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1619–1624 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

A. Othonos, M. Zervos, and M. Pervolaraki, “Ultrafast carrier relaxation in InN nanowires grown by reactive vapor transport,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 4(2), 122–129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. A. Klochikhin, V. Y. Davydov, V. V. Emtsev, A. V. Sakharov, V. A. Kapitonov, B. A. Andreev, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, “Acceptor states in the photoluminescence spectra of n-InN,” Phys. Rev. B 71(19), 195207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

R. P. Prasankumar, P. C. Upadhya, and A. J. Taylor, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanowires,” Phys. Status Solidi B 246(9), 1973–1995 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. Zanato, N. Balkan, B. K. Ridley, G. Hill, and W. J. Schaff, “Hot electron cooling rates via the emission of LO phonons in InN,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(8), 1024–1028 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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