Abstract

Circular polarizer (CP)-free, high-contrast inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (ITOLEDs) are demonstrated by using a semitransparent Ag electrode capped with a single dielectric layer as a top anode and Cs2CO3 (1.5 nm)/Al (1.5 nm)/Cr (100nm) as a partially absorbing bottom cathode. Low luminous reflectance is achieved by combining the broadband absorption of Cr, the weak but inherent cavity structure, and the optimal thickness of the capping layer yielding a high transmittance of a top electrode. With the optimized organic capping layer, contrast-enhanced ITOLEDs exhibit a luminous reflectance as low as 3.6% with a large thickness margin. Their luminous efficiency is shown to be comparable to or even higher than that of CP-based conventional OLEDs.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Ji, L. Zhang, Z. Tianyu, W. Xie, and H. Zhang, “High-contrast and high-efficiency microcavity top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 202–206 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C.-J. Yang, C.-C. Lin, C.-C. Wu, Y.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Cheng, Y.-H. Kuo, and T.-H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. M. Chen, Y. B. Yuan, J. R. Lian, and X. Zhou, “High-efficiency and high-contrast phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with p-type Si anodes,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14644–14649 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganäs, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

C. Yun, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, J.-H. Kim, J. W. Kim, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Doping-free inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with high power efficiency and near-ideal emission characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(1), 159–166 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, S. Olthof, M. Anderson, H. Kleemann, M. Schober, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Improvement of voltage and charge balance in inverted top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes comprising doped transport layers by thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 083304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

W. Ji, L. Zhang, Z. Tianyu, W. Xie, and H. Zhang, “High-contrast and high-efficiency microcavity top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 202–206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cho, C. Yun, J.-W. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/ Ag/ WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron. 10(6), 1163–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Yun, H. Cho, H. Kang, Y. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Electron injection via pentacene thin films for efficient inverted organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

J. Huang, Z. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Low-work-function surface formed by solution-processed and thermally deposited nanoscale layers of cesium carbonate,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1966–1973 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Chen, Y. B. Yuan, J. R. Lian, and X. Zhou, “High-efficiency and high-contrast phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with p-type Si anodes,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14644–14649 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Display Technol. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Lin, H. W. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “Examining microcavity organic light-emitting devices having two metal mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-J. Yang, C.-C. Lin, C.-C. Wu, Y.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Cheng, Y.-H. Kuo, and T.-H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “An effective cathode structure for inverted top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2469–2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Aziz, Y.-F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, “Reduced reflectance cathode for organic light-emitting devices using metalorganic mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 186–188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. N. Krasnov, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(20), 3853–3855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganäs, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous emission for planar microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M.

M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, S. Olthof, M. Anderson, H. Kleemann, M. Schober, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Improvement of voltage and charge balance in inverted top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes comprising doped transport layers by thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 083304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aziz, H.

H. Aziz, Y.-F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, “Reduced reflectance cathode for organic light-emitting devices using metalorganic mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 186–188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beierlein, T.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-W.

C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Display Technol. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “An effective cathode structure for inverted top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2469–2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. M.

Chen, T.-H.

C.-J. Yang, C.-C. Lin, C.-C. Wu, Y.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Cheng, Y.-H. Kuo, and T.-H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C.-C.

C.-J. Yang, C.-C. Lin, C.-C. Wu, Y.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Cheng, Y.-H. Kuo, and T.-H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.

C. Yun, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, J.-H. Kim, J. W. Kim, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Doping-free inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with high power efficiency and near-ideal emission characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(1), 159–166 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cho, C. Yun, J.-W. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/ Ag/ WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron. 10(6), 1163–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Yun, H. Cho, H. Kang, Y. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Electron injection via pentacene thin films for efficient inverted organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deppe, D. G.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous emission for planar microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fukutani, H.

Grandin, H. M.

H. Aziz, Y.-F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, “Reduced reflectance cathode for organic light-emitting devices using metalorganic mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 186–188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, S.

M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, S. Olthof, M. Anderson, H. Kleemann, M. Schober, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Improvement of voltage and charge balance in inverted top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes comprising doped transport layers by thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 083304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

J. Huang, Z. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Low-work-function surface formed by solution-processed and thermally deposited nanoscale layers of cesium carbonate,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1966–1973 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huffaker, D. L.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous emission for planar microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Inganäs, O.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganäs, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

W. Ji, L. Zhang, Z. Tianyu, W. Xie, and H. Zhang, “High-contrast and high-efficiency microcavity top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 202–206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H.

C. Yun, H. Cho, H. Kang, Y. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Electron injection via pentacene thin films for efficient inverted organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karg, S.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. W.

C. Yun, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, J.-H. Kim, J. W. Kim, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Doping-free inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with high power efficiency and near-ideal emission characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(1), 159–166 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-H.

C. Yun, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, J.-H. Kim, J. W. Kim, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Doping-free inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with high power efficiency and near-ideal emission characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(1), 159–166 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kleemann, H.

M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, S. Olthof, M. Anderson, H. Kleemann, M. Schober, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Improvement of voltage and charge balance in inverted top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes comprising doped transport layers by thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 083304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koh, T.-W.

C. Yun, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, J.-H. Kim, J. W. Kim, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Doping-free inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with high power efficiency and near-ideal emission characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(1), 159–166 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krasnov, A. N.

A. N. Krasnov, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(20), 3853–3855 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.-C.

Kuo, Y.-H.

C.-J. Yang, C.-C. Lin, C.-C. Wu, Y.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Cheng, Y.-H. Kuo, and T.-H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

C. Yun, H. Cho, H. Kang, Y. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Electron injection via pentacene thin films for efficient inverted organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lei, C.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous emission for planar microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, S. Olthof, M. Anderson, H. Kleemann, M. Schober, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Improvement of voltage and charge balance in inverted top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes comprising doped transport layers by thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 083304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lian, J. R.

Liew, Y.-F.

H. Aziz, Y.-F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, “Reduced reflectance cathode for organic light-emitting devices using metalorganic mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 186–188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, “Spontaneous emission for planar microstructures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 325–344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-C.

C.-J. Yang, C.-C. Lin, C.-C. Wu, Y.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Cheng, Y.-H. Kuo, and T.-H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-L.

C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Display Technol. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Lin, H. W. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “Examining microcavity organic light-emitting devices having two metal mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “An effective cathode structure for inverted top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2469–2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. W.

C.-L. Lin, H. W. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “Examining microcavity organic light-emitting devices having two metal mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lüssem, B.

M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, S. Olthof, M. Anderson, H. Kleemann, M. Schober, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Improvement of voltage and charge balance in inverted top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes comprising doped transport layers by thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 083304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olthof, S.

M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, S. Olthof, M. Anderson, H. Kleemann, M. Schober, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Improvement of voltage and charge balance in inverted top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes comprising doped transport layers by thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 083304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-W.

H. Cho, C. Yun, J.-W. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/ Ag/ WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron. 10(6), 1163–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

C. Yun, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, J.-H. Kim, J. W. Kim, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Doping-free inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with high power efficiency and near-ideal emission characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(1), 159–166 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Yun, H. Cho, H. Kang, Y. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Electron injection via pentacene thin films for efficient inverted organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pettersson, L. A. A.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganäs, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, D.

Popovic, Z. D.

H. Aziz, Y.-F. Liew, H. M. Grandin, and Z. D. Popovic, “Reduced reflectance cathode for organic light-emitting devices using metalorganic mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(1), 186–188 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Py, C.

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riel, H.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rieß, W.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roman, L. S.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Inganäs, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487–496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ruhstaller, B.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, B. Ruhstaller, and W. Rieß, “Phosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with improved light outcoupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 466–468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schober, M.

M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, S. Olthof, M. Anderson, H. Kleemann, M. Schober, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Improvement of voltage and charge balance in inverted top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes comprising doped transport layers by thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 083304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomschke, M.

M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, S. Olthof, M. Anderson, H. Kleemann, M. Schober, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Improvement of voltage and charge balance in inverted top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes comprising doped transport layers by thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 083304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tianyu, Z.

W. Ji, L. Zhang, Z. Tianyu, W. Xie, and H. Zhang, “High-contrast and high-efficiency microcavity top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 202–206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C.-C.

C.-J. Yang, C.-C. Lin, C.-C. Wu, Y.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Cheng, Y.-H. Kuo, and T.-H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Lin, H. W. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “Examining microcavity organic light-emitting devices having two metal mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(2), 021101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, “Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances,” J. Display Technol. 1(2), 248–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, “An effective cathode structure for inverted top-emitting organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2469–2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W.

W. Ji, L. Zhang, Z. Tianyu, W. Xie, and H. Zhang, “High-contrast and high-efficiency microcavity top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 202–206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

J. Huang, Z. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Low-work-function surface formed by solution-processed and thermally deposited nanoscale layers of cesium carbonate,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1966–1973 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.-J.

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C.-J. Yang, C.-C. Lin, C.-C. Wu, Y.-H. Yeh, C.-C. Cheng, Y.-H. Kuo, and T.-H. Chen, “High-contrast top-emitting organic light-emitting devices for active-matrix displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 143507 (2005).
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Yoo, S.

C. Yun, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, J.-H. Kim, J. W. Kim, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Doping-free inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with high power efficiency and near-ideal emission characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(1), 159–166 (2012).
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C. Yun, H. Cho, H. Kang, Y. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Electron injection via pentacene thin films for efficient inverted organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053301 (2009).
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H. Cho, C. Yun, J.-W. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/ Ag/ WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron. 10(6), 1163–1169 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yun, H. Cho, H. Kang, Y. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Electron injection via pentacene thin films for efficient inverted organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053301 (2009).
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W. Ji, L. Zhang, Z. Tianyu, W. Xie, and H. Zhang, “High-contrast and high-efficiency microcavity top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 202–206 (2010).
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W. Ji, L. Zhang, Z. Tianyu, W. Xie, and H. Zhang, “High-contrast and high-efficiency microcavity top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 202–206 (2010).
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J. Huang, Z. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Low-work-function surface formed by solution-processed and thermally deposited nanoscale layers of cesium carbonate,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(12), 1966–1973 (2007).
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C. Yun, H. Cho, H. Kang, Y. Lee, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Electron injection via pentacene thin films for efficient inverted organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053301 (2009).
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C. Yun, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, J.-H. Kim, J. W. Kim, Y. Park, and S. Yoo, “Doping-free inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with high power efficiency and near-ideal emission characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59(1), 159–166 (2012).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Org. Electron. (2)

W. Ji, L. Zhang, Z. Tianyu, W. Xie, and H. Zhang, “High-contrast and high-efficiency microcavity top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 202–206 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Cho, C. Yun, J.-W. Park, and S. Yoo, “Highly flexible organic light-emitting diodes based on ZnS/ Ag/ WO3 multilayer transparent electrodes,” Org. Electron. 10(6), 1163–1169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The device structure of the proposed circular polarizer (CP)-free high contrast ratio (CR) ITOLED. The number in parenthesis indicates the thickness of the corresponding layer given in nm. (b) The schematic diagram for the simplified multilayer geometry used for thin-film optic calculation. The letters stand for the Fresnel coefficients and electric fields relevant to the calculation done in this work.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical constants (n, k) of the Cr and (b) calculated and measured reflectance spectra of the Cr layer for light incident from air (solid line) or from organic layer (dashed line).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated reflectance ROLED (in %) and the light emission IOLED (in arbitrary units) from the total OLED structure as a function of the capping layer thickness (dcap) and wavelength (λ) for capping layers of (a) ZnS and (b) Alq3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Experimental and simulated reflectance spectra from the total OLED structure with capping layers of: Alq3, ZnS, and nothing. (b) Trend of maximum IOLED vs. Ttop for the proposed ITOLEDs and regular top-emitting OLEDs. Δφ rt is set as 2 (m: integer) in (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated ROLED, Rtop, Ttop2Rbot(+), and Δϕrefl to monitor the intensity and phase relationships between the reflected components E1 and E2 in devices under study for the cases of (a) no capping, (b) ZnS-capping, and (c) Alq3-capping. Inset: Calculated absorption within the capping layer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

J-V characteristics of electron-only devices in the configuration of glass/ Cr (200nm)/ x / Alq3 (100nm)/ Ca (50nm)/ Al (100nm) where x is Cs2CO3 (1.5nm), Al (1.5nm)/ Cs2CO3 (1.5nm), or nothing.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) J-V-L and (b) L-J characteristics of the proposed ITOLEDs with the capping layer of nothing, ZnS, or Alq3. Inset in (b): The photograph of the Alq3-capped ITOLED under operation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical components of the simplified device diagram with different capping layers*

Equations (4)

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R L = V(λ)S(λ) R OLED (λ)dλ V(λ)S(λ)dλ
E refl E 1 + E 2 = E 0 [ r top (+) + t top (+) t top () r bot (+) e i 4π λ n d org ] E OLED t top () E EML [ 1+ r bot (+) e i 4π λ n z 0 ][ 1+ r top () r bot (+) e i 4π λ n d org ]
R OLED R top (+) [ 1+ T top 2 R bot (+) / R top (+) +2 T top R bot (+) / R top (+) cos( Δ φ refl ) ] I OLED I EML f FP f TB
f FP2 = T top [ 1+ R top () R bot (+) +2 R top () R bot (+) cos( Δ φ rt ) ], Δ φ refl = tan 1 ( E 2 / E 1 )=( 4π λ n org d org + δ ttop (+) δ ttop () + δ rbot (+) ) δ rtop (+)

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