Abstract

We demonstrate that the structure of an optical frequency comb transferred over several km of fiber can be preserved at a level compatible with the best optical frequency references currently available. Using an optical phase detection technique we measure the noise introduced by the fiber link and suppress it by stabilizing the optical path length. The measured fractional frequency stability of the transferred optical modes is 2 × 10−18 at a few thousand seconds and the mode spacing stability after optical-microwave conversion is better than 4 × 10−17 over the same time scale.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2011

2010

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, J. C. J. Koelemeij, D. J. Wineland, and T. Rosenband, “Frequency comparison of two high-accuracy Al+ optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 070802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 723–727 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1284–1293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Musha, F.-L. Hong, K. Nakagawa, and K. Ueda, “Coherent optical frequency transfer over 50-km physical distance using a 120-km-long installed telecom fiber network,” Opt. Express 16, 16459–16466 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627–630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection,” Science 311, 1595–1599 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-F. Chen, J. Jiang, and D. J. Jones, “Remote distribution of a mode-locked pulse train with sub 40-as jitter,” Opt. Express 14, 12134–12144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

E. Ivanov, S. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Study of the excess noise associated with demodulation of ultra-short infrared pulses,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 52, 1068–1074 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, “Remote transfer of a high-stability and ultralow-jitter timing signal,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1225–1227 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level,” Science 303, 1843–1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amy-Klein, A.

Araujo-Hauck, C.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, A.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level,” Science 303, 1843–1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedick, A. J.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergquist, J. C.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bi, Z.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level,” Science 303, 1843–1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brusch, A.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chardonnet, C.

Chen, Y.-F.

Chou, C. W.

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, J. C. J. Koelemeij, D. J. Wineland, and T. Rosenband, “Frequency comparison of two high-accuracy Al+ optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 070802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crane, S.

D’Odorico, S.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S.

E. Ivanov, S. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Study of the excess noise associated with demodulation of ultra-short infrared pulses,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 52, 1068–1074 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627–630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level,” Science 303, 1843–1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Droste, S.

G. Grosche, K. Predehl, S. M. F. Raupach, H. Schnatz, O. Terra, S. Droste, and R. Holzwarth “High performance frequency comparisons over optical fibre,” IQEC/CLEO Pacific Rim 2011, Technical Digest CD-ROM (Sydney, Australia, 2011)

Drullinger, R. E.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fendel, P.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foreman, S. M.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fortier, T. M.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gill, P.

Glenday, A. G.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosche, G.

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10−19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Grosche, K. Predehl, S. M. F. Raupach, H. Schnatz, O. Terra, S. Droste, and R. Holzwarth “High performance frequency comparisons over optical fibre,” IQEC/CLEO Pacific Rim 2011, Technical Digest CD-ROM (Sydney, Australia, 2011)

Guelachvili, G.

J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picqué, “Fourier transform spectroscopy with a laser frequency comb,” Nature Photon. 3, 99–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627–630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ivanov, S. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Study of the excess noise associated with demodulation of ultra-short infrared pulses,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 52, 1068–1074 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level,” Science 303, 1843–1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holleville, D.

Holman, K. W.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, “Remote transfer of a high-stability and ultralow-jitter timing signal,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1225–1227 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10−19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Grosche, K. Predehl, S. M. F. Raupach, H. Schnatz, O. Terra, S. Droste, and R. Holzwarth “High performance frequency comparisons over optical fibre,” IQEC/CLEO Pacific Rim 2011, Technical Digest CD-ROM (Sydney, Australia, 2011)

Hong, F.-L.

Hudson, D. D.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, “Remote transfer of a high-stability and ultralow-jitter timing signal,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1225–1227 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hume, D. B.

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, J. C. J. Koelemeij, D. J. Wineland, and T. Rosenband, “Frequency comparison of two high-accuracy Al+ optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 070802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itano, W. M.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, E.

E. Ivanov, S. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Study of the excess noise associated with demodulation of ultra-short infrared pulses,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 52, 1068–1074 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

Jiang, J.

Jones, D. J.

Jones, R. J.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection,” Science 311, 1595–1599 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, C.-W.

C.-W. Kang, T.-A. Liu, R.-H. Shu, C.-L. Pan, and J.-L. Peng, “Simultaneously transfer microwave and optical frequency through fiber using mode-locked fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America, 2009), p. JWA70.

Kärtner, F. X.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kéfélian, F.

Kentischer, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koelemeij, J. C. J.

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, J. C. J. Koelemeij, D. J. Wineland, and T. Rosenband, “Frequency comparison of two high-accuracy Al+ optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 070802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lea, S. N.

Lemonde, P.

Li, C.-H.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipphardt, B.

Liu, T.-A.

C.-W. Kang, T.-A. Liu, R.-H. Shu, C.-L. Pan, and J.-L. Peng, “Simultaneously transfer microwave and optical frequency through fiber using mode-locked fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America, 2009), p. JWA70.

Lopez, O.

Lorini, L.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lours, M.

Ma, L.-S.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level,” Science 303, 1843–1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandon, J.

J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picqué, “Fourier transform spectroscopy with a laser frequency comb,” Nature Photon. 3, 99–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Manescau, A.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margolis, H. S.

Marra, G.

Mbele, V.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627–630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millo, J.

Moll, K. D.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection,” Science 311, 1595–1599 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, M. T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Musha, M.

Nakagawa, K.

Newbury, N. R.

P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1284–1293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oates, C.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level,” Science 303, 1843–1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oskay, W. H.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, C.-L.

C.-W. Kang, T.-A. Liu, R.-H. Shu, C.-L. Pan, and J.-L. Peng, “Simultaneously transfer microwave and optical frequency through fiber using mode-locked fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America, 2009), p. JWA70.

Pasquini, L.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, J.-L.

C.-W. Kang, T.-A. Liu, R.-H. Shu, C.-L. Pan, and J.-L. Peng, “Simultaneously transfer microwave and optical frequency through fiber using mode-locked fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America, 2009), p. JWA70.

Petropoulos, P.

Phillips, D. F.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Picqué, N.

J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picqué, “Fourier transform spectroscopy with a laser frequency comb,” Nature Photon. 3, 99–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Predehl, K.

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10−19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Grosche, K. Predehl, S. M. F. Raupach, H. Schnatz, O. Terra, S. Droste, and R. Holzwarth “High performance frequency comparisons over optical fibre,” IQEC/CLEO Pacific Rim 2011, Technical Digest CD-ROM (Sydney, Australia, 2011)

Raupach, S. M. F.

G. Grosche, K. Predehl, S. M. F. Raupach, H. Schnatz, O. Terra, S. Droste, and R. Holzwarth “High performance frequency comparisons over optical fibre,” IQEC/CLEO Pacific Rim 2011, Technical Digest CD-ROM (Sydney, Australia, 2011)

Richardson, D. J.

Robertsson, L.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level,” Science 303, 1843–1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenband, T.

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, J. C. J. Koelemeij, D. J. Wineland, and T. Rosenband, “Frequency comparison of two high-accuracy Al+ optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 070802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safdi, B.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection,” Science 311, 1595–1599 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santarelli, G.

Sasselov, D.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, P. O.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnatz, H.

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10−19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Grosche, K. Predehl, S. M. F. Raupach, H. Schnatz, O. Terra, S. Droste, and R. Holzwarth “High performance frequency comparisons over optical fibre,” IQEC/CLEO Pacific Rim 2011, Technical Digest CD-ROM (Sydney, Australia, 2011)

Shu, R.-H.

C.-W. Kang, T.-A. Liu, R.-H. Shu, C.-L. Pan, and J.-L. Peng, “Simultaneously transfer microwave and optical frequency through fiber using mode-locked fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America, 2009), p. JWA70.

Slavík, R.

Stalnaker, J. E.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmetz, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterr, U.

Swann, W. C.

P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1284–1293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szentgyorgyi, A.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terra, O.

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10−19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Grosche, K. Predehl, S. M. F. Raupach, H. Schnatz, O. Terra, S. Droste, and R. Holzwarth “High performance frequency comparisons over optical fibre,” IQEC/CLEO Pacific Rim 2011, Technical Digest CD-ROM (Sydney, Australia, 2011)

Thorpe, M. J.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection,” Science 311, 1595–1599 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ueda, K.

Vogt, F.

Walsworth, R. L.

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilken, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, P. A.

Wilpers, G.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level,” Science 303, 1843–1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level,” Science 303, 1843–1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wineland, D. J.

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, J. C. J. Koelemeij, D. J. Wineland, and T. Rosenband, “Frequency comparison of two high-accuracy Al+ optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 070802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection,” Science 311, 1595–1599 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, “Remote transfer of a high-stability and ultralow-jitter timing signal,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1225–1227 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zucco, M.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level,” Science 303, 1843–1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, C. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98, 723–727 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

E. Ivanov, S. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Study of the excess noise associated with demodulation of ultra-short infrared pulses,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 52, 1068–1074 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627–630 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Photon.

J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picqué, “Fourier transform spectroscopy with a laser frequency comb,” Nature Photon. 3, 99–102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. W. Chou, D. B. Hume, J. C. J. Koelemeij, D. J. Wineland, and T. Rosenband, “Frequency comparison of two high-accuracy Al+ optical clocks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 070802 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection,” Science 311, 1595–1599 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level,” Science 303, 1843–1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321, 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808–1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

“STE-QUEST, Space-Time Explorer and QUantum Equivalence Principle Space Test,” http://sci.esa.int/ste-quest .

G. Grosche, K. Predehl, S. M. F. Raupach, H. Schnatz, O. Terra, S. Droste, and R. Holzwarth “High performance frequency comparisons over optical fibre,” IQEC/CLEO Pacific Rim 2011, Technical Digest CD-ROM (Sydney, Australia, 2011)

C.-W. Kang, T.-A. Liu, R.-H. Shu, C.-L. Pan, and J.-L. Peng, “Simultaneously transfer microwave and optical frequency through fiber using mode-locked fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest, (Optical Society of America, 2009), p. JWA70.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. The detection stage (fb det.) consists of a photodiode, a filter and cascaded amplifiers. MLL: mode-locked laser; CIR: circulator; FS: fiber stretchers; TCS: thermally controlled spool; Integr.: integrator; AOM: acousto-optic modulator; SMF: single-mode fiber; DCF: dispersion compensating fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setups for phase noise and frequency stability measurement of the mode spacing (a) and transferred optical modes (b). The detection stages floc and frem consist of a fast photodiode, a narrow bandpass filter and microwave amplifiers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single sideband phase noise (a) and frequency stability (b) of the 80th harmonic (8 GHz) of the fundamental frequency spacing measured at the remote end. a) blue: fiber noise not suppressed; red: fiber noise suppressed; grey: measurement noise floor. b) Open blue squares: fiber noise not suppressed; open red circles: fiber noise suppressed; filled red circles: fiber noise suppressed, first two hours; filled grey squares: measurement noise floor.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase noise (a) and frequency stability (b) of the sample optical mode at the remote end. a) suppression inactive (blue); active (red). Inset: phase evolution over time of the optical mode when the suppression is active. b) Without (open blue squares) and with noise suppression, 7 Hz (filled red circles) and 200 kHz (open red circles) measurement bandwidth; open grey squares: measurement noise floor.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ f p = 1 c d [ n ( f p ) l ] dt f p
f b p , m = f AOM ( f p f m ) 1 c d [ n ( f p ) l ] dt f p
i ( t ) m = m 1 m 2 p = p 1 p 2 cos 2 π [ f AOM ( p m ) f r 1 c d [ n ( f p ) l ] dt f p ] t
i ( t ) p = p 1 p 2 cos 2 π [ f AOM f r 1 c d [ n ( f p ) l ] dt f p ] t .

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