Abstract

Single Photon Detectors are fundamental to quantum optics and quantum information. Superconducting nanowire detectors exhibit high performance in free-running mode, but have a limited maximum count rate. By exploiting a bistable superconducting nanowire system, we demonstrate the first gated-mode operation of these detectors for a large active area single element device at 625MHz, one order of magnitude faster than its free-running counterpart. We show the maximum count rate in gated-mode operation can be pushed to GHz range without a compromise on the active area or quantum efficiency, while reducing the dark count rate.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705–707 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Development of SNSPD system with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19, 332–335 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14, 527–534 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsova, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480–1488 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 364–373 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lvy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nature Photon. 2, 302–306 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nature Photon. 1, 343–348 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, O. Shatrovoy, R. J. Molnar, D. Rosenberg, J. Yoon, C. E. Devoe, D. V. Murphy, B. S. Robinson, and D. M. Boroson, “Design of a ground-based optical receiver for the lunar laser communications demonstration,” International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications, ICSOS’11, 78–82 (2011).
  10. J. Zhang, N. Boiadjieva, G. Chulkova, H. Deslandes, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, M. Leibowitz, W. Lo, R. Malinsky, O. Okunev, A. Pearlman, W. Slysz, K. Smirnov, C. Tsao, A. Verevkin, B. Voronov, K. Wilsher, and R. Sobolewski, “Noninvasive CMOS circuit testing with NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1086–1088 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. J. Stevens, R. H. Hadfield, R. E. Schwall, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. A. Gupta, “Fast lifetime measurements of infrared emitters using a low-jitter superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. A. J. Annunziata, D. F. Santavicca, J. D. Chudow, L. Frunzio, M. J. Rooks, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 327–331 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, and S. Pagano, “Maximum count rate of large area superconducting single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Optics 56, 390–394 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. P. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. V. Semenov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Ultrafast reset time of superconducting single photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241112 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. X. Hu, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors integrated with optical nano-antennae,” Opt. Express 19, 17–31 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. Ren, X. Gu, Y. Liang, W. Kong, E. Wu, G. Wu, and H. Zeng, “Laser ranging at 1550 nm with 1-GHz sine-wave gated InGaAs/InP APD single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 19, 13497–13502 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. Gol’tsman, O. Minaeva, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, I. Rubtsova, A. Divochiy, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, D. Pan, J. Kitaygorsky, A. Cross, A. Pearlman, I. Komissarov, W. Slysz, M. Wegrzecki, P. Grabiec, and R. Sobolewski, “Middle-infrared to visible-light ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 246–251 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. K. Akhlaghi, A. H. Majedi, and J. S. Lundeen, “Nonlinearity in single photon detection: modeling and quantum tomography,” Opt. Express 19, 21305–21312 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans Appl. Supercond. 17, 581–585 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. C. Taber and C. A. Flory, “Microwave oscillators incorporating cryogenic sapphire dielectric resonators,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control 42, 111–119 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  30. V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, and K. S. Bagdassarov, “Experimental observation of fundamental microwave absorption in high-quality dielectric crystals,” Phys. Lett. A 120, 300–305 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (4)

2010 (2)

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Shibata, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, T. Akazaki, and Y. Tokura, “Single-photon detection using magnesium diboride superconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 212504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, and S. Pagano, “Maximum count rate of large area superconducting single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Optics 56, 390–394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, M. Takeda, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, A. Otomo, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting NbTiN nanowire single photon detectors with low kinetic inductance,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 075002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Annunziata, D. F. Santavicca, J. D. Chudow, L. Frunzio, M. J. Rooks, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 327–331 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Hadfield, “Single photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nature Photon. 3, 696–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Development of SNSPD system with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19, 332–335 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 100509(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lvy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nature Photon. 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. P. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. V. Semenov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Ultrafast reset time of superconducting single photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nature Photon. 1, 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Gol’tsman, O. Minaeva, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, I. Rubtsova, A. Divochiy, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, D. Pan, J. Kitaygorsky, A. Cross, A. Pearlman, I. Komissarov, W. Slysz, M. Wegrzecki, P. Grabiec, and R. Sobolewski, “Middle-infrared to visible-light ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 246–251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans Appl. Supercond. 17, 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14, 527–534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Stevens, R. H. Hadfield, R. E. Schwall, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. A. Gupta, “Fast lifetime measurements of infrared emitters using a low-jitter superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsova, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480–1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Zhang, N. Boiadjieva, G. Chulkova, H. Deslandes, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, M. Leibowitz, W. Lo, R. Malinsky, O. Okunev, A. Pearlman, W. Slysz, K. Smirnov, C. Tsao, A. Verevkin, B. Voronov, K. Wilsher, and R. Sobolewski, “Noninvasive CMOS circuit testing with NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1086–1088 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

R. C. Taber and C. A. Flory, “Microwave oscillators incorporating cryogenic sapphire dielectric resonators,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control 42, 111–119 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, and K. S. Bagdassarov, “Experimental observation of fundamental microwave absorption in high-quality dielectric crystals,” Phys. Lett. A 120, 300–305 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Gurevich and R. G. Mints, “Self-heating in normal metals and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 59, 941–999 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

W. J. Skocpol, M. R. Beasley, and M. Tinkham, “Self-heating hotspots in superconducting thin-film microbridges,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4054–4066 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Akazaki, T.

H. Shibata, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, T. Akazaki, and Y. Tokura, “Single-photon detection using magnesium diboride superconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 212504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Akhlaghi, M. K.

Anant, V.

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans Appl. Supercond. 17, 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14, 527–534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annunziata, A. J.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Annunziata, D. F. Santavicca, J. D. Chudow, L. Frunzio, M. J. Rooks, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 327–331 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bagdassarov, K. S.

V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, and K. S. Bagdassarov, “Experimental observation of fundamental microwave absorption in high-quality dielectric crystals,” Phys. Lett. A 120, 300–305 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Beasley, M. R.

W. J. Skocpol, M. R. Beasley, and M. Tinkham, “Self-heating hotspots in superconducting thin-film microbridges,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4054–4066 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Benkhaoul, M.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lvy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nature Photon. 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, K. K.

X. Hu, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors integrated with optical nano-antennae,” Opt. Express 19, 17–31 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 100509(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans Appl. Supercond. 17, 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14, 527–534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bitauld, D.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lvy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nature Photon. 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boiadjieva, N.

J. Zhang, N. Boiadjieva, G. Chulkova, H. Deslandes, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, M. Leibowitz, W. Lo, R. Malinsky, O. Okunev, A. Pearlman, W. Slysz, K. Smirnov, C. Tsao, A. Verevkin, B. Voronov, K. Wilsher, and R. Sobolewski, “Noninvasive CMOS circuit testing with NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1086–1088 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boroson, D. M.

M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, O. Shatrovoy, R. J. Molnar, D. Rosenberg, J. Yoon, C. E. Devoe, D. V. Murphy, B. S. Robinson, and D. M. Boroson, “Design of a ground-based optical receiver for the lunar laser communications demonstration,” International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications, ICSOS’11, 78–82 (2011).

Braginsky, V. B.

V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, and K. S. Bagdassarov, “Experimental observation of fundamental microwave absorption in high-quality dielectric crystals,” Phys. Lett. A 120, 300–305 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Casaburi, A.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, and S. Pagano, “Maximum count rate of large area superconducting single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Optics 56, 390–394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chudow, J. D.

A. J. Annunziata, D. F. Santavicca, J. D. Chudow, L. Frunzio, M. J. Rooks, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 327–331 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chulkova, G.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Minaeva, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, I. Rubtsova, A. Divochiy, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, D. Pan, J. Kitaygorsky, A. Cross, A. Pearlman, I. Komissarov, W. Slysz, M. Wegrzecki, P. Grabiec, and R. Sobolewski, “Middle-infrared to visible-light ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 246–251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsova, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480–1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, N. Boiadjieva, G. Chulkova, H. Deslandes, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, M. Leibowitz, W. Lo, R. Malinsky, O. Okunev, A. Pearlman, W. Slysz, K. Smirnov, C. Tsao, A. Verevkin, B. Voronov, K. Wilsher, and R. Sobolewski, “Noninvasive CMOS circuit testing with NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1086–1088 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Claudon, J.

M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. P. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. V. Semenov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Ultrafast reset time of superconducting single photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cristiano, R.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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J. Zhang, N. Boiadjieva, G. Chulkova, H. Deslandes, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, M. Leibowitz, W. Lo, R. Malinsky, O. Okunev, A. Pearlman, W. Slysz, K. Smirnov, C. Tsao, A. Verevkin, B. Voronov, K. Wilsher, and R. Sobolewski, “Noninvasive CMOS circuit testing with NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1086–1088 (2003).
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M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, and S. Pagano, “Maximum count rate of large area superconducting single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Optics 56, 390–394 (2009).
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A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lvy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nature Photon. 2, 302–306 (2008).
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A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lvy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nature Photon. 2, 302–306 (2008).
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M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. P. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. V. Semenov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Ultrafast reset time of superconducting single photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241112 (2008).
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G. Gol’tsman, O. Minaeva, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, I. Rubtsova, A. Divochiy, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, D. Pan, J. Kitaygorsky, A. Cross, A. Pearlman, I. Komissarov, W. Slysz, M. Wegrzecki, P. Grabiec, and R. Sobolewski, “Middle-infrared to visible-light ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 246–251 (2007).
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A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111116 (2006).
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K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14, 527–534 (2006).
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J. Zhang, N. Boiadjieva, G. Chulkova, H. Deslandes, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, M. Leibowitz, W. Lo, R. Malinsky, O. Okunev, A. Pearlman, W. Slysz, K. Smirnov, C. Tsao, A. Verevkin, B. Voronov, K. Wilsher, and R. Sobolewski, “Noninvasive CMOS circuit testing with NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1086–1088 (2003).
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G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705–707 (2001).
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Y. Korneeva, I. Florya, A. Semenov, A. Korneev, and G. Goltsman, “New generation of nanowire NbN superconducting single-photon detector for mid-infrared,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21, 323–326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 364–373 (2009).
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G. Gol’tsman, O. Minaeva, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, I. Rubtsova, A. Divochiy, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, D. Pan, J. Kitaygorsky, A. Cross, A. Pearlman, I. Komissarov, W. Slysz, M. Wegrzecki, P. Grabiec, and R. Sobolewski, “Middle-infrared to visible-light ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 246–251 (2007).
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E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 364–373 (2009).
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M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. P. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. V. Semenov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Ultrafast reset time of superconducting single photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241112 (2008).
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G. Gol’tsman, O. Minaeva, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, I. Rubtsova, A. Divochiy, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, D. Pan, J. Kitaygorsky, A. Cross, A. Pearlman, I. Komissarov, W. Slysz, M. Wegrzecki, P. Grabiec, and R. Sobolewski, “Middle-infrared to visible-light ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 246–251 (2007).
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A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111116 (2006).
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E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 100509(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans Appl. Supercond. 17, 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14, 527–534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, O. Shatrovoy, R. J. Molnar, D. Rosenberg, J. Yoon, C. E. Devoe, D. V. Murphy, B. S. Robinson, and D. M. Boroson, “Design of a ground-based optical receiver for the lunar laser communications demonstration,” International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications, ICSOS’11, 78–82 (2011).

Kitaygorsky, J.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Minaeva, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, I. Rubtsova, A. Divochiy, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, D. Pan, J. Kitaygorsky, A. Cross, A. Pearlman, I. Komissarov, W. Slysz, M. Wegrzecki, P. Grabiec, and R. Sobolewski, “Middle-infrared to visible-light ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 246–251 (2007).
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G. Gol’tsman, O. Minaeva, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, I. Rubtsova, A. Divochiy, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, D. Pan, J. Kitaygorsky, A. Cross, A. Pearlman, I. Komissarov, W. Slysz, M. Wegrzecki, P. Grabiec, and R. Sobolewski, “Middle-infrared to visible-light ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 246–251 (2007).
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Korneev, A.

Y. Korneeva, I. Florya, A. Semenov, A. Korneev, and G. Goltsman, “New generation of nanowire NbN superconducting single-photon detector for mid-infrared,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21, 323–326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. P. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. V. Semenov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Ultrafast reset time of superconducting single photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lvy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nature Photon. 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Gol’tsman, O. Minaeva, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, I. Rubtsova, A. Divochiy, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, D. Pan, J. Kitaygorsky, A. Cross, A. Pearlman, I. Komissarov, W. Slysz, M. Wegrzecki, P. Grabiec, and R. Sobolewski, “Middle-infrared to visible-light ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 246–251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, N. Boiadjieva, G. Chulkova, H. Deslandes, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, M. Leibowitz, W. Lo, R. Malinsky, O. Okunev, A. Pearlman, W. Slysz, K. Smirnov, C. Tsao, A. Verevkin, B. Voronov, K. Wilsher, and R. Sobolewski, “Noninvasive CMOS circuit testing with NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1086–1088 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Korneeva, I. Florya, A. Semenov, A. Korneev, and G. Goltsman, “New generation of nanowire NbN superconducting single-photon detector for mid-infrared,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21, 323–326 (2011).
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J. Zhang, N. Boiadjieva, G. Chulkova, H. Deslandes, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, M. Leibowitz, W. Lo, R. Malinsky, O. Okunev, A. Pearlman, W. Slysz, K. Smirnov, C. Tsao, A. Verevkin, B. Voronov, K. Wilsher, and R. Sobolewski, “Noninvasive CMOS circuit testing with NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1086–1088 (2003).
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A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lvy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nature Photon. 2, 302–306 (2008).
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J. Zhang, N. Boiadjieva, G. Chulkova, H. Deslandes, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, M. Leibowitz, W. Lo, R. Malinsky, O. Okunev, A. Pearlman, W. Slysz, K. Smirnov, C. Tsao, A. Verevkin, B. Voronov, K. Wilsher, and R. Sobolewski, “Noninvasive CMOS circuit testing with NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1086–1088 (2003).
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J. Zhang, N. Boiadjieva, G. Chulkova, H. Deslandes, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, M. Leibowitz, W. Lo, R. Malinsky, O. Okunev, A. Pearlman, W. Slysz, K. Smirnov, C. Tsao, A. Verevkin, B. Voronov, K. Wilsher, and R. Sobolewski, “Noninvasive CMOS circuit testing with NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1086–1088 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, M. J.

M. J. Stevens, R. H. Hadfield, R. E. Schwall, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. A. Gupta, “Fast lifetime measurements of infrared emitters using a low-jitter superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taber, R. C.

R. C. Taber and C. A. Flory, “Microwave oscillators incorporating cryogenic sapphire dielectric resonators,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control 42, 111–119 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

S. Miki, M. Takeda, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, A. Otomo, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting NbTiN nanowire single photon detectors with low kinetic inductance,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 075002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takesue, H.

H. Shibata, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, T. Akazaki, and Y. Tokura, “Single-photon detection using magnesium diboride superconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 212504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nature Photon. 1, 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, K.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nature Photon. 1, 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tarkhov, M.

M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. P. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. V. Semenov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Ultrafast reset time of superconducting single photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Gol’tsman, O. Minaeva, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, I. Rubtsova, A. Divochiy, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, D. Pan, J. Kitaygorsky, A. Cross, A. Pearlman, I. Komissarov, W. Slysz, M. Wegrzecki, P. Grabiec, and R. Sobolewski, “Middle-infrared to visible-light ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 246–251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tinkham, M.

W. J. Skocpol, M. R. Beasley, and M. Tinkham, “Self-heating hotspots in superconducting thin-film microbridges,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4054–4066 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tokura, Y.

H. Shibata, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, T. Akazaki, and Y. Tokura, “Single-photon detection using magnesium diboride superconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 212504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, C.

J. Zhang, N. Boiadjieva, G. Chulkova, H. Deslandes, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, M. Leibowitz, W. Lo, R. Malinsky, O. Okunev, A. Pearlman, W. Slysz, K. Smirnov, C. Tsao, A. Verevkin, B. Voronov, K. Wilsher, and R. Sobolewski, “Noninvasive CMOS circuit testing with NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1086–1088 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Verevkin, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsova, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480–1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, N. Boiadjieva, G. Chulkova, H. Deslandes, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, M. Leibowitz, W. Lo, R. Malinsky, O. Okunev, A. Pearlman, W. Slysz, K. Smirnov, C. Tsao, A. Verevkin, B. Voronov, K. Wilsher, and R. Sobolewski, “Noninvasive CMOS circuit testing with NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1086–1088 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, B.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. P. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. V. Semenov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Ultrafast reset time of superconducting single photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Gol’tsman, O. Minaeva, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, I. Rubtsova, A. Divochiy, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, D. Pan, J. Kitaygorsky, A. Cross, A. Pearlman, I. Komissarov, W. Slysz, M. Wegrzecki, P. Grabiec, and R. Sobolewski, “Middle-infrared to visible-light ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 246–251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsova, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480–1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, N. Boiadjieva, G. Chulkova, H. Deslandes, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, M. Leibowitz, W. Lo, R. Malinsky, O. Okunev, A. Pearlman, W. Slysz, K. Smirnov, C. Tsao, A. Verevkin, B. Voronov, K. Wilsher, and R. Sobolewski, “Noninvasive CMOS circuit testing with NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1086–1088 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, B. M.

Wang, Z.

S. Miki, M. Takeda, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, A. Otomo, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting NbTiN nanowire single photon detectors with low kinetic inductance,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 075002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Development of SNSPD system with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19, 332–335 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wegrzecki, M.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Minaeva, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, I. Rubtsova, A. Divochiy, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, D. Pan, J. Kitaygorsky, A. Cross, A. Pearlman, I. Komissarov, W. Slysz, M. Wegrzecki, P. Grabiec, and R. Sobolewski, “Middle-infrared to visible-light ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 246–251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Williams, C.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wilsher, K.

J. Zhang, N. Boiadjieva, G. Chulkova, H. Deslandes, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, M. Leibowitz, W. Lo, R. Malinsky, O. Okunev, A. Pearlman, W. Slysz, K. Smirnov, C. Tsao, A. Verevkin, B. Voronov, K. Wilsher, and R. Sobolewski, “Noninvasive CMOS circuit testing with NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1086–1088 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, E.

Wu, G.

Yamamoto, Y.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nature Photon. 1, 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. K. W.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 100509(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans Appl. Supercond. 17, 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14, 527–534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, J.

M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, O. Shatrovoy, R. J. Molnar, D. Rosenberg, J. Yoon, C. E. Devoe, D. V. Murphy, B. S. Robinson, and D. M. Boroson, “Design of a ground-based optical receiver for the lunar laser communications demonstration,” International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications, ICSOS’11, 78–82 (2011).

Zeng, H.

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, N. Boiadjieva, G. Chulkova, H. Deslandes, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, M. Leibowitz, W. Lo, R. Malinsky, O. Okunev, A. Pearlman, W. Slysz, K. Smirnov, C. Tsao, A. Verevkin, B. Voronov, K. Wilsher, and R. Sobolewski, “Noninvasive CMOS circuit testing with NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1086–1088 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nature Photon. 1, 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

S. Miki, M. Takeda, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, A. Otomo, and Z. Wang, “Superconducting NbTiN nanowire single photon detectors with low kinetic inductance,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 075002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. J. Stevens, R. H. Hadfield, R. E. Schwall, S. W. Nam, R. P. Mirin, and J. A. Gupta, “Fast lifetime measurements of infrared emitters using a low-jitter superconducting single-photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705–707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Shibata, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, T. Akazaki, and Y. Tokura, “Single-photon detection using magnesium diboride superconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 212504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Tarkhov, J. Claudon, J. P. Poizat, A. Korneev, A. Divochiy, O. Minaeva, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, A. V. Semenov, and G. Gol’tsman, “Ultrafast reset time of superconducting single photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Zhang, N. Boiadjieva, G. Chulkova, H. Deslandes, G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, M. Leibowitz, W. Lo, R. Malinsky, O. Okunev, A. Pearlman, W. Slysz, K. Smirnov, C. Tsao, A. Verevkin, B. Voronov, K. Wilsher, and R. Sobolewski, “Noninvasive CMOS circuit testing with NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1086–1088 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans Appl. Supercond. (1)

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans Appl. Supercond. 17, 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (4)

G. Gol’tsman, O. Minaeva, A. Korneev, M. Tarkhov, I. Rubtsova, A. Divochiy, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, N. Kaurova, B. Voronov, D. Pan, J. Kitaygorsky, A. Cross, A. Pearlman, I. Komissarov, W. Slysz, M. Wegrzecki, P. Grabiec, and R. Sobolewski, “Middle-infrared to visible-light ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17, 246–251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Korneeva, I. Florya, A. Semenov, A. Korneev, and G. Goltsman, “New generation of nanowire NbN superconducting single-photon detector for mid-infrared,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21, 323–326 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Annunziata, D. F. Santavicca, J. D. Chudow, L. Frunzio, M. J. Rooks, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 327–331 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Development of SNSPD system with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19, 332–335 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control (1)

R. C. Taber and C. A. Flory, “Microwave oscillators incorporating cryogenic sapphire dielectric resonators,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control 42, 111–119 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Skocpol, M. R. Beasley, and M. Tinkham, “Self-heating hotspots in superconducting thin-film microbridges,” J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4054–4066 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Optics (1)

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, and S. Pagano, “Maximum count rate of large area superconducting single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Optics 56, 390–394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Photon. (3)

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lvy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nature Photon. 2, 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nature Photon. 1, 343–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Hadfield, “Single photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nature Photon. 3, 696–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

V. B. Braginsky, V. S. Ilchenko, and K. S. Bagdassarov, “Experimental observation of fundamental microwave absorption in high-quality dielectric crystals,” Phys. Lett. A 120, 300–305 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 100509(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

G. N. Gol’tsman, A. Korneev, I. Rubtsova, I. Milostnaya, G. Chulkova, O. Minaeva, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2, 1480–1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

A. V. Gurevich and R. G. Mints, “Self-heating in normal metals and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 59, 941–999 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. E. Grein, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, O. Shatrovoy, R. J. Molnar, D. Rosenberg, J. Yoon, C. E. Devoe, D. V. Murphy, B. S. Robinson, and D. M. Boroson, “Design of a ground-based optical receiver for the lunar laser communications demonstration,” International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications, ICSOS’11, 78–82 (2011).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Gated mode operation of SNSPDs. (a) The equivalent circuit model for a FM-SNSPD. LK is the nanowires kinetic inductance and RL is the load seen by the nanowires. (b) Schematic for our GM-SNSPD showing the major elements. 3dB labels a 3dB power splitter and 20dB labels a 20dB resistive attenuator. R1 is a 50Ω load resistor to terminate the coax and R2 is a 50Ω current sense resistor. We used a high electron mobility transistor, HEMT, to both amplify the weak voltage and to further isolate the nanowires from the reflected waves. (c) A typical set of waveforms showing the detector latches at the current maxima, returns to the superconducting state at a smaller current and the difference voltage peaks as a result.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Autocorrelation and gate shape measurements. (a) Normalized Γ(τ) for FM-SNSPD with RL = 100Ω (black circles) and our 625MHz GM-SNSPD (red squares), both under CW laser illumination. Non-flat autocorrelations show the dependency of two detector clicks separated in time by τ. (b) Normalized time histogram of the detection events within a gate period of our 625MHz GM-SNSPD under a CW laser. (c) Normalized autocorrelation for 625MHz GM-SNSPD excited with a pulsed laser at 625MHz/20.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quantum Efficiency and Dark Count measurements. The black squares are for the FM-SNSPD and the red circles are for the 100MHz GM-SNSPD. The current shown is the DC biasing current or the peak of current for FM and GM respectively. For GM QE measurement, a 200ps pulsed laser was locked to the peaks of the current through the SNSPD. Note for the GM-SNSPD the DCR saturates at the gating frequency at higher currents.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electro-thermal model and simulation. (a) The electrical circuit model for our GM-SNSPD (see methods). (b) A simplified version that was used to do electro-thermal simulations. (c) Simulated peaks of current in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd gate following a photon detection normalized to 95% of the critical current for RP = 725Ω (equivalent to RB = 650Ω), CP = 0.57pf and LK = 490nH. Also shown is the maximum temperature on the surface of the nanowire at the first gate following a photo-detection normalized to 4.2K for a critically damped circuit with CP = 0.01pf and LK equal to 6nH, 60nH, 600nH and 6000nH.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

DCR G M ( t ) d t = DCR F M ( I B ( t ) ) d t [ 1 T / 2 t DCR G M ( t ) d t ] .
DCR G M ¯ = 1 T T / 2 T / 2 DCR G M ( t ) d t = 1 T [ 1 exp ( T / 2 T / 2 DCR F M ( I B ( t ) ) d t ) ] .
ρ J 2 + k 2 T x 2 α d ( T T sub ) = c T t ,

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