Abstract

Circular polarizers with left-handed helical metamaterials can transmit right-handed circularly polarized (RCP) light with few losses. But a certain amount of left-handed circularly polarized (LCP) light will occur in the transmitted light, which is the noise of the circular polarizer. Therefore, we defined the ratio of the RCP light intensity to the LCP light intensity as the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. In our previous work, it’s found that circular polarizers with multi-helical metamaterials have two orders higher S/N ratios than that of single-helical metamaterials. However, it has been a great challenge to fabricate such multi-helical structures with micron or sub-micron feature sizes. Is it possible for the single-helical metamaterials to obtain equally high S/N ratios as the multi-helical ones? To answer this question, we systematically investigated the influences of structure parameters of single-helical metamaterials on the S/N ratios using the finite-different time-domain (FDTD) method. It was found that the single-helical metamaterials can also reach about 30dB S/N ratios, which are equal to the multi-helical ones. Furthermore, we explained the phenomenon by the antenna theory and optimized the performances of the single-helical circular polarizers.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (2)

2010 (6)

J. K. Gansel, M. Wegener, S. Burger, and S. Linden, “Gold helix photonic metamaterials: a numerical parameter study,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1059–1069 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. F. Li, H. Caglayan, E. Colak, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Coupling effect between two adjacent chiral structure layers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5375–5383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. F. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, ““Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Oh, S. Liu, H. S. Jee, A. Baev, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Chiral poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (PFBT) and nanocomposites with gold nanoparticles: plasmonically and structurally enhanced chirality,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(49), 17346–17348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Q. Ye and S. L. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Yang, M. Zhao, and P. X. Lu, “A numerical study on helix nanowire metamaterials as optical circular polarizers in the visible region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1303–1305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

J. F. Zhou, J. F. Dong, B. N. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2501–2503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

1998 (1)

1994 (2)

J. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic-waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114(2), 185–200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Harms, R. Mittra, and W. Ko, “Implementation of the periodic boundary condition in the finite-difference time-domain algorithm for FSS structures,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 42(9), 1317–1324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alici, K. B.

Z. F. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, ““Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baev, A.

H. S. Oh, S. Liu, H. S. Jee, A. Baev, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Chiral poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (PFBT) and nanocomposites with gold nanoparticles: plasmonically and structurally enhanced chirality,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(49), 17346–17348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berenger, J.

J. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic-waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114(2), 185–200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Burger, S.

Caglayan, H.

Z. F. Li, H. Caglayan, E. Colak, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Coupling effect between two adjacent chiral structure layers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5375–5383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. F. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, ““Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Colak, E.

Z. F. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, ““Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. F. Li, H. Caglayan, E. Colak, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Coupling effect between two adjacent chiral structure layers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5375–5383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decker, M.

Djurisic, A. B.

Dong, J. F.

J. F. Zhou, J. F. Dong, B. N. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Drezet, A.

Ebbesen, T. W.

Elazar, J. M.

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Wegener, S. Burger, and S. Linden, “Gold helix photonic metamaterials: a numerical parameter study,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1059–1069 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

Harms, P.

P. Harms, R. Mittra, and W. Ko, “Implementation of the periodic boundary condition in the finite-difference time-domain algorithm for FSS structures,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 42(9), 1317–1324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

He, S. L.

Y. Q. Ye and S. L. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jee, H. S.

H. S. Oh, S. Liu, H. S. Jee, A. Baev, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Chiral poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (PFBT) and nanocomposites with gold nanoparticles: plasmonically and structurally enhanced chirality,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(49), 17346–17348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kafesaki, M.

Z. F. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, ““Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, J. F. Dong, B. N. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. W.

Ko, W.

P. Harms, R. Mittra, and W. Ko, “Implementation of the periodic boundary condition in the finite-difference time-domain algorithm for FSS structures,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 42(9), 1317–1324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

Z. F. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, ““Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Zhou, J. F. Dong, B. N. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kriegler, C. E.

Kwon, D. H.

Laluet, J. Y.

Li, S. X.

Li, Z. F.

Z. F. Li, H. Caglayan, E. Colak, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Coupling effect between two adjacent chiral structure layers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5375–5383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. F. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, ““Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

Liu, S.

H. S. Oh, S. Liu, H. S. Jee, A. Baev, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Chiral poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (PFBT) and nanocomposites with gold nanoparticles: plasmonically and structurally enhanced chirality,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(49), 17346–17348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, P. X.

Z. Y. Yang, M. Zhao, and P. X. Lu, “Improving the signal-to-noise ratio for circular polarizers consisting of helical metamaterials” Opt. Express 19(5), 4255–4260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Yang, M. Zhao, and P. X. Lu, “A numerical study on helix nanowire metamaterials as optical circular polarizers in the visible region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1303–1305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Majewski, M. L.

Mittra, R.

P. Harms, R. Mittra, and W. Ko, “Implementation of the periodic boundary condition in the finite-difference time-domain algorithm for FSS structures,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 42(9), 1317–1324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oh, H. S.

H. S. Oh, S. Liu, H. S. Jee, A. Baev, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Chiral poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (PFBT) and nanocomposites with gold nanoparticles: plasmonically and structurally enhanced chirality,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(49), 17346–17348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozbay, E.

Z. F. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, ““Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. F. Li, H. Caglayan, E. Colak, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Coupling effect between two adjacent chiral structure layers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5375–5383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasad, P. N.

H. S. Oh, S. Liu, H. S. Jee, A. Baev, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Chiral poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (PFBT) and nanocomposites with gold nanoparticles: plasmonically and structurally enhanced chirality,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(49), 17346–17348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rakic, A. D.

Rill, M. S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruther, M.

Saile, V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

Z. F. Li, H. Caglayan, E. Colak, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Coupling effect between two adjacent chiral structure layers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5375–5383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. F. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, ““Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2501–2503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Zhou, J. F. Dong, B. N. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Swihart, M. T.

H. S. Oh, S. Liu, H. S. Jee, A. Baev, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Chiral poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (PFBT) and nanocomposites with gold nanoparticles: plasmonically and structurally enhanced chirality,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(49), 17346–17348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thiel, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Freymann, G.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B. N.

J. F. Zhou, J. F. Dong, B. N. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

Werner, D. H.

Werner, P. L.

Wu, L.

Yang, Z. Y.

Ye, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Ye and S. L. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

Yuan, X. H.

Zhang, Q. P.

Zhao, M.

Zhao, R.

Z. F. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, ““Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

Zhou, J. F.

Z. F. Li, H. Caglayan, E. Colak, J. F. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Coupling effect between two adjacent chiral structure layers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5375–5383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Zhou, J. F. Dong, B. N. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Z. F. Li, R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, ““Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four “U” split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Ye and S. L. He, “90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. Y. Yang, M. Zhao, and P. X. Lu, “A numerical study on helix nanowire metamaterials as optical circular polarizers in the visible region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1303–1305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

P. Harms, R. Mittra, and W. Ko, “Implementation of the periodic boundary condition in the finite-difference time-domain algorithm for FSS structures,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 42(9), 1317–1324 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

H. S. Oh, S. Liu, H. S. Jee, A. Baev, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Chiral poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (PFBT) and nanocomposites with gold nanoparticles: plasmonically and structurally enhanced chirality,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(49), 17346–17348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

J. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic-waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114(2), 185–200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. F. Zhou, J. F. Dong, B. N. Wang, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refractive index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 121104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. D. Kraus and R. J. Marhefka, “The helical antenna: axial and other modes, Part II,” in Antennas: For All Applications, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2003), pp. 251–258.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of the optical circular polarizers using single-helical metamaterials.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The comparison of polarization states of the transmitted RCP light of single-helical circular polarizers with different DWs or NHs (represented on the Poincaré sphere).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The comparison of polarization states of the transmitted RCP light of single-helical circular polarizers with different SGs. (represented on the Poincaré sphere)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Currents’ paths on the surfaces of the single-helical metamaterials with different SGs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The comparison of polarization states of the transmitted RCP light of single-helical metamaterials with different LHs or DHs (represented on the Poincaré sphere).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Currents’ paths on the surfaces of the helical metamaterials with different LHs or DHs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Overall performances of an optimized single-helical circular polarizer. (a): LCP, RCP transmittance spectrums, and extinction ratio spectrum; (b): polarization states of the transmitted RCP light (represented on the Poincaré sphere).

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Definitions of the Helical Metamaterials’ Performances

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters and Simulation Results of Single-helical Circular Polarizers with Different DWs or NHs

Tables Icon

Table 3 Parameters and Simulation Eesults of Single-helical Circular Polarizers with Different SGs

Tables Icon

Table 4 The parameters and simulation results of single-helical circular polarizers with different LHs or DHs

Tables Icon

Table 5 Influences of Structure Parameters on S/N Ratios of Single-helical Metamaterials

Metrics