Abstract

Speckle pattern, which is inherent in coherence imaging, influences significantly axial and transversal resolution of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) instruments. The well known speckle removal techniques are either sensitive to sample motion, require sophisticated and expensive sample tracking systems, or involve sophisticated numerical procedures. As a result, their applicability to in vivo real-time imaging is limited. In this work, we propose to average multiple A-scans collected in a fully controlled way to reduce the speckle contrast. This procedure involves non-coherent averaging of OCT A-scans acquired from adjacent locations on the sample. The technique exploits scanning protocol with fast beam deflection in the direction perpendicular to lateral dimension of the cross-sectional image. Such scanning protocol reduces the time interval between A-scans to be averaged to the repetition time of the acquisition system. Consequently, the averaging algorithm is immune to bulk motion of an investigated sample, does not require any sophisticated data processing to align cross-sectional images, and allows for precise control of lateral shift of the scanning beam on the object. The technique is tested with standard Spectral OCT system with an extra resonant scanner used for rapid beam deflection in the lateral direction. Ultrahigh speed CMOS camera serves as a detector and acquires 200,000 spectra per second. A dedicated A-scan generation algorithm allows for real-time display of images with reduced speckle contrast at 6 frames/second. This technique is applied to in vivo imaging of anterior and posterior segments of the human eye and human skin.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Wojtkowski, “High-speed optical coherence tomography: basics and applications,” Appl. Opt. 49(16), D30–D61 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Targowski, M. Iwanicka, L. Tymińska-Widmer, M. Sylwestrzak, and E. A. Kwiatkowska, “Structural examination of easel paintings with optical coherence tomography,” Acc. Chem. Res. 43(6), 826–836 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. C. Adler, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography at up to 370,000 lines per second using buffered Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 626–628 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. W. Goodman, “Some fundamental properties of speckle,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66(11), 1145–1150 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Bashkansky and J. Reintjes, “Statistics and reduction of speckle in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25(8), 545–547 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. Karamata, K. Hassler, M. Laubscher, and T. Lasser, “Speckle statistics in optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(4), 593–596 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. D. Duncan, S. J. Kirkpatrick, and R. K. K. Wang, “Statistics of local speckle contrast,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(1), 9–15 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, “Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 570–575 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kałuzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Yu, L. Peng, M. Mustata, J. J. Turek, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, “Time-dependent speckle in holographic optical coherence imaging and the health of tumor tissue,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 68–70 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Mariampillai, M. K. K. Leung, M. Jarvi, B. A. Standish, K. Lee, B. C. Wilson, A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Optimized speckle variance OCT imaging of microvasculature,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1257–1259 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. V. J. Srinivasan, S. Sakadzić, I. Gorczynska, S. Ruvinskaya, W. C. Wu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2477–2494 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. K. Barton and S. Stromski, “Flow measurement without phase information in optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5234–5239 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. J. Kirkpatrick, R. K. Wang, and D. D. Duncan, “OCT-based elastography for large and small deformations,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11585–11597 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. M. Schmitt, “OCT elastography: imaging microscopic deformation and strain of tissue,” Opt. Express 3(6), 199–211 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. J. Kirkpatrick, D. D. Duncan, R. K. Wang, and M. T. Hinds, “Quantitative temporal speckle contrast imaging for tissue mechanics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(12), 3728–3734 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, A. Bilenca, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Estimation of the scattering coefficients of turbid media using angle-resolved optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1560–1562 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. I. Kholodnykh, I. Y. Petrova, K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Precision of measurement of tissue optical properties with optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 42(16), 3027–3037 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of water concentration in human cornea with differential absorption optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2190–2197 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. T. Støren, A. Røyset, L. O. Svaasand, and T. Lindmo, “Functional imaging of dye concentration in tissue phantoms by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024037 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. T. R. Hillman, A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Detection of multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography by speckle correlation of angle-dependent B-scans,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 1998–2000 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Y. T. Pan, Z. L. Wu, Z. J. Yuan, Z. G. Wang, and C. W. Du, “Subcellular imaging of epithelium with time-lapse optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 050504 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. D. Cabrera Fernández, H. M. Salinas, and C. A. Puliafito, “Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10200–10216 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. H. Tanna, A. M. Dubis, N. Ayub, D. M. Tait, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, and J. Carroll, “Retinal imaging using commercial broadband optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(3), 372–376 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Backscattering spectroscopic contrast with angle-resolved optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3158–3160 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. S. G. Adie, T. R. Hillman, and D. D. Sampson, “Detection of multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography using the spatial distribution of Stokes vectors,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18033–18049 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, “Evaluation of the adaptive speckle suppression filter for coronary optical coherence tomography imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19(12), 1261–1266 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. D. C. Adler, T. H. Ko, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images by use of a spatially adaptive wavelet filter,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2878–2880 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. A. Ozcan, A. Bilenca, A. E. Desjardins, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using digital filtering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(7), 1901–1910 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. P. Puvanathasan and K. Bizheva, “Speckle noise reduction algorithm for optical coherence tomography based on interval type II fuzzy set,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15747–15758 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. M. Gargesha, M. W. Jenkins, A. M. Rollins, and D. L. Wilson, “Denoising and 4D visualization of OCT images,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12313–12333 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. S. Chitchian, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, “Denoising during optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves via wavelet shrinkage using dual-tree complex wavelet transform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014031 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. Z. P. Jian, Z. X. Yu, L. F. Yu, B. Rao, Z. P. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Speckle attenuation in optical coherence tomography by curvelet shrinkage,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1516–1518 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. Z. P. Jian, L. F. Yu, B. Rao, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. P. Chen, “Three-dimensional speckle suppression in Optical Coherence Tomography based on the curvelet transform,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1024–1032 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. K. M. Yung, S. L. Lee, and J. M. Schmitt, “Phase-domain processing of optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 125–136 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  43. A. Wong, A. Mishra, K. Bizheva, and D. A. Clausi, “General Bayesian estimation for speckle noise reduction in optical coherence tomography retinal imagery,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8338–8352 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. D. L. Marks, T. S. Ralston, and S. A. Boppart, “Speckle reduction by I-divergence regularization in optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(11), 2366–2371 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. J. M. Schmitt, “Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(7), 1427–1439 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. H. W. Ren, Z. H. Ding, Y. H. Zhao, J. J. Miao, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, “Phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography: simultaneous imaging of in situ tissue structure, blood flow velocity, standard deviation, birefringence, and Stokes vectors in human skin,” Opt. Lett. 27(19), 1702–1704 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 565–569 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. B. Karamata, P. Lambelet, M. Laubscher, R. P. Salathé, and T. Lasser, “Spatially incoherent illumination as a mechanism for cross-talk suppression in wide-field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 736–738 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, “Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064034 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, “Enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography by image registration--method and clinical examples,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041208 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. Z. J. Yuan, B. Chen, H. G. Ren, and Y. T. Pan, “On the possibility of time-lapse ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer grading,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 050502 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. S. Marschall, T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, K. Hsu, K. P. Hansen, B. Sumpf, K.-H. Hasler, G. Erbert, O. B. Jensen, C. Pedersen, R. Huber, and P. E. Andersen, “Fourier domain mode-locked swept source at 1050 nm based on a tapered amplifier,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15820–15831 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  53. R. K. K. Wang and Z. H. Ma, “Real-time flow imaging by removing texture pattern artifacts in spectral-domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 3001–3003 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, N. V. Iftimia, T. Ustun, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, W. D. Dilworth, L. Kagemann, and J. S. Schuman, “Advanced scanning methods with tracking optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7937–7947 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  55. M. Hangai, M. Yamamoto, A. Sakamoto, and N. Yoshimura, “Ultrahigh-resolution versus speckle noise-reduction in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4221–4235 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  56. Heidelberg Engineering, “Spectralis,” http://www.heidelbergengineering.com/products/spectralis-models/ .
  57. N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by “path length encoded” angular compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 260–263 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  58. H. Wang and A. M. Rollins, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography using angular compounding by B-scan Doppler-shift encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030512 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  59. A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, W. Y. Oh, S. M. R. Motaghiannezam, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Angle-resolved optical coherence tomography with sequential angular selectivity for speckle reduction,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6200–6209 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  60. M. Hughes, M. Spring, and A. Podoleanu, “Speckle noise reduction in optical coherence tomography of paint layers,” Appl. Opt. 49(1), 99–107 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  61. D. P. Popescu, M. D. Hewko, and M. G. Sowa, “Speckle noise attenuation in optical coherence tomography by compounding images acquired at different positions of the sample,” Opt. Commun. 269(1), 247–251 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  62. B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, A. Curatolo, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by strain compounding,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2445–2447 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  63. B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Speckle averaging for optical coherence tomography by vibration of a thin water film,” Proc. SPIE 5316, 391–396 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  64. I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  65. T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4163–4176 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  66. M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  67. B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S.-H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  68. M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  69. M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  70. M. Szkulmowski, I. Grulkowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation by complex ambiguity free joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14281–14297 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  71. A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Speckle reduction in OCT using massively-parallel detection and frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4736–4745 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  72. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 2000).
  73. B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Statistical properties of phase-decorrelation in phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(6), 814–821 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  74. R. K. Wang and Z. Ma, “Real-time flow imaging by removing texture pattern artifacts in spectral-domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 3001–3003 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  75. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2977–2998 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. Wojtkowski, “High-speed optical coherence tomography: basics and applications,” Appl. Opt. 49(16), D30–D61 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Targowski, M. Iwanicka, L. Tymińska-Widmer, M. Sylwestrzak, and E. A. Kwiatkowska, “Structural examination of easel paintings with optical coherence tomography,” Acc. Chem. Res. 43(6), 826–836 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, M. K. K. Leung, M. Jarvi, B. A. Standish, K. Lee, B. C. Wilson, A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Optimized speckle variance OCT imaging of microvasculature,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1257–1259 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, S. Sakadzić, I. Gorczynska, S. Ruvinskaya, W. C. Wu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2477–2494 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tanna, A. M. Dubis, N. Ayub, D. M. Tait, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, and J. Carroll, “Retinal imaging using commercial broadband optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(3), 372–376 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Hillman, A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Detection of multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography by speckle correlation of angle-dependent B-scans,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 1998–2000 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Jian, L. F. Yu, B. Rao, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. P. Chen, “Three-dimensional speckle suppression in Optical Coherence Tomography based on the curvelet transform,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1024–1032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wong, A. Mishra, K. Bizheva, and D. A. Clausi, “General Bayesian estimation for speckle noise reduction in optical coherence tomography retinal imagery,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8338–8352 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marschall, T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, K. Hsu, K. P. Hansen, B. Sumpf, K.-H. Hasler, G. Erbert, O. B. Jensen, C. Pedersen, R. Huber, and P. E. Andersen, “Fourier domain mode-locked swept source at 1050 nm based on a tapered amplifier,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15820–15831 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hughes, M. Spring, and A. Podoleanu, “Speckle noise reduction in optical coherence tomography of paint layers,” Appl. Opt. 49(1), 99–107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, A. Curatolo, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by strain compounding,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2445–2447 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M. Hangai, M. Yamamoto, A. Sakamoto, and N. Yoshimura, “Ultrahigh-resolution versus speckle noise-reduction in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4221–4235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang and A. M. Rollins, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography using angular compounding by B-scan Doppler-shift encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030512 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, I. Grulkowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation by complex ambiguity free joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14281–14297 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Statistical properties of phase-decorrelation in phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(6), 814–821 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. J. Yuan, B. Chen, H. G. Ren, and Y. T. Pan, “On the possibility of time-lapse ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer grading,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 050502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chitchian, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, “Denoising during optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves via wavelet shrinkage using dual-tree complex wavelet transform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014031 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Jian, Z. X. Yu, L. F. Yu, B. Rao, Z. P. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Speckle attenuation in optical coherence tomography by curvelet shrinkage,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1516–1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

M. Gargesha, M. W. Jenkins, A. M. Rollins, and D. L. Wilson, “Denoising and 4D visualization of OCT images,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12313–12333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4163–4176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Duncan, S. J. Kirkpatrick, and R. K. K. Wang, “Statistics of local speckle contrast,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(1), 9–15 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

D. C. Adler, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography at up to 370,000 lines per second using buffered Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 626–628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kałuzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Pan, Z. L. Wu, Z. J. Yuan, Z. G. Wang, and C. W. Du, “Subcellular imaging of epithelium with time-lapse optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 050504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozcan, A. Bilenca, A. E. Desjardins, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using digital filtering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(7), 1901–1910 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Puvanathasan and K. Bizheva, “Speckle noise reduction algorithm for optical coherence tomography based on interval type II fuzzy set,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15747–15758 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Backscattering spectroscopic contrast with angle-resolved optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3158–3160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, T. R. Hillman, and D. D. Sampson, “Detection of multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography using the spatial distribution of Stokes vectors,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18033–18049 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Kirkpatrick, D. D. Duncan, R. K. Wang, and M. T. Hinds, “Quantitative temporal speckle contrast imaging for tissue mechanics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(12), 3728–3734 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, A. Bilenca, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Estimation of the scattering coefficients of turbid media using angle-resolved optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1560–1562 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, W. Y. Oh, S. M. R. Motaghiannezam, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Angle-resolved optical coherence tomography with sequential angular selectivity for speckle reduction,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6200–6209 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Popescu, M. D. Hewko, and M. G. Sowa, “Speckle noise attenuation in optical coherence tomography by compounding images acquired at different positions of the sample,” Opt. Commun. 269(1), 247–251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, “Enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography by image registration--method and clinical examples,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

B. Karamata, K. Hassler, M. Laubscher, and T. Lasser, “Speckle statistics in optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(4), 593–596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Støren, A. Røyset, L. O. Svaasand, and T. Lindmo, “Functional imaging of dye concentration in tissue phantoms by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024037 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Cabrera Fernández, H. M. Salinas, and C. A. Puliafito, “Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10200–10216 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Barton and S. Stromski, “Flow measurement without phase information in optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5234–5239 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, N. V. Iftimia, T. Ustun, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, W. D. Dilworth, L. Kagemann, and J. S. Schuman, “Advanced scanning methods with tracking optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7937–7947 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, “Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Marks, T. S. Ralston, and S. A. Boppart, “Speckle reduction by I-divergence regularization in optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(11), 2366–2371 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

D. C. Adler, T. H. Ko, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images by use of a spatially adaptive wavelet filter,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2878–2880 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Karamata, P. Lambelet, M. Laubscher, R. P. Salathé, and T. Lasser, “Spatially incoherent illumination as a mechanism for cross-talk suppression in wide-field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 736–738 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2977–2998 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S.-H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Speckle averaging for optical coherence tomography by vibration of a thin water film,” Proc. SPIE 5316, 391–396 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Yu, L. Peng, M. Mustata, J. J. Turek, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, “Time-dependent speckle in holographic optical coherence imaging and the health of tumor tissue,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 68–70 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, “Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 570–575 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Kholodnykh, I. Y. Petrova, K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Precision of measurement of tissue optical properties with optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 42(16), 3027–3037 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of water concentration in human cornea with differential absorption optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2190–2197 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by “path length encoded” angular compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 260–263 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 565–569 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2000

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, “Evaluation of the adaptive speckle suppression filter for coronary optical coherence tomography imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19(12), 1261–1266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bashkansky and J. Reintjes, “Statistics and reduction of speckle in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25(8), 545–547 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Yung, S. L. Lee, and J. M. Schmitt, “Phase-domain processing of optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 125–136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

J. M. Schmitt, “Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(7), 1427–1439 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976

Adie, S. G.

Adler, D. C.

Andersen, P. E.

Ayub, N.

H. Tanna, A. M. Dubis, N. Ayub, D. M. Tait, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, and J. Carroll, “Retinal imaging using commercial broadband optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(3), 372–376 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Barton, J. K.

J. K. Barton and S. Stromski, “Flow measurement without phase information in optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5234–5239 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, “Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 570–575 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashkansky, M.

Biedermann, B. R.

Bilenca, A.

Bizheva, K.

Boas, D. A.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Statistical properties of phase-decorrelation in phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(6), 814–821 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozcan, A. Bilenca, A. E. Desjardins, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using digital filtering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(7), 1901–1910 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Backscattering spectroscopic contrast with angle-resolved optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3158–3160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, W. Y. Oh, S. M. R. Motaghiannezam, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Angle-resolved optical coherence tomography with sequential angular selectivity for speckle reduction,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6200–6209 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, A. Bilenca, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Estimation of the scattering coefficients of turbid media using angle-resolved optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1560–1562 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Speckle reduction in OCT using massively-parallel detection and frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4736–4745 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2977–2998 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S.-H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by “path length encoded” angular compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 260–263 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, “Evaluation of the adaptive speckle suppression filter for coronary optical coherence tomography imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19(12), 1261–1266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cabrera Fernández, D.

Carroll, J.

H. Tanna, A. M. Dubis, N. Ayub, D. M. Tait, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, and J. Carroll, “Retinal imaging using commercial broadband optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(3), 372–376 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, B.

Z. J. Yuan, B. Chen, H. G. Ren, and Y. T. Pan, “On the possibility of time-lapse ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer grading,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 050502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Y. L.

Chen, Z. P.

Chitchian, S.

S. Chitchian, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, “Denoising during optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves via wavelet shrinkage using dual-tree complex wavelet transform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014031 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S. S.

R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christensen, U.

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, “Enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography by image registration--method and clinical examples,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clausi, D. A.

Curatolo, A.

de Boer, J. F.

Desjardins, A. E.

Dilworth, W. D.

Ding, Z. H.

Du, C. W.

Y. T. Pan, Z. L. Wu, Z. J. Yuan, Z. G. Wang, and C. W. Du, “Subcellular imaging of epithelium with time-lapse optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 050504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubis, A. M.

H. Tanna, A. M. Dubis, N. Ayub, D. M. Tait, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, and J. Carroll, “Retinal imaging using commercial broadband optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(3), 372–376 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

Duncan, D. D.

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Erbert, G.

Esenaliev, R. O.

Fercher, A. F.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of water concentration in human cornea with differential absorption optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2190–2197 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 565–569 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, R. D.

Fiddy, M. A.

S. Chitchian, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, “Denoising during optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves via wavelet shrinkage using dual-tree complex wavelet transform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014031 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fried, N. M.

S. Chitchian, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, “Denoising during optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves via wavelet shrinkage using dual-tree complex wavelet transform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014031 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

V. J. Srinivasan, S. Sakadzić, I. Gorczynska, S. Ruvinskaya, W. C. Wu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2477–2494 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography at up to 370,000 lines per second using buffered Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 626–628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kałuzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, T. H. Ko, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images by use of a spatially adaptive wavelet filter,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2878–2880 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuller, A. R.

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabriele, M. L.

Gargesha, M.

Goodman, J. W.

Gora, M.

Gorczynska, I.

Gossage, K. W.

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, “Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 570–575 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gotzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 565–569 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grulkowski, I.

Hamann, B.

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

Hangai, M.

Hansen, K. P.

Hasler, K.-H.

Hassler, K.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hewko, M. D.

D. P. Popescu, M. D. Hewko, and M. G. Sowa, “Speckle noise attenuation in optical coherence tomography by compounding images acquired at different positions of the sample,” Opt. Commun. 269(1), 247–251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, T. R.

Hinds, M. T.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of water concentration in human cornea with differential absorption optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2190–2197 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 565–569 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Hughes, M.

Iftimia, N.

N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by “path length encoded” angular compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 260–263 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N. V.

Ishikawa, H.

Iwanicka, M.

P. Targowski, M. Iwanicka, L. Tymińska-Widmer, M. Sylwestrzak, and E. A. Kwiatkowska, “Structural examination of easel paintings with optical coherence tomography,” Acc. Chem. Res. 43(6), 826–836 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jarvi, M.

Jenkins, M. W.

Jensen, O. B.

Jian, Z. P.

Jiang, J.

Jørgensen, T. M.

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, “Enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography by image registration--method and clinical examples,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kagemann, L.

Kaluzny, B. J.

Kaluzny, J. J.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kałuzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Karamata, B.

Karnowski, K.

Kennedy, B. F.

Kholodnykh, A. I.

Khurana, M.

Kim, E.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, “Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, “Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

Klein, T.

Ko, T. H.

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, I. Grulkowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation by complex ambiguity free joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14281–14297 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4163–4176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kałuzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwiatkowska, E. A.

P. Targowski, M. Iwanicka, L. Tymińska-Widmer, M. Sylwestrzak, and E. A. Kwiatkowska, “Structural examination of easel paintings with optical coherence tomography,” Acc. Chem. Res. 43(6), 826–836 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lambelet, P.

Larin, K. V.

Lasser, T.

Laubscher, M.

Lee, K.

Lee, S. L.

K. M. Yung, S. L. Lee, and J. M. Schmitt, “Phase-domain processing of optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 125–136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 565–569 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of water concentration in human cornea with differential absorption optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2190–2197 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leung, M. K. K.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindmo, T.

T. Støren, A. Røyset, L. O. Svaasand, and T. Lindmo, “Functional imaging of dye concentration in tissue phantoms by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024037 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Z.

Ma, Z. H.

Mariampillai, A.

Marks, D. L.

Marschall, S.

Melloch, M. R.

Miao, J. J.

Miller, D. T.

R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, “Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, “Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishra, A.

Moriyama, E. H.

Motaghiannezam, S. M. R.

Motamedi, M.

Munce, N. R.

Mustata, M.

Nassif, N. A.

Nelson, J. S.

Nolte, D. D.

Oh, J.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, “Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, S.

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, “Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

Ozcan, A.

Pan, Y. T.

Z. J. Yuan, B. Chen, H. G. Ren, and Y. T. Pan, “On the possibility of time-lapse ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer grading,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 050502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Pan, Z. L. Wu, Z. J. Yuan, Z. G. Wang, and C. W. Du, “Subcellular imaging of epithelium with time-lapse optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 050504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Pedersen, C.

Peng, L.

Petrova, I. Y.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 565–569 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of water concentration in human cornea with differential absorption optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2190–2197 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podoleanu, A.

Popescu, D. P.

D. P. Popescu, M. D. Hewko, and M. G. Sowa, “Speckle noise attenuation in optical coherence tomography by compounding images acquired at different positions of the sample,” Opt. Commun. 269(1), 247–251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Potsaid, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Cabrera Fernández, H. M. Salinas, and C. A. Puliafito, “Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10200–10216 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puvanathasan, P.

Ralston, T. S.

Rao, B.

Reintjes, J.

Ren, H. G.

Z. J. Yuan, B. Chen, H. G. Ren, and Y. T. Pan, “On the possibility of time-lapse ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer grading,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 050502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H. W.

Rha, J.

H. Tanna, A. M. Dubis, N. Ayub, D. M. Tait, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, and J. Carroll, “Retinal imaging using commercial broadband optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(3), 372–376 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, J. J.

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, “Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 570–575 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogowska, J.

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, “Evaluation of the adaptive speckle suppression filter for coronary optical coherence tomography imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19(12), 1261–1266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

H. Wang and A. M. Rollins, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography using angular compounding by B-scan Doppler-shift encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030512 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gargesha, M. W. Jenkins, A. M. Rollins, and D. L. Wilson, “Denoising and 4D visualization of OCT images,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12313–12333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Røyset, A.

T. Støren, A. Røyset, L. O. Svaasand, and T. Lindmo, “Functional imaging of dye concentration in tissue phantoms by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024037 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruvinskaya, S.

Sakadzic, S.

Sakamoto, A.

Salathé, R. P.

Salinas, H. M.

Sampson, D. D.

Sander, B.

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, “Enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography by image registration--method and clinical examples,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

K. M. Yung, S. L. Lee, and J. M. Schmitt, “Phase-domain processing of optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 125–136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, “OCT elastography: imaging microscopic deformation and strain of tissue,” Opt. Express 3(6), 199–211 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, “Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(7), 1427–1439 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, N. V. Iftimia, T. Ustun, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, W. D. Dilworth, L. Kagemann, and J. S. Schuman, “Advanced scanning methods with tracking optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7937–7947 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sikorski, B.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kałuzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soliman, W.

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, “Enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography by image registration--method and clinical examples,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sowa, M. G.

D. P. Popescu, M. D. Hewko, and M. G. Sowa, “Speckle noise attenuation in optical coherence tomography by compounding images acquired at different positions of the sample,” Opt. Commun. 269(1), 247–251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spring, M.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Standish, B. A.

Stepien, K. E.

H. Tanna, A. M. Dubis, N. Ayub, D. M. Tait, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, and J. Carroll, “Retinal imaging using commercial broadband optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(3), 372–376 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Støren, T.

T. Støren, A. Røyset, L. O. Svaasand, and T. Lindmo, “Functional imaging of dye concentration in tissue phantoms by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024037 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stromski, S.

Sumpf, B.

Svaasand, L. O.

T. Støren, A. Røyset, L. O. Svaasand, and T. Lindmo, “Functional imaging of dye concentration in tissue phantoms by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024037 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sylwestrzak, M.

P. Targowski, M. Iwanicka, L. Tymińska-Widmer, M. Sylwestrzak, and E. A. Kwiatkowska, “Structural examination of easel paintings with optical coherence tomography,” Acc. Chem. Res. 43(6), 826–836 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowska, A.

Szkulmowski, M.

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, I. Grulkowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation by complex ambiguity free joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14281–14297 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4163–4176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kałuzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szlag, D.

Tait, D. M.

H. Tanna, A. M. Dubis, N. Ayub, D. M. Tait, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, and J. Carroll, “Retinal imaging using commercial broadband optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(3), 372–376 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanna, H.

H. Tanna, A. M. Dubis, N. Ayub, D. M. Tait, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, and J. Carroll, “Retinal imaging using commercial broadband optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(3), 372–376 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Targowski, P.

P. Targowski, M. Iwanicka, L. Tymińska-Widmer, M. Sylwestrzak, and E. A. Kwiatkowska, “Structural examination of easel paintings with optical coherence tomography,” Acc. Chem. Res. 43(6), 826–836 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Statistical properties of phase-decorrelation in phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(6), 814–821 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, A. Bilenca, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Estimation of the scattering coefficients of turbid media using angle-resolved optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1560–1562 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Backscattering spectroscopic contrast with angle-resolved optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3158–3160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozcan, A. Bilenca, A. E. Desjardins, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images using digital filtering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(7), 1901–1910 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, W. Y. Oh, S. M. R. Motaghiannezam, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Angle-resolved optical coherence tomography with sequential angular selectivity for speckle reduction,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6200–6209 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Speckle reduction in OCT using massively-parallel detection and frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4736–4745 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2977–2998 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S.-H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by “path length encoded” angular compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 260–263 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomadsen, J.

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, “Enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography by image registration--method and clinical examples,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tkaczyk, T. S.

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, “Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 570–575 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

Turek, J. J.

Tyminska-Widmer, L.

P. Targowski, M. Iwanicka, L. Tymińska-Widmer, M. Sylwestrzak, and E. A. Kwiatkowska, “Structural examination of easel paintings with optical coherence tomography,” Acc. Chem. Res. 43(6), 826–836 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ustun, T.

Vakoc, B. J.

Vitkin, A.

Vitkin, I. A.

Wang, H.

H. Wang and A. M. Rollins, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography using angular compounding by B-scan Doppler-shift encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030512 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

Wang, R. K. K.

Wang, Z. G.

Y. T. Pan, Z. L. Wu, Z. J. Yuan, Z. G. Wang, and C. W. Du, “Subcellular imaging of epithelium with time-lapse optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 050504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieser, W.

Wiley, D. F.

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Wilson, D. L.

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, “High-speed optical coherence tomography: basics and applications,” Appl. Opt. 49(16), D30–D61 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, I. Grulkowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation by complex ambiguity free joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14281–14297 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4163–4176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kałuzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wollstein, G.

Wong, A.

Wu, W. C.

Wu, Z. L.

Y. T. Pan, Z. L. Wu, Z. J. Yuan, Z. G. Wang, and C. W. Du, “Subcellular imaging of epithelium with time-lapse optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 050504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiang, S. H.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

Yang, V. X. D.

Yoshimura, N.

Yu, L. F.

Yu, P.

Yu, Z. X.

Yuan, Z. J.

Z. J. Yuan, B. Chen, H. G. Ren, and Y. T. Pan, “On the possibility of time-lapse ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer grading,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 050502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Pan, Z. L. Wu, Z. J. Yuan, Z. G. Wang, and C. W. Du, “Subcellular imaging of epithelium with time-lapse optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 050504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Yun, S.-H.

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Yung, S. L. Lee, and J. M. Schmitt, “Phase-domain processing of optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 125–136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zawadzki, R. J.

R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, Y. H.

Acc. Chem. Res.

P. Targowski, M. Iwanicka, L. Tymińska-Widmer, M. Sylwestrzak, and E. A. Kwiatkowska, “Structural examination of easel paintings with optical coherence tomography,” Acc. Chem. Res. 43(6), 826–836 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Br. J. Ophthalmol.

H. Tanna, A. M. Dubis, N. Ayub, D. M. Tait, J. Rha, K. E. Stepien, and J. Carroll, “Retinal imaging using commercial broadband optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 94(3), 372–376 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, “Evaluation of the adaptive speckle suppression filter for coronary optical coherence tomography imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19(12), 1261–1266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Statistical properties of phase-decorrelation in phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(6), 814–821 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

T. Støren, A. Røyset, L. O. Svaasand, and T. Lindmo, “Functional imaging of dye concentration in tissue phantoms by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(2), 024037 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Pan, Z. L. Wu, Z. J. Yuan, Z. G. Wang, and C. W. Du, “Subcellular imaging of epithelium with time-lapse optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 050504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Gossage, T. S. Tkaczyk, J. J. Rodriguez, and J. K. Barton, “Texture analysis of optical coherence tomography images: feasibility for tissue classification,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 570–575 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kałuzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, “Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, A. R. Fuller, D. F. Wiley, B. Hamann, S. S. Choi, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptation of a support vector machine algorithm for segmentation and visualization of retinal structures in volumetric optical coherence tomography data sets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041206 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iftimia, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by “path length encoded” angular compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 260–263 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang and A. M. Rollins, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography using angular compounding by B-scan Doppler-shift encoding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 030512 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chitchian, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, “Denoising during optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves via wavelet shrinkage using dual-tree complex wavelet transform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014031 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Yung, S. L. Lee, and J. M. Schmitt, “Phase-domain processing of optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 125–136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 565–569 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, D. T. Miller, E. Kim, S. Oh, J. Oh, and T. E. Milner, “Optical coherence tomography speckle reduction by a partially spatially coherent source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064034 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Jørgensen, J. Thomadsen, U. Christensen, W. Soliman, and B. Sander, “Enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio in ophthalmic optical coherence tomography by image registration--method and clinical examples,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041208 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. J. Yuan, B. Chen, H. G. Ren, and Y. T. Pan, “On the possibility of time-lapse ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography for bladder cancer grading,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 050502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Commun.

D. P. Popescu, M. D. Hewko, and M. G. Sowa, “Speckle noise attenuation in optical coherence tomography by compounding images acquired at different positions of the sample,” Opt. Commun. 269(1), 247–251 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. L. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15149–15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of water concentration in human cornea with differential absorption optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2190–2197 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, S. Sakadzić, I. Gorczynska, S. Ruvinskaya, W. C. Wu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2477–2494 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Barton and S. Stromski, “Flow measurement without phase information in optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5234–5239 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Kirkpatrick, R. K. Wang, and D. D. Duncan, “OCT-based elastography for large and small deformations,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11585–11597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, “OCT elastography: imaging microscopic deformation and strain of tissue,” Opt. Express 3(6), 199–211 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Cabrera Fernández, H. M. Salinas, and C. A. Puliafito, “Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10200–10216 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, W. Y. Oh, S. M. R. Motaghiannezam, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Angle-resolved optical coherence tomography with sequential angular selectivity for speckle reduction,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6200–6209 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, N. V. Iftimia, T. Ustun, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, W. D. Dilworth, L. Kagemann, and J. S. Schuman, “Advanced scanning methods with tracking optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7937–7947 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hangai, M. Yamamoto, A. Sakamoto, and N. Yoshimura, “Ultrahigh-resolution versus speckle noise-reduction in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4221–4235 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Scanning protocols dedicated to smart velocity ranging in spectral OCT,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23736–23754 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, “Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4163–4176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S.-H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6008–6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, I. Grulkowski, D. Szlag, A. Szkulmowska, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Flow velocity estimation by complex ambiguity free joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14281–14297 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Speckle reduction in OCT using massively-parallel detection and frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4736–4745 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Puvanathasan and K. Bizheva, “Speckle noise reduction algorithm for optical coherence tomography based on interval type II fuzzy set,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15747–15758 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gargesha, M. W. Jenkins, A. M. Rollins, and D. L. Wilson, “Denoising and 4D visualization of OCT images,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12313–12333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wong, A. Mishra, K. Bizheva, and D. A. Clausi, “General Bayesian estimation for speckle noise reduction in optical coherence tomography retinal imagery,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8338–8352 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, T. R. Hillman, and D. D. Sampson, “Detection of multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography using the spatial distribution of Stokes vectors,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18033–18049 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Jian, L. F. Yu, B. Rao, B. J. Tromberg, and Z. P. Chen, “Three-dimensional speckle suppression in Optical Coherence Tomography based on the curvelet transform,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1024–1032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marschall, T. Klein, W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, K. Hsu, K. P. Hansen, B. Sumpf, K.-H. Hasler, G. Erbert, O. B. Jensen, C. Pedersen, R. Huber, and P. E. Andersen, “Fourier domain mode-locked swept source at 1050 nm based on a tapered amplifier,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15820–15831 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2977–2998 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

H. W. Ren, Z. H. Ding, Y. H. Zhao, J. J. Miao, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, “Phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography: simultaneous imaging of in situ tissue structure, blood flow velocity, standard deviation, birefringence, and Stokes vectors in human skin,” Opt. Lett. 27(19), 1702–1704 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and Z. Ma, “Real-time flow imaging by removing texture pattern artifacts in spectral-domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 3001–3003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. K. Wang and Z. H. Ma, “Real-time flow imaging by removing texture pattern artifacts in spectral-domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 3001–3003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Karamata, P. Lambelet, M. Laubscher, R. P. Salathé, and T. Lasser, “Spatially incoherent illumination as a mechanism for cross-talk suppression in wide-field optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 736–738 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Jian, Z. X. Yu, L. F. Yu, B. Rao, Z. P. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, “Speckle attenuation in optical coherence tomography by curvelet shrinkage,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1516–1518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, T. R. Hillman, A. Curatolo, and D. D. Sampson, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by strain compounding,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2445–2447 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Hillman, A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Detection of multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography by speckle correlation of angle-dependent B-scans,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 1998–2000 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, T. H. Ko, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images by use of a spatially adaptive wavelet filter,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2878–2880 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Backscattering spectroscopic contrast with angle-resolved optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3158–3160 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Desjardins, B. J. Vakoc, A. Bilenca, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Estimation of the scattering coefficients of turbid media using angle-resolved optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1560–1562 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography at up to 370,000 lines per second using buffered Fourier domain mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 626–628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bashkansky and J. Reintjes, “Statistics and reduction of speckle in optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25(8), 545–547 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Yu, L. Peng, M. Mustata, J. J. Turek, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, “Time-dependent speckle in holographic optical coherence imaging and the health of tumor tissue,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 68–70 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, M. K. K. Leung, M. Jarvi, B. A. Standish, K. Lee, B. C. Wilson, A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Optimized speckle variance OCT imaging of microvasculature,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1257–1259 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol.

J. M. Schmitt, “Array detection for speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(7), 1427–1439 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Speckle averaging for optical coherence tomography by vibration of a thin water film,” Proc. SPIE 5316, 391–396 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Heidelberg Engineering, “Spectralis,” http://www.heidelbergengineering.com/products/spectralis-models/ .

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 2000).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (7271 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a. Schematic drawing of light beam trajectory on the sample (solid line) with sparse sampling for explanatory purposes. Light beam is deflected in direction (y) perpendicular to lateral direction of the tomogram (x). Dots mark positions where consecutive spectra are acquired. A set of data called “segment” is acquired during one period (TSegment) of lateral beam deflection. TAscan is repetition time of the spectra acquisition, b. Scanning pattern from a. with much denser sampling in lateral (x) direction, than in lateral (y) direction. Such sampling resembles more real experimental configuration; Δx and Δy are distances between acquired spectra in two lateral directions. See the text for more detailed description.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a. Spectral OCT setup used in experiments. b. Scanning system for imaging the posterior chamber of the human eye. c. Scanning system for imaging phantoms, human skin and the anterior chamber of the human eye. SLD – superluminescent diode; PC – polarization controller; NDF – neutral density filter; DC – dispersion compensator; CMOS – camera; L1-5 – lenses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic plot of driving signals synchronization in the speckle reduction technique. See the text for details.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic drawing of a data set acquired for tomogram averaging with symbols used in the text.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optimization of the speckle contrast reduction technique using scattering phantom. a. Schematic drawing of the scanning protocol indicating data used for averaging: y R is the distance between the two cross-sectional images; b. peak signal-to-noise ratio (pSNR, Eq. (6)); c. speckle contrast (C, Eq. (2)); d. contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR, Eq. (3)); e. comparison of speckle contrast calculated using lines of final tomogram, region A at Fig. 4, with the one obtained using integration of autocorrelation function R ¯ YY ( k ) , Eq. (16); f. autocorrelation function R ¯ YY ( k ) as a function of lateral beam deflection. g., h., i. averaged cross-sectional images obtained for different values of lateral beam deflection on the sample.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

OCT imaging of the human finger in vivo. Fingernail (2000 segments x 16 A-scans, 9.4 mm): a. single cross-sectional image, c. cross-sectional image with reduced speckle contrast by averaging of 16 A-scans deflected orthogonally to the directions of lateral scanning and beam propagation. Fingertip (5000 segments, 2.35 mm): b. cross-sectional image, d. cross-sectional image with reduced speckle contrast.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reduction of the speckle contrast in OCT images of the human cornea. Single cross-sectional images: a. subject 1, b. subject 2. Cross-sectional images with averaged 16 A-scans deflected orthogonally to the directions of lateral scanning and beam propagation (1000 segments, 2.5 mm): c. subject 1, d. subject 2. Panels e.-h. show twice zoomed details of the cornea taken from both subjects.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reduction of the speckle contrast in OCT images of the human crystalline lens in vivo. Single cross-sectional images: a. Subject 1, b. subject 2. Cross-sectional images with averaged 16 A-scans deflected orthogonally to the directions of lateral scanning and beam propagation (1000 segments, 7 mm): c. subject 1, d. subject 2. Panels e.-f. show twice zoomed details of the lens capsule.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Reduction of the speckle contrast in OCT images of the human retina in vivo. Imaging range: 7 mm. Single cross-sectional images: a. Subject 1, b. subject 2. Cross-sectional images with averaged 16 A-scans deflected orthogonally to the directions of lateral scanning and beam propagation (2000 segments): c., e. subject 1, d., f. subject 2. Panels g.-j. show twice zoomed details of the retinal cross-sectional images.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of different approach to A-scan averaging. a., b. Standard scanning protocol (without lateral deflection), 32 000 A-scans averaged by 16, to form tomograms with 2000 lines. c., d. Same amount of data, but acquired with lateral beam deflection. e., f. Zoomed anterior part of cornea from similar regions. g., h. Zoomed retinal layers from similar regions of the image. See the text for details.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Panoramic cross-sectional images of the human retina with reduced speckle noise. Imaging range in lateral direction is equal 11.3 mm. a. Tomogram composed from 2000 segments. Acquisition time 0.5 s. b. Tomogram composed from 5000 segments. Acquisition time 1.25 s.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Correction of tilt distortion. a. Schematic drawing of OCT data segment with structure tilted in lateral (y) direction. b. Tomogram of human retina in proximity of macula with axial resolution distorted by sample tilt. c. Schematic drawing of segment with corrected structure tilt in lateral (y) direction. d. Tomogram from b. corrected for the sample tilt.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(Media 1) Movie frames from the Preview Mode sequence: a. minimized deflection; b. optimal beam deflection.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Doppler imaging using resonant scanner. 6000 segments. a. Structural tomogram in proximity of optic nerve head of the human eye. Imaging range: 7 mm. b. Structural tomogram in proximity of macula lutea. 6000 segments. Imaging range: 3 mm. c. Doppler OCT map of a.; d. Doppler OCT map of b. e-f. Zoomed areas from c. g-h. Zoomed areas from c.

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SNR= ENL = I s ¯ σ s
C= σ s I s ¯ .
CNR= I s ¯ I n ¯ σ s 2 + σ n 2
CNR= 2 ( I s ¯ I n ¯ ) 2 σ s 2 + σ n 2 .
pSNR= max( I s ) σ n .
pSNR= I ¯ s σ s = I ¯ s σ n 2 4π I ¯ s σ n 1.526.
XCOR= σ 12 σ 1 σ 2 .
C A = σ A I ¯ A ,
I ¯ A =E I A ,
I A ( n )= 1 P p=0 P1 I p ( n ) ,
σ A 2 =E ( I A I ¯ A ) 2 .
σ pp = 1 P 2 E( I p I ¯ p )( I p I ¯ p ),
σ pq = 1 P 2 E( I p I ¯ p )( I q I ¯ q ),
σ A 2 = p=0 P1 q=0 P1 σ pq .
σ A 2 = k=P+1 P1 p=0 P1| k | σ p,p+| k | .
σ A 2 = k=P+1 P1 p=0 P1| k | 1 P 2 E( Y p Y p+| k | ) = 1 P 2 E k=P+1 P1 R YY ( k ) = k=P+1 P1 R ¯ YY ( k ) ,

Metrics