Abstract

We demonstrate a single-ended colorless coherent receiver using symmetric 3x3 couplers for optical hybrids. We show that the receiver can achieve colorless reception of fifty-five 112-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature-phase-shift-keyed (PDM-QPSK) channels with less than 1-dB penalty in the back-to-back operation. The receiver also works well in a long-haul wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) transmission system over 2560-km TrueWave® REACH fiber.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. J. E. Simsarian, J. Gripp, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, and P. J. Winzer, “Fast-tuning 224-Gb/s Intradyne Receiver for Optical Packet Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper PDPB5.
  2. L. E. Nelson, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, M. Moyer, D. J. S. Beckett, M. O’Sullivan, and P. D. Magill, “Detection of a single 40 Gb/s polarization-multiplexed QPSK channel with a real-time Intradyne receiver in the presence of multiple coincident WDM channels,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(20), 2933–2943 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. J. Winzer, “Beyond 100G ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 26–30 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Roberts, D. Beckett, D. Boertjes, J. Berthold, and C. Laperle, “100G and beyond with digital coherent signal processing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 62–69 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Yamashita and T. Okoshi, “Suppression of common-mode beat noise from optical amplifiers using a balanced receiver,” Electron. Lett. 28(21), 1970–1972 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Dynamic range of single-ended detection receivers for 100GE coherent PM-QPSK,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(15), 1281–1283 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Painchaud, M. Poulin, M. Morin, and M. Têtu, “Performance of balanced detection in a coherent receiver,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3659–3672 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Xie, P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, A. H. Gnauck, B. Zhu, T. Geisler, and B. Edvold, “Colorless Coherent Receiver Using 3x3 Coupler Hybrids and Single-Ended Detection,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication, (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011), paper Th.13.B.2.
  9. L. G. Kazovsky, P. Meissner, and E. Patzak, “ASK multiport optical Homodyne receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(6), 770–791 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Pietzsch, “Scattering matrix analysis of 3 x 3 fiber couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(2), 303–307 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. H. Ja, “Analysis of four-port optical fiber ring and loop resonators using a 3 x 3 fiber coupler and degenerate two-wave mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(12), 2749–2757 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Nicholson and T. M. Stephens, “Performance analysis of coherent optical phase-diversity receivers with DPSK modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(2), 393–399 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. Bar-David, “Direct Differential Detection of Phase-Shift-Keyed Signals: a Local-Oscillatorless DPSK Receiver,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 141(1), 38–42 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. J. Savory, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, and P. Bayvel, “Electronic compensation of chromatic dispersion using a digital coherent receiver,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2120–2126 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. Du and A. Lowery, “Experimental Demonstration of XPM Compensation for CO-OFDM Systems with Periodic Dispersion Maps” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWW2.

2010 (3)

P. J. Winzer, “Beyond 100G ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 26–30 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Roberts, D. Beckett, D. Boertjes, J. Berthold, and C. Laperle, “100G and beyond with digital coherent signal processing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 62–69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, M. Moyer, D. J. S. Beckett, M. O’Sullivan, and P. D. Magill, “Detection of a single 40 Gb/s polarization-multiplexed QPSK channel with a real-time Intradyne receiver in the presence of multiple coincident WDM channels,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(20), 2933–2943 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

V. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Dynamic range of single-ended detection receivers for 100GE coherent PM-QPSK,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(15), 1281–1283 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

1994 (1)

I. Bar-David, “Direct Differential Detection of Phase-Shift-Keyed Signals: a Local-Oscillatorless DPSK Receiver,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 141(1), 38–42 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

Y. H. Ja, “Analysis of four-port optical fiber ring and loop resonators using a 3 x 3 fiber coupler and degenerate two-wave mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(12), 2749–2757 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamashita and T. Okoshi, “Suppression of common-mode beat noise from optical amplifiers using a balanced receiver,” Electron. Lett. 28(21), 1970–1972 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

G. Nicholson and T. M. Stephens, “Performance analysis of coherent optical phase-diversity receivers with DPSK modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(2), 393–399 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Pietzsch, “Scattering matrix analysis of 3 x 3 fiber couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(2), 303–307 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

L. G. Kazovsky, P. Meissner, and E. Patzak, “ASK multiport optical Homodyne receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(6), 770–791 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bar-David, I.

I. Bar-David, “Direct Differential Detection of Phase-Shift-Keyed Signals: a Local-Oscillatorless DPSK Receiver,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 141(1), 38–42 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bayvel, P.

Beckett, D.

K. Roberts, D. Beckett, D. Boertjes, J. Berthold, and C. Laperle, “100G and beyond with digital coherent signal processing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 62–69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beckett, D. J. S.

Berthold, J.

K. Roberts, D. Beckett, D. Boertjes, J. Berthold, and C. Laperle, “100G and beyond with digital coherent signal processing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 62–69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boertjes, D.

K. Roberts, D. Beckett, D. Boertjes, J. Berthold, and C. Laperle, “100G and beyond with digital coherent signal processing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 62–69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carena, V.

V. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Dynamic range of single-ended detection receivers for 100GE coherent PM-QPSK,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(15), 1281–1283 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Curri, V.

V. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Dynamic range of single-ended detection receivers for 100GE coherent PM-QPSK,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(15), 1281–1283 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Foo, S.

Forghieri, F.

V. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Dynamic range of single-ended detection receivers for 100GE coherent PM-QPSK,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(15), 1281–1283 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gavioli, G.

Ja, Y. H.

Y. H. Ja, “Analysis of four-port optical fiber ring and loop resonators using a 3 x 3 fiber coupler and degenerate two-wave mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(12), 2749–2757 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kazovsky, L. G.

L. G. Kazovsky, P. Meissner, and E. Patzak, “ASK multiport optical Homodyne receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(6), 770–791 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Killey, R. I.

Laperle, C.

K. Roberts, D. Beckett, D. Boertjes, J. Berthold, and C. Laperle, “100G and beyond with digital coherent signal processing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 62–69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Magill, P. D.

Meissner, P.

L. G. Kazovsky, P. Meissner, and E. Patzak, “ASK multiport optical Homodyne receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(6), 770–791 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Morin, M.

Moyer, M.

Nelson, L. E.

Nicholson, G.

G. Nicholson and T. M. Stephens, “Performance analysis of coherent optical phase-diversity receivers with DPSK modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(2), 393–399 (1989).
[CrossRef]

O’Sullivan, M.

Okoshi, T.

S. Yamashita and T. Okoshi, “Suppression of common-mode beat noise from optical amplifiers using a balanced receiver,” Electron. Lett. 28(21), 1970–1972 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Painchaud, Y.

Patzak, E.

L. G. Kazovsky, P. Meissner, and E. Patzak, “ASK multiport optical Homodyne receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(6), 770–791 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pietzsch, J.

J. Pietzsch, “Scattering matrix analysis of 3 x 3 fiber couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(2), 303–307 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Poggiolini, P.

V. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Dynamic range of single-ended detection receivers for 100GE coherent PM-QPSK,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(15), 1281–1283 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poulin, M.

Roberts, K.

K. Roberts, D. Beckett, D. Boertjes, J. Berthold, and C. Laperle, “100G and beyond with digital coherent signal processing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 62–69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Savory, S. J.

Stephens, T. M.

G. Nicholson and T. M. Stephens, “Performance analysis of coherent optical phase-diversity receivers with DPSK modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(2), 393–399 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Têtu, M.

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer, “Beyond 100G ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 26–30 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, S. L.

Yamashita, S.

S. Yamashita and T. Okoshi, “Suppression of common-mode beat noise from optical amplifiers using a balanced receiver,” Electron. Lett. 28(21), 1970–1972 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Yamashita and T. Okoshi, “Suppression of common-mode beat noise from optical amplifiers using a balanced receiver,” Electron. Lett. 28(21), 1970–1972 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc., Optoelectron. (1)

I. Bar-David, “Direct Differential Detection of Phase-Shift-Keyed Signals: a Local-Oscillatorless DPSK Receiver,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 141(1), 38–42 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

P. J. Winzer, “Beyond 100G ethernet,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 26–30 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Roberts, D. Beckett, D. Boertjes, J. Berthold, and C. Laperle, “100G and beyond with digital coherent signal processing,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 62–69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. H. Ja, “Analysis of four-port optical fiber ring and loop resonators using a 3 x 3 fiber coupler and degenerate two-wave mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(12), 2749–2757 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

V. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Dynamic range of single-ended detection receivers for 100GE coherent PM-QPSK,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(15), 1281–1283 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

G. Nicholson and T. M. Stephens, “Performance analysis of coherent optical phase-diversity receivers with DPSK modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(2), 393–399 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Kazovsky, P. Meissner, and E. Patzak, “ASK multiport optical Homodyne receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(6), 770–791 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Pietzsch, “Scattering matrix analysis of 3 x 3 fiber couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(2), 303–307 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, S. L. Woodward, S. Foo, M. Moyer, D. J. S. Beckett, M. O’Sullivan, and P. D. Magill, “Detection of a single 40 Gb/s polarization-multiplexed QPSK channel with a real-time Intradyne receiver in the presence of multiple coincident WDM channels,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(20), 2933–2943 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Other (3)

J. E. Simsarian, J. Gripp, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, and P. J. Winzer, “Fast-tuning 224-Gb/s Intradyne Receiver for Optical Packet Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper PDPB5.

L. Du and A. Lowery, “Experimental Demonstration of XPM Compensation for CO-OFDM Systems with Periodic Dispersion Maps” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWW2.

C. Xie, P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, A. H. Gnauck, B. Zhu, T. Geisler, and B. Edvold, “Colorless Coherent Receiver Using 3x3 Coupler Hybrids and Single-Ended Detection,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication, (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011), paper Th.13.B.2.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a 3x3 coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematics of polarization and phase diversity coherent receivers based on symmetric 3x3 couplers. The operations to obtain I and Q components are done with analog circuits in (a) and with digital signal processing in (b). PBS: polarization beam splitter. LO: local oscillator, ADC: analog-to-digital converter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for back-to-back operation. ECL: external cavity laser, DFB: distributed feedback, Mux: multiplexer, ITL: interleaver, PC: polarization controller, ASE: amplified spontaneous emission, VOA: variable optical attenuator, LO: local oscillator.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) BER versus OSNR for colorless reception with different numbers of incident channels at a fixed LO power (inset is the OSNR penalty at BER of 10−3 versus the number of channels); (b) BER versus LOSPR for one channel at 16.5-dB OSNR.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Captured signals I1 versus I2. (a) 1 channel, 20-dB LOSPR, (b) 55 channels, 2.5-dB LOSPR, (c) 1 channel, 0-dB LOSPR. 30-dB OSNR. (Plots of I1 vs. I3 and I2 vs. I3 look similar.)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

BER versus OSNR for colorless reception of 16 channels with imbalance among the three ports of the receiver.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

BER versus number of incident channels for different receivers at 16.5-dB OSNR.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Setup of the transmission experiment. ECL: exernal cavity laser, DFB: distributed feedback, ITL: interleaver, PC: polarization controller, VOA: variable optical attenuator, LO: local oscillator, DCF: dispersion compensation fiber, DGEF: dynamic gain equalizing filter

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

BER versus launch power per channel after 2560-km transmission of 16x112-Gb/s PDM-QPSK at 50-GHz channel spacing, with 1 and 16 channels going into the receiver.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 The parameters of the two symmetric 3 x 3 couplers

Equations (5)

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( E 1 E 2 E 3 )=( a b b b a b b b a )( E s 0 E L )
I 1 = | a | 2 | E s | 2 + | b | 2 | E L | 2 +2Re( a b E L E s ), I 2 = | b | 2 | E s | 2 + | b | 2 | E L | 2 +2Re( | b | 2 E L E s ), I 3 = | b | 2 | E s | 2 + | a | 2 | E L | 2 +2Re( a b E L E s ).
a= 2 3 exp(jκl)+ 1 3 exp(j2κl), b= 1 3 exp(j2κl) 1 3 exp(jκl).
( I 1 I 2 I 3 )= 1 3 ( | E L | 2 + | E s | 2 | E L | 2 + | E s | 2 | E L | 2 + | E s | 2 )+ 2 3 ( | E L || E s |cos( φ+2/ 3π ) | E L || E s |cos( φ ) | E L || E s |cos( φ2/ 3π ) )
{ I I = I 2 0.5 I 1 0.5 I 3 =| E L || E s |cosφ I Q = 3 /2 ( I 3 I 1 )=| E L || E s |sinφ .

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